3. MAGNITUDE OF PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZER
PRODUCTION AND USE
4. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY PHOSPHATIC
5. NEED FOR A NOVEL PHOSPHORUS
6. HOW CAN THIS BE ACHIEVED?
7. MODE OF ACTION OF COLION_P
8. SALIENT FEATURES OF COLION_P
9. RECOMMENDED DOSE:
10. PROXIMATE ANALYSIS:
INORGANIC/ ORGANIC/CHELATED/ PROTEINATED/ NANO MINERALS
Conventional animal nutrient supplements including
B) Amino acids
have certain specific inherent drawbacks like
1) Poor bio-absorbability
3) Unpalatable taste
4) Poor solubility
5) High bio-absorption inhibiting activity (High reactivity)
Science long back recognized that the body must have certain minerals to
accomplish its work and preserve its health. However, recently Modern Science
conceives that these minerals must be in their Chelated, Proteianated, Organic,
Colliodal or Nano state to do the consumer any use at all; based on the following
1. Minerals are inorganic as they exist naturally in the soil and water.
2. Minerals are organic as they exist in plants and animals.
3. Only plants can transform inorganic minerals into organic minerals.
4. Animals must eat plants or plant-eating animals to obtain their organic minerals.
5. Inorganic minerals are useless and injurious to the animal organism.
Minerals and mineral mixes and premixes used in animal feed can contain
contaminants such as dioxin and various heavy metals. Some mineral mixes and
premixes are by-products or co-products of industrial metal production and can
become contaminated. For example, mineral mixes containing zinc oxide obtained
from brass production have been found to have high levels of dioxin contamination.
FDA has issued an alert to the feed industry warning against the use of mineral mixes
and premixes that are by-products or co-products of industrial metal production
(FDA CVM Update, 2003).
EPA is aware that hazardous wastes are sometimes recycled as nutritional
supplements in animal feed preparations but does not necessarily consider this use
to constitute disposal of hazardous waste. For example, zinc oxide reclaimed from
emission control dust from electric arc furnaces is a listed hazardous waste, but EPA
permitted it to be used as a nutritional feed supplement for animals
Minerals may also contain heavy metal contaminants such as lead, arsenic,
cadmium, and mercury. AAFCO lists 133 different mineral products used as feed
ingredients, and the “typical” levels of these contaminants in mineral feed
ingredients. Lead is considered only “moderately toxic” by the American Association
of Food Control Officials (AAFCO), and the maximum tolerance in complete feed is
Because inorganic minerals and organic minerals have the same chemical
compositions, they were being treated as same, for a long time by the early
nutritionists. The mineral, iron, in the bloodstream has the same chemical
composition as the mineral, iron, in a nail—iron is iron, after all. However, only of
late, nutritionists visualized the differences between these two forms of iron.
Although there was a nutritive similarity between Chelated, Proteinated, Nano,
Colloidal, Organic and Inorganic minerals, each of these will have different impacts
on the performance of the Animals.
It is necessary that the minerals in the soil be elaborated into organic compounds by
the plant before they can be assimilated by the animal or human body. The various
mineral compounds produced synthetically differ in their structure and in the
relative positions of their component molecules than those produced in the plant.
Over sixty years ago a German scientist named Abderhalden conducted a series of
experiments comparing how several species absorbed different forms of iron. He
found that animals fed with food poor in iron, plus in addition of inorganic iron, were
unable in the long run to produce as much hemoglobin as those, receiving a natural
While the inorganic iron may be absorbed into the body, it is not utilized in the
formation of hemoglobin, but remains unused within the tissues. Abderhalden also
concluded that any apparent benefit of the inorganic iron resulted from its
Chemically, it is true that iron in the bloodstream and iron in nails are the same and
that calcium in rocks (known as dolomite) is identical to calcium in the bones.
However, it is a grave error to believe that the body can digest and assimilate and
utilize powdered nails and crushed rocks.
The word chelate is derived from the Greek word meaning "claw". Technically
chelates hold trace elements in suspension while in transit.
A mineral amino acid chelate is composed of an amino acid that has two or more
donor groups combined with the mineral so that one or more rings are formed, with
the mineral being the closing component of this heterocyclic ring. Chelate structures
contain covalent bonds which give these chelates properties that are much different
than ionically bonded mineral salt forms. Mineral amino acid chelates are bidentate
(the mineral is attached at two ends of amino acid ligand), and have a ring in their
structure, while mineral complexes are unidentate (mineral is attached at one end of
its ligand) with no ring structure. It has been shown that a bidentate (chelated)
glycino group absorbs at the IR wavelength of 1643 cm-1, an ionized unidentate at
1610 cm-1, and a unionized unidentate at 1710 cm-1. In addition, it has been shown
that the carboxyl group in the amino acid glycine absorbs at the band of infra-red
light of 504 cm-1. The degree of absorption at this band segment has been shown to
diminish as the amount of bound glycine increases in a sample.
The term “organic mineral” refers to a variety of compounds including metal-amino
acid complexes, metal amino chelates, metal proteinates, metal-polysaccharide
complexes, metalyeast complexes, and metal-organic acid complexes. (Patton, 1990)
An organic mineral is simply a combination of a metal ion with an organic ligand such
as amino acids, proteins, polysaccharides, yeast, or organic acids. Specifically, the
metal ion is bound to the organic ligand through multiple attachments (either ionic
or covalent) with the metal ion occupying a central position in the structure (Kincaid,
1989, Nelson, 1988). During organic mineral formation, the metal ion and organic
ligand act as mutual electron donors (ligand) and electron acceptors (metal cations)
forming a heterocyclic ring structure (Nelson, 1988). Generally, the metal ion is
attached to electronegative areas (two or more) on a ligand.
The minerals can be absorbed along with the amino acids as a single unit utilizing the
amino acid(s) as a carrier molecule. Therefore, the problems associated with the
competition of ions for active sites and the suppression of specific nutritive mineral
elements by others can be avoided.
Interest is also building in using organic trace minerals in place of a portion of the
feed inorganic mineral supplement in order to get maximum growth and health with
lower levels of mineral intake, thus lowering the amount of minerals excreted from
(Bao et al., 2006).
Reducing mineral levels in litter placed on the land is an issue in many countries and
lower levels of complexed trace minerals may aid in reducing litter mineral excess.
A number of minerals have been shown to play crucial roles in broiler health and
organic trace minerals have been shown to have a role in boosting cellular and
humoral immunity in broilers. Organic zinc compounds have shown benefits in
improving immunity in birds
(Pimental et al., 1991a; Kidd et al., 1994).
In addition, chicks hatched from breeder hens fed organic trace minerals have shown
improved cellular and humoral immunity as well
(Kidd et al., 1992; Kidd et al., 1993).
The neutralization of stomach acid by pancreatic secretions into the intestine could
have negative consequences on mineral absorption because without the influence of
acid, some minerals may not remain dissociated and may bind with other
components present in the intestinal contents, rendering them unavailable for
absorption. One way this problem can be avoided is for the mineral to be
surrounded by “ligands,” or weak binding agents, which will protect the mineral
from stronger binding agents, even in the absence of acid, yet allow normal
absorption to occur.
SALIENT FEATURES OF PROTEINATED MINERALS
1. Counteracts Anti Nutritional Factors, which affect the mineral absorption
2. Health improvement (immune status, functional nutrition)
3. Improve the bioavailability of minerals
4. Improvement in the quality of animal produce (meat, milk, egg, wool etc.,)
5. Ensures over all animal welfare
6. Performance improvement
7. Protects environment by reducing metal pollution through excreta.
8. Reduces degenerative effect of trace minerals on vitamins in premixes and
9. Reduction of antagonism, interferences and competition among minerals.
THE CHELATE MOLECULAR WEIGHT: BELOW 800.
AVERAGE WEIGHT OF THE HYDROLYZED AMINO ACIDS IS AROUND 150-200
TECHNOLOGY FOR PREPARATION OF PROTEINATED MINERALS
HYDROLYSIS OF PROTEIN
SEPARATION BY CENTRIFUGE
REMOVAL OF UNBOUND MINERAL
MODE OF ACTION OF PROTEINATED MINERALS
1. STABLE IN RUMEN ENVIRONMENT & ABOMASUM
2. DELIVERED IN SMALL INTESTINE AS SUCH.
3. ABSORBED THROUGH ACTIVE TRANSPORT (MORE BLOOD LEVEL)
4. IT ACTS AS A BIOLOGICAL COMPLEX (MORE TISSUE LEVEL)
5. ENTER INTO DIFFERENT POOL
6. METABOLIZABLE IN DIFFERENTLY
(NEATHERY ET AL 1972) (PHARMACO-DYANAMICS NUTRIENT) (USING 65
Strategies used to synthesize nanoparticles
Traditionally nanoparticles were produced only by physical and chemical methods. Some of
the commonly used physical and chemical methods are ion sputtering, solvothermal
synthesis, reduction and sol gel technique. Basically there are two approaches for
nanoparticle synthesis namely the Bottom up approach and the Top down approach.
In the Top down approach, scientists try to formulate nanoparticles using larger ones to
direct their assembly. The Bottom up approach is a process that builds towards larger and
more complex systems by starting at the molecular level and maintaining precise control of
Physical and chemical methods of nanoparticle synthesis
Some of the commonly used physical and chemical methods include:
Sol-gel technique, which is a wet chemical technique used for the fabrication of metal oxides
from a chemical solution which acts as a precursor for integrated network (gel) of discrete
particles or polymers. The precursor sol can be either be deposited on the substrate to form
a film, cast into a suitable container with desired shape or used to synthesize powders.
Solvothermal synthesis, which is a versatile low temperature route in which polar solvents
under pressure and at temperatures above their boiling points are used. Under solvothermal
conditions, the solubility of reactants increases significantly, enabling reaction to take place
at lower temperature.
Chemical reduction, which is the reduction of an ionic salt in an appropriate medium in the
presence of surfactant using reducing agents. Some of the commonly used reducing agents
are sodium borohydride, hydrazine hydrate and sodium citrate.
Laser ablation, which is the process of removing material from a solid surface by irradiating
with a laser beam. At low laser flux, the material is heated by absorbed laser energy and
evaporates or sublimates. At higher flux, the material is converted to plasma. The depth over
which laser energy is absorbed and the amount of material removed by single laser pulse
depends on the material’s optical properties and the laser wavelength. Carbon nanotubes
can be produced by this method.
Inert gas condensation, where different metals are evaporated in separate crucibles inside
an ultra high vacuum chamber filled with helium or argon gas at typical pressure of few 100
pascals. As a result of inter atomic collisions with gas atoms in chamber, the evaporated
metal atoms lose their kinetic energy and condense in the form of small crystals which
accumulate on liquid nitrogen filled cold finger. E.g. gold nanoparticles have been
synthesized from gold wires.
NANO PARTICLES OF MINERALS
Current research is going on regarding the use of magnetic nanoparticles in the
detoxification of military personnel in case of biochemical warfare. It is hypothesized that by
utilizing the magnetic field gradient, toxins can be removed from the body. Enhanced
catalytic properties of surfaces of nano ceramics or those of noble metals like platinum and
gold are used in the destruction of toxins and other hazardous chemicals (Salata, 2005).
Photocatalytic activity of nanoparticles has been utilized to develop self- cleaning tiles,
windows and anti- fogging car mirrors.
The high reactivity of Titanium nanoparticles either on their own or when illuminated by UV
light have been used for bactericidal purposes in filters.
An important opportunity for nanoparticles in the area of computers and electronics is their
use in a special polishing process, chemical-mechanical polishing or chemical-mechanical
planarization (CMP), which is critical to semiconductor chip fabrication. CMP is used to
obtain smooth, flat, and defect-free metal and dielectric layers on silicon wafers. This
process utilizes slurry of oxide nanoparticles and relies on mechanical abrasion as well as a
chemical reaction between the slurry and the film being polished. CMP is also used in some
other applications, such as the polishing of magnetic hard disks.
Nanoscale titanium dioxide and zinc oxide have been used as sunscreens in cosmetics. The
primary advantage of using these nanoparticles is that they are well dispersed and transmit
visible light, acting as transparent sunblocks. On the other hand, inorganic sunscreens
appear white on the skin- a potential drawback.
The interaction of silver nanoparticles with HIV I has been demonstrated in vitro. It was
shown that the exposed sulfur binding residues of the glycoprotein knobs were attractive
sites for nanoparticle interaction and that the silver nanoparticles had preferential binding
to the gp 120 glycoprotein knobs. Due to this interaction, it was found that the silver
nanoparticles inhibited the binding of the virus to the host cells in vitro (Elechiguerra et al.,
Magnetic nanoparticles are also used in targeted therapy where a cytotoxic drug is attached
to a biocompatible magnetic nanoparticle. When these particles circulate in the
bloodstream, external magnetic fields are used to concentrate the complex at a specific
target site within the body. Once the complex is concentrated in the target, the drug can be
released by enzymatic activity or by changes in pH or temperature and are taken up by the
tumour cells (Pankhurst et al., 2003).
Porous nanoparticles have also been used in cancer therapy where the hydrophobic version
of a dye molecule is trapped inside the Ormosil nanoparticle. The dye is used to generate
atomic oxygen which is taken up more by the cancer cells when compared to the healthy
tissue. When the dye is not entrapped, it travels to the eyes and skin making the patient
sensitive to light. Entrapment of the dye inside the nanoparticle ensures that the dye does
not migrate to other parts and also the oxygen generating ability is not affected.
Alivisatos (2001) reported the presence of inorganic crystals in magnetotactic bacteria. The
bacterium was found to have about 20 magnetic crystals with a size range of 35- 120nm
diameter. The crystals serve as a miniature compass and align the bacteria with the external
magnetic field. This enables the bacterium to navigate with respect to the earth’s magnetic
field towards their ideal environment. These bacteria immobilize heavy metals from a
surrounding solution and can be separated by applying a low intensity magnetic field. This
principle can be extended to develop a process for the removal of heavy metals from waste
Bioremediation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and nuclear weapon
production, such as uranium has been achieved using nanoparticles. Cells and S layer
proteins of Bacillus sphaericus JG A12 have been found to have special capabilities for the
clean up of uranium contaminated waste waters (Duran et al., 2007).
Gold nanoparticles are widely used in various fields such as photonics, catalysis, electronics
and biomedicine due to their unique properties. E. coli has been used to synthesize gold
nanoparticles and it has been found that these nanoparticles are bound to the surface of the
bacteria. This composite may be used for realizing the direct electrochemistry of
haemoglobin (Du et al., 2007). p- nitrophenol is widely used in pesticides, pharmaceutical
industries, explosives and in dyes and is known to be a carcinogenic agent. Gold
nanoparticles have been synthesized using the barbated skullcap extract. The nanoparticles
synthesized by this method have been modified to the glass electrode and this has been
used to enhance the electronic transmission rate between the electrode and p- nitrophenol
(Wang et al., 2009).
Tripathy et al., (2008) reported the antibacterial applications of the silver nanoparticles
synthesized using the aqueous extract of neem leaves. The nanoparticles were coated on
cotton disks and their bactericidal effect was studied against E.coli. Duran et al., (2005)
reported the significant antibacterial activities of the silver nanoparticles synthesized using
P is an important nutrient but the concentration of plant available P is generally
low (0.7 to 1.2% of total P) in arid soils. Further, nearly 70% of the applied
phosphate fertilizers is converted to -1 unavailable forms after application. Total
quantity of P in arid soils is >600 kg ha , but its availability is restricted. Thus,
application of phosphate fertilizers is a must for good crop.
Phosphate fertilizers are mainly synthesized from rock phosphate.
Phosphorus is a nonmetallic chemical element in group 15 (nitrogen family, formerly Va)
of periodic table; atomic number 15 atomic mass 30.9738; melting point ca 44.1 C (white);
boiling point ca 280 C (white); specific gravity 1.82 (white), 2.34 (red), 2.70 (black); valence
-3, +3, or +5 ; electronic config. 2-8-5 or 1s 22s 22p 63s 23p 3. The phosphorus molecule is
composed of four phosphorus atoms, P4. Phosphorus exists in a number of allotropic
forms [white (alpha and beta), red, black and/or violet] in the same physical state.
Phosphorus (P) is an essential mineral that is found in all cells within the bodies of every
Phosphorus is primarily found as phosphate.
The major building blocks of biology are covalent molecules comprising proteins,
polysaccharides, and nucleic acids.
The nucleic acids deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are polymers
based on phosphate ester monomers. The high-energy phosphate bond of ATP is the
major energy currency of living organisms. Cell membranes are composed largely of
Metabolic functions of Phosphorous
Phosphorous provides the energy to cells to multiply and grow. The phosphate
ion present in the fertilizers get attached with adenosine moity to synthesize
adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of cells.
Another biomolecule synthesised by the photosynthetic tissue contains phosphate ion,
called reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) that drives the
fixation of carbon dioxide to form starch.
A variety of enzymatic activities are controlled by alternate phosphorylation and
dephosphorylation of proteins. The metabolism of all major metabolic substrates depends
on the functioning of phosphorus as a cofactor in a variety of enzymes and as the principal
reservoir for metabolic energy.
The ability of plants to acquire phosphate-P during deficiency conditions also
increases due to the synthesis of phosphate transporters. These biomolecules
also transport phosphite ions. Phosphite is rapidly absorbed and translocated
within the plant. However, the uptake is pH dependent and subject to
competition by phosphate ions. Phosphite in presence of a small quantity of
phosphate will not be recognised by phosphate transporters. Despite having
similar mobility, the phosphite is a non-metabolized form of phosphorous and
plants cannot use this as the sole source of phosphorous. Phosphate can be
assimilated into organic P compounds within minutes of uptake.
Antagonistic nature of the Minerals.
Phosphorous Deficiency Symptoms:
Enhanced root growth at the cost of shoot development
Increased root to shoot ratio
Purple (anthocyanin pigment) colouration of leaves and petioles
Purple and weak stems
Phosphorus deficiency in cattle may cause symptoms related to reduced appetite,
including retarded growth rate of young cattle, low milk yield and impaired fertility.
Skeletal abnormalities associated with osteomalacia may appear as stiffness, reluctance to
move, shifting lameness, cracking sounds in joints when walking, an arched back and in
severe cases, spontaneous fractures.
Sources of Phosphorous:
Percentages of water-soluble and available phosphate in several common fertilizer
P 2 O 5 K
P 2 O 5 Source N Total Available
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - % - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Superphosphate (OSP) 0 21 20 85 0
0 45 45 85
11 49 48 82
Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) 18 47 46 90 0
10 34 34 100
Rock Phosphate 0 34 3-8 0 0
COLION_P 0.95 45 45 100 0
*Water-soluble data are a percent of the total P2O5
Source: Ohio Agronomy Guide. Ohio Cooperative Extension Service Bull.472.
Pure anhydrous phosphoric acid is a white solid that melts at 42.35 °C to form a colorless,
Most people and even chemists refer to orthophosphoric acid as phosphoric acid, which is
the IUPAC name for this compound. The prefix ortho is used to distinguish the acid from
other phosphoric acids, called polyphosphoric acids.
Orthophosphoric acid is a non-toxic, inorganic, rather weak triprotic acid, which, when
pure, is a solid at room temperature and pressure. The chemical structure of
orthophosphoric acid is shown above in the data table.
Orthophosphoric acid is a very polar molecule; therefore it is highly soluble in water. The
oxidation state of phosphorus (P) in ortho- and other phosphoric acids is +5; the oxidation
state of all the oxygen atoms (O) is -2 and all the hydrogen atoms (H) is +1. Triprotic means
that an orthophosphoric acid molecule can dissociate up to three times, giving up an H+
each time, which typically combines with a water molecule, H2O, as shown in these
H3PO4(s) + H2O(l) H3O+
(aq) + H2PO4
(aq) Ka1= 7.25×10−3
(aq)+ H2O(l) H3O+
(aq) + HPO4
(aq) Ka2= 6.31×10−8
(aq)+ H2O(l) H3O+
(aq) + PO4
(aq) Ka3= 3.98×10−13
The anion after the first dissociation, H2PO4
, is the dihydrogen phosphate anion. The
anion after the second dissociation, HPO4
, is the hydrogen phosphate anion. The anion
after the third dissociation, PO4
, is the phosphate or orthophosphate anion. For each of
the dissociation reactions shown above, there is a separate acid dissociation constant,
called Ka1, Ka2, and Ka3 given at 25°C. Associated with these three dissociation constants are
corresponding pKa1=2.12 , pKa2=7.21 , and pKa3=12.67 values at 25°C. Even though all three
hydrogen (H ) atoms are equivalent on an orthophosphoric acid molecule, the successive
Ka values differ since it is energetically less favorable to lose another H+
if one (or more)
has already been lost and the molecule/ion is more negatively-charged.
Phosphite is the fungicidal form of phosphorous that is not recognised by roots for uptake
and metabolism compared to the most
acceptable form called phosphate.
Although, phosphite can get oxidised by soil microbes to phosphates , but most recent
research has shown that phosphate reduced the root and shoot growth @ 24 kg/ha
McDonald et al., 2001 found that phosphite is not utilized, but may trick phosphorus
deficient plants into not mimicking typical P deficiencies.
Wells et al., (2000) found that toxicity symptoms in alfalfa disappeared after 21 days.
Harris (2003) applied both phosphate and phosphite starter and foliar fertilizers on cotton
to compare its growth response to different P sources, and found that phosphite treated
plants were shorter compared to phosphate treated plants
should not be used as a substitute for plant – available , orthophosphate forms
of phosphorous . Phosphite is not immediately plant available and could lead to plant
toxicities in sensitive crops if high rates are applied . Phosphite damage appears amazingly
similar to glyphosate injury to crops.
MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN USING
SUPER PHOSPHATE IN SOIL.
The following article was written by Soiltech Soil Scientist, Dave McKie MAgSc (Hons)
1. Formation of Metal Phosphates
After Super has been applied and while it is being assimilated into the soil, dissolution-
precipitation processes are active. These involve both the formation of and subsequent
dissolving of phosphate precipitates. The fertiliser granules on the soil surface attract
moisture to them, resulting in chemical reactions which convert the soluble P within the
granules into phosphoric acid and a less soluble form of P, di-calcium phosphate. If the
prevailing soil conditions are acidic, and good levels of iron, aluminium, or manganese are
present, the P from the granules can be transformed into low solubility phosphates of
these metals. On the other hand, if the overall soil pH is neutral or alkaline, and adequate
levels of calcium are present, di-calcium phosphate can be further converted to an
insoluble tri-calcium phosphate, a compound similar to naturally occurring rock
phosphate. The latter scenario is believed to be more important to the overall
concentration of P in soil solution and thus also to plant P nutrition. Maintaining an overall
soil pH 6-6.5 lessens the likelihood of P precipitation and enhances P solubility.
During the assimilation process, an acid laden solution of low pH (1.5) moves out into the
soil. This is hostile to soil biology and, as a result, any biological life in the vicinity of the
disintegrating Super granule is wiped out. The impact of a fertiliser on soil biology is often
ignored when fertilizer is applied, yet soil biology is critical to the plant uptake of nutrients
from the soil. How long these
adverse acid conditions continue varies depending on other soil factors but eventually the
pH returns to levels close to that which existed before the fertiliser was applied.
The application of ammonium phosphate fertilisers also lowers pH during assimilation but
not as severely as Super does. Dicalcium phosphate and RPR fertilisers do not lower pH
when being assimilated and are thus “friendly” to the organisms living within the soil. The
latter fertilisers also release P more slowly and at a rate which more closely complements
plant P requirements.
Plants are unable to uptake all of the initial soil solution flush of P from Super.
Although Super lowers pH around the granules during the assimilation phase, this
situation is not permanent. In terms of overall soil pH, Super only slightly increases overall
2. Absorption on Soil Particles
Sorption-desorption processes play a significant role in removing soluble inorganic P from
soil solution. Sorption occurs when P is removed from the soil solution and becomes
attached or fixed to the surface of soil particles. The impact of sorption varies depending
on the nature and extent of the particle and aggregate surfaces within the soil, but it is
generally worse in ash derived soils and other soils with a large content of amorphous or
poorly structured material. Such soils have a large available surface area to which P can
become fixed. Once the initial dissolution-precipitation reactions outlined above have run
their course, sorption-desorption processes become the main controller of soil solution P
In time, and again depending on other prevailing soil factors, the P absorbed on these soil
surfaces either slowly penetrates deeper into the fabric of the soil material or becomes
buried beneath iron and aluminium oxide coatings which form on the surface of soil
particles. When this occurs the P is said to be “occluded”.
It is sometimes assumed that P fixation processes are always in the direction of loss of P
from soil solution. This is not correct. P is also released back into soil solution from soil
surfaces by the reverse process, desorption.
However, the P that has penetrated within soil particles or become occluded is only
released very slowly, and then not until surface absorbed P reserves have been depleted.
Release of penetrated P generally occurs too slowly to maintain soil solution P
concentrations at a high enough level for good plant growth.
3. Organic Immobilisation
Plants remove P from soil solution through their roots. In time, much of this P is returned
to the soil in plant litter, roots etc and in animal dung. Because dung is often deposited at
stock camps or in races etc, dung transfer can result in loses of P from the system, or at
best uneven re-distribution of
P. Obviously, some P is also lost in products/commodities that are removed from the farm.
P is constantly being cycled through soil organic matter. It is constantly being incorporated
into the plant and then subsequently released and made available again and so on.
Soil microbes, soil animals and other soil biological life also remove P from soil solution.
The life cycle of the microbes is usually quite short and hence, after they die, the P is
released again, generally with a much faster turn around than occurs with plant P.
Microbial P is returned to soil solution in both organic and inorganic soluble P forms. Just
like the P immobilised in plants, so also the P in soil organisms is recycled either through
other soil organisms, or back into plants or else it is subjected to the other processes
Soil biological life plays a key role in the mineralization of P from both organic and non
organic sources. In many pastoral situations, organic material can often comprise 50 – 80%
of the total P in the soil. Not all of this P is plant available or even becomes plant available
P in the short term.
However, the microbial biomass P is usually re-cycled quite rapidly when soil conditions
favour these organisms. For instance, in a typical soil with say 1000kg/ha of total P within
the plant rooting zone and a microbial biomass comprising say 3% of the total soil P, P re-
cycled from this source could supply roughly 15-24kg of P/yr or the equivalent of an
annual application of 250kg/ha of Super!
In a manner similar to the way soil solution P is subject to sorption-desorption processes
on the surface of soil particles, it can also become absorbed onto the surface of organic
matter particles within the soil. If conditions are favourable, significant amounts of P can
be immobilised in this way, especially as soils become more acid. The chemistry of organic
P is complex and not very well understood. Never the less, it is clear that under the
influence of soil microbial life, and in particular rhizosphere fungi, a portion of this organic
P is returned to soil solution.
As a general rule, there is often more organic P in soil solution than inorganic P. When it is
considered that the Olsen P test only assesses the inorganic plant available P fraction of
the soil, then it becomes clear that the Olsen P test may under-estimate plant available P
i.e. there may be much more P available than is commonly realised.
Because of the size and complexity of organic soil molecules, it is difficult to assess how
much of this soluble organic P is taken up by plant roots but clearly, organic P does
contribute to plant P nutrition.
PRODUCTION AND USE
Worldwide phosphate production for 2010 is expected to be roughly 176 million
tonnes per year. China, Morocco and the United States represent roughly 67% of
the global phosphate rock supply. Also, roughly 65% of worldwide reserves are
located in Morocco with China a distant second.
Evolution of fertilizer consumption between 2007/08 and 2010/11
(Adapted from Heffer and Prud’homme, 2012)
BY PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZER INDUSTRY
Phosphate Fertilizer Mining Waste. www.industrialscars.com
Effects of Fluoride Pollution
It is well known that where ever phosphate industries have had inefficient, or non-
existent, pollution control that has caused a very serious threat of Fluoride.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) called the phophate industry a
“pandora’s box.” While the industry brought wealth to rural communities, it also
brought ecological devastation. The CBC described the effects of one particular
phosphate plant in Dunville, Ontario:
“Farmers noticed it first… Something mysterious burned the peppers, burned the
fruit, dwarfed and shriveled the grains, damaged everything that grew. Something in
the air destroyed the crops. Anyone could see it… They noticed it first in 1961. Again
in ’62. Worse each year. Plants that didn’t burn, were dwarfed. Grain yields cut in
half…Finally, a greater disaster revealed the source of the trouble. A plume from a
silver stack, once the symbol of Dunville’s progress, spreading for miles around
poison – fluorine. It was identified by veterinarians. There was no doubt. What
happened to the cattle was unmistakable, and it broke the farmer’s hearts. Fluorosis
– swollen joints, falling teeth, pain until cattle lie down and die. Hundreds of them.
The cause – fluorine poisoning from the air.”
Fluoride has been, and remains to this day, one of the largest environmental
liabilities of the phosphate industry. The source of the problem lies in the fact that
raw phosphate ore contains high concentrations of fluoride, usually between 20,000
to 40,000 parts per million (equivalent to 2 to 4% of the ore).
When this ore is processed into water-soluble phosphate (via the addition of sulfuric
acid), the fluoride content of the ore is vaporized into the air, forming highly toxic
gaseous compounds (hydrogen fluoride and silicon tetrafluoride).
In Polk County, Florida, the creation of multiple phosphate plants in the 1940s
caused damage to nearly 25,000 acres of citrus groves and “mass fluoride poisoning”
of cattle. It is estimated that, as a result of fluoride contamination, “the cattle
population of Polk County dropped 30,000 head” between 1953 and 1960, and “an
estimated 150,000 acres of cattle land were abandoned” (Linton 1970). According to
the former president of the Polk County Cattlemen’s Association:
“Around 1953 we noticed a change in our cattle… We watched our cattle become
gaunt and starved, their legs became deformed; they lost their teeth. Reproduction
fell off and when a cow did have a calf, it was also affected by this malady or was a
In the 1960s, air pollution emitted by another phosphate plant in Garrison, Montana
was severe enough to be branded “the worst in the nation” by a 1967 National Air
Pollution Conference in Washington, D.C.
As in Polk County, and other communities downwind of fluoride emissions, the cattle
in Garrison were poisoned by fluoride. As described in a 1969 article from Good
“The blight had afflicted cattle too. Some lay in the pasture, barely able to move.
Others limped and staggered on swollen legs, or painfully sank down and tried to
graze on their knees… Ingested day after day, the excessive fluoride had caused
tooth and bone disease in the cattle, so that they could not tolerate the anguish of
standing or walking. Even eating or drinking was an agony. Their ultimate fate was
dehydration, starvation – and death.”
Litigation from Fluoride Damage
Damage to vegetation and livestock, caused by fluoride emissions from large
industry, has resulted, as one might expect, in a great deal of expensive litigation. In
1983, Dr. Leonard Weinstein of Cornell University, stated that “certainly, there has
been more litigation on alleged damage to agriculture by fluoride than all other
pollutants combined” (Weinstein 1983). While Weinstein was referring to fluoride
pollution in general, his comments give an indication of the problem facing the
phosphate industry – one of the most notorious emitters of fluoride – in its early
So too does an estimate from Dr. Edward Groth, currently a Senior Scientist at
Consumers Union. According to an article written by Groth, fluoride pollution
between the years 1957 to 1968, “was responsible for more damage claims against
industry than all twenty (nationally monitored air pollutants) combined.”
The primary reason for the litigation against fluoride emitters was “the painful,
economically disastrous, debilitating disease” that fluoride causes to livestock
(Hodge & Smith 1977). As noted in a 1970 review by the US Department of
“Airborne fluorides have caused more worldwide damage to domestic animals than
any other air pollutant” (Lillie 1970).
Another review on air pollution reached the same conclusion. According to Ender
“The most important problem concerning damage to animals by air pollution is, no
doubt, the poisoning of domestic animals caused by fluorine in smoke, gas, or dust
from various industries; industrial fluorosis in livestock is today a disorder well
known by veterinarians in all industrialized countries.”
According to a review discussing “Fluorine toxicosis and industry”, Shupe noted that:
“Air pollution damage to agricultural production in the United States in 1967 was
estimated at $500,000,000. Fluoride damage to livestock and vegetation was a
substantial part of this amount” (Shupe 1970).
Scrubbing away the problem
Due to the inevitable liabilities that fluoride pollution presented, and to an
increasingly stringent set of environmental regulations, the phosphate industry
began cleaning up its act. As noted by Ervin Bellack, a chemist for the US Public
“In the manufacture of super-phosphate fertilizer, phosphate rock is acidulated with
sulfuric acid, and the fluoride content of the rock evolves as volatile silicofluorides. In
the past, much of this volatile material was vented to the atmosphere, contributing
heavily to pollution of the air and land surrounding the manufacturing site. As
awareness of the pollution problem increased, scrubbers were added to strip
particulate and gaseous components from the waste gas…” (Bellack 1970)
A 1979 review, published in the journal Phosphorous & Potassium, added:
“The fluorine compounds liberated during the acidulation of phosphate rock are now
rightly regarded as a menace and the industry is now obliged to suppress emissions-
containing vapors to within very low limits in most parts of the world… In the past,
little attention was paid to the emission of gaseous fluorine compounds in the
fertilizer industry. But today fluorine recovery is increasingly necessary because of
stringent environmental restrictions which demand drastic reductions in the
quantities of volatile and toxic fluorine compounds emitted into the waste gases.
These compounds now have to be recovered and converted into harmless by-
products for disposal or, more desirably, into marketable products” (Denzinger
A Missed Opportunity: Little Demand for Silicofluorides
Considering the great demand among big industry for fluoride chemicals as a
material used in a wide variety of commercial products and industrial processes, the
phosphate industry could have made quite a handsome profit selling its fluoride
wastes to industry. This was indeed the hope among some industry analysts,
including the authors of the review noted above (Denzinger 1979).
However, the US phosphate industry has thus far been unable to take advantage of
this market. The principal reason for this failure stems from the fact that fluoride
captured in the scrubbers is combined with silica. The resulting silicofluoride
complex has, in turn, proved difficult for the industry to separate and purify in an
As it now stands, silicofluoride complexes (hydrofluorosilicic acid & sodium
silicofluoride) are of little use to industry. Thus, while US industry continues to satisfy
its growing demand for high-grade fluoride chemicals by importing calcium fluoride
from abroad (primarily from Mexico, China, and South Africa), the phosphate
industry continues dumping large volumes of fluoride into the acidic wastewater
ponds that lie at the top of the mountainous waste piles which surround the
industry. In 1995, the Tampa Tribune summed up the situation as follows:
“The U.S. demand for fluorine, which was 400,000 tons, is expected to jump 25
percent by next year… Even though 600,000 tons of fluorine are contained in the 20
million tons of phosphate rock mined in Florida, the fluorine market has been
inaccessible because the fluorine is tied up with silica, a hard, glassy material.”
Of course, not all of the phosphate industry’s fluoride waste is disposed of in the
ponds. As noted earlier, the phosphate industry has found at least one regular
consumer of its silicofluorides: municipal water-treatment facilities. According to
recent estimates, the phosphate industry sells approximately 200,000 tons of
silicofluorides (hydrofluorosilicic acid & sodium silicofluoride) to US communities
each year for use as a water fluoridation agent (Coplan & Masters 2001).
According to Dr. J. William Hirzy, the current Senior Vice-President of EPA
“If this stuff gets out into the air, it’s a pollutant; if it gets into the river, it’s a
pollutant; if it gets into the lake it’s a pollutant; but if it goes right into your drinking
water system, it’s not a pollutant. That’s amazing… There’s got to be a better way to
manage this stuff.”
Recent Findings on Silicofluorides
Adding to Hirzy’s, and the EPA Union’s, concerns are three recent findings.
First and foremost are two recent studies reporting a relationship between water
treated with silicofluorides and elevated levels of lead in children’s blood (Masters &
Coplan 1999, 2000). The authors of these studies speculate that the silicofluoride
complex may increase the uptake of lead (derived from other environmental
sources, such as lead paint) into the bloodstream.
The second finding is the recent, and quite remarkable concession from the EPA, that
despite 50 years of water fluoridation, the EPA has no chronic health studies on
silicofluorides. All safety studies on fluoride to date have been conducted using
pharmaceutical-grade sodium fluoride, not industrial-grade silicofluorides. A similar
concession has also been obtained from the respective authorities in England.
The defense made by agencies promoting water fluoridation, such as the US Centers
for Disease Control, to the lack of such studies, is that when the silicofluoride
complex is diluted into water, it dissociates into free fluoride ions or other fluoride
compounds (e.g. aluminum-fluoride), and thus the treated water, when consumed,
will have no remaining silicofluoride residues (Urbansky & Schock, 2000).
This argument, while supported by a good deal of theoretical calculation is at odds
with a recently obtained and translated PhD dissertation from a German chemist.
(Westendorf 1975). According to the dissertation, not only do the silicofluorides not
fully dissociate, the remaining silicofluoride complexes could be more potent
inhibitors of cholinesterase, an enzyme vital to the functioning of the central nervous
The third finding is that the silicofluorides, as obtained from the scrubbers of the
phosphate industry, contain a wide variety of impurities present in the process water
– particularly arsenic and possibly radionuclides. While these impurities occur at low
concentrations, especially after dilution into the water, their purposeful addition to
water supplies directly violates EPA public health goals. For instance, the EPA’s
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for arsenic, a known human carcinogen, is 0 parts
per billion. However, according to the National Sanitation Foundation, the addition
of silicofluorides to the water supply will add, on average, about 0.1 to 0.43 ppb, and
as much as 1.6 ppb, arsenic to the water.
As noted by the Salt Lake Tribune,
“Those who had visions of sterile white laboratories when they voted for fluoride
weren’t thinking of fluorosilicic acid. Improbable as this sounds, much of it is
recovered from the scrubbing solution that scours toxins from smokestacks at
phosphate fertilizer plants.”
Gypsum Stacks & ‘Slime Ponds’
Fluoride-contaminated wastewater sitting on top of “gypsum stack.”To make 1
pound of commercial fertilizer, the phosphate industry creates 5 pounds of
contaminated phosphogypsum slurry (calcium sulfate). This slurry is piped from the
processing facilities up into the acidic wastewater ponds that sit atop the
mountainous waste piles known as gypsum stacks.
According to the EPA, 32 million tons of new gypsum waste is created each year by
the phosphate industry in Central Florida alone. (Central Florida is the heart of the
US phosphate industry). The EPA estimates that the current stockpile of waste in
Central Florida’s gypsum stacks has reached “nearly 1 billion metric tons.” (The
average gypsum stack takes up about 135 acres of surface area – equal to about 100
football fields – and can go as high as 200 feet.)
It is sort of a misnomer, however, to call these stacks “gypsum” stacks. Indeed, if the
stacks were simply gypsum, they probably wouldn’t exist, as gypsum can be readily
sold for various purposes (e.g. as a building material). What can’t be readily sold,
however, is radioactive gypsum, which is about the only type of gypsum the
phosphate industry has to offer.
The source of the gypsum’s radioactivity is the presence of uranium, and uranium’s
various decay products (i.e. radium), in raw, phosphate ore. As noted by the Sarasota
“there is a natural and unavoidable connection between phosphate mining and
radioactive material. It is because phosphate and uranium were laid down at the
same time and in the same place by the same geological processes millions of years
ago. They go together. Mine phosphate, you get uranium.”
Phosphate ore can contain high concentrations of uranium, as evident by this sign at
IMC Agrico’s plant in Polk County.
While uranium, and its decay-products, naturally occur in phosphate ore, their
concentrations in the gypsum waste, after the extraction of soluble phosphate, are
up to 60 times greater.
The gypsum has therefore been classified as a “Naturally Occurring Radioactive
Material“, or NORM waste, although some, including the EPA, have questioned
whether this classification understates the problem. According to the Tampa
Tribune, the gypsum “is among the most concentrated radioactive waste that comes
from natural materials.”
It is so concentrated, in fact, that “it can’t be dumped at the one landfill in the
country licensed to take only NORM waste.”
Thus, according to US News & World Report, the EPA is currently “weighing whether
to classify the gypsum stacks as hazardous waste under federal statutes, which
would force the industry to provide strict safeguards” (to nearly 1 billion tons of
One of EPA’s main concerns with gypsum stacks centers around the fact that radium-
226 breaks down into radon gas. When radon gas is formed, it can become airborne,
leading to potentially elevated exposures downwind of the stacks. Such airborne
exposures are of particular concern to areas like Progress Village, Florida, where “a
new gypsum stack is rising a few hundred yards from a grade school.” According to
US News & World Report, there is evidence to suggest cancer rates downwind of the
stacks may be elevated:
“Some epidemiological studies suggest that lung cancer rates among nonsmoking
men in the phosphate region are up to twice as high as the state average. Acute
leukemia rates among adults are also double the average. An industry-sponsored
study of male phosphate workers, however, found lung cancer rates no higher than
the state average. There is no proof that mine wastes cause cancer, but the evidence
Will radioactive gypsum be added to roads?
With the growing realization that gypsum stacks represent a serious environmental
threat to Central Florida, both now and for generations to come, the phosphate
industry has been looking into ways of reducing the size of the stacks (and the size of
In an interesting parallel to fluoride, the phosphate industry is looking to turn its
gypsum waste into a marketable product: as a potential cover for landfills, as a soil
conditioner, and as a base material for roads.
As of yet, however, the EPA does not appear willing to relax its rules and lift its ban
on commercial uses of gypsum. According to the Tampa Tribune, “EPA’s limit for use
is 10 picocuries of radium per gram, well below the levels usually found in the
A recent statement from the EPA reads:
“Only two uses (for the gypsum) are permitted: limited agricultural use and research.
Other uses may be proposed, but otherwise the phosphogypsum must be returned
to mines or stored in stacks.”
Cold War Secrets & Worker Health
In Joliet, Illinois, it has only recently come to light that the local phosphate plant had
secretly produced some 2 million pounds of uranium for the US government in the
years 1952 to 1962. According to local newspaper reports, the cancer rates of people
who worked at the plant, especially “Building 55” where the uranium was processed,
are unusually high.
Today, with the Cold War over, it is becoming clear that workers in the phosphate
industry need special protection. According to a report from the European
“Processing and waste handling in the phosphate industry is associated with
radiation levels of concern for workers and the public. The level of protection for
these groups should be more similar to the level of protection that is state of the art
in other industries, particularly the nuclear industry.”
While the radioactivity of the gypsum stacks has probably been the key health
concern of the EPA, it is not the only one.
Resting atop the phosphate industry’s gypsum piles are highly-acidic wastewater
ponds, littered with toxic contaminants, including fluoride, arsenic, cadmium,
chromium, lead, mercury, and the various decay-products of uranium. This
combination of acidity and toxins makes for a poisonous, high-volume, cocktail,
which, when leaked into the environment, wreaks havoc to waterways and fish
populations. As noted by the St. Petersburg Times, “Spills from these stacks have
periodically poisoned the Tampa Bay environs. ”
One spill, in 1997, from a now-defunct gypsum stack in Florida, “killed more than a
“Strike the Alafia River off your list of fishing spots,” wrote one journalist after the
spill. “It’s gone, dead as a sewer pipe, killed by the carelessness of yet another
Today, the same gypsum stack which caused this particular spill, is considered by
Florida’s Department of Environmental Protection to be “the most serious pollution
threat in the state.” That’s because tropical rains over the past couple of years have
brought the wastewater to the edge of the stack’s walls.
As noted by the Tampa Tribune, “The gypsum mound is near capacity, and a wet
spring or a tropical storm could cause a catastrophic spill.”
To prevent such a spill, which was all but inevitable, the EPA recently agreed to let
Florida pursue “Option Z“: To load 500-600 million gallons of the wastewater onto
barges and dump it directly into the Gulf of Mexico.
The dumping of the wastewater into the Gulf represents the latest in a series of
high-profile embarrasments for Florida’s phosphate industry; one of the most
dramatic of which happened on June 15, 1994.
On that day, a massive, 15-story sinkhole appeared in the middle of an 80 million ton
gypsum stack. The hole was so big that, according to US News & World Report, it
“could be as big as 2 million cubic feet, enough to swallow 400 railroad boxcars.
Local wags call it Disney World’s newest attraction — ‘Journey to the Center of the
But, as US News noted,
“there’s nothing amusing about it. The cave-in dumped 4 million to 6 million cubic
feet of toxic and radioactive gypsum and waste water into the Floridan aquifer,
which provides 90 percent of the state’s drinking water.”
Thus it can be seen that processing Rock phosphate into super phosphates involves
heavy environmental pollution and is becoming a threat to Livestock and humans.
NNNEEEEEEDDD FFFOOORRR AAA NNNOOOVVVEEELLL PPPHHHOOOSSSPPPHHHOOORRRUUUSSS
Low utilization of native-P by crops and high fixation of applied P had been a major
concern in crop production for over three decades. Different approaches viz.
phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB), phosphatase and phytase producing fungi
(PPF), organic acid producing microorganisms, and VAM have been tried in past to
address these problems.
But success of these phosphorus mobilizing microorganisms (PMM) had been
limited for two reasons
(a) Low soil organic carbon (SOC) which limit the energy supply to PMM
(b) High evaporation from surface soils which adversely affect the survivability of
NOW WE PROPOSE
1. TO REDUCE LEVEL OF USAGE OF PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZERS
AND THUS MINIMIZE PRODUCTION OF PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZERS
2. TO INSTILL MORE BIOAVAILABLE PROTEINATED PHOSPHOROUS
AND THUS EVEN REDUCE RESIDUAL PHOSPHORUS LEACHATES INTO
3. TO REDUCE QUANTITY OF LITTER WHEN USED IN ANIMALS
HHHOOOWWW CCCAAANNN TTTHHHIIISSS BBBEEE AAACCCHHHIIIEEEVVVEEEDDD???
Plants exude about 25 to 30% of the photosynthates through roots. These
exudates consist of low molecular weight amino acids, amino sugars, organic acids
and polysaccharides and can provide energy to PMM and C skeleton for synthesis
of exo-polysaccharides. Any attempt to increase proportion of root exudates
would logically result in yield reduction; therefore, we propose to increase
photosynthesis in crop plants to achieve higher root exudates.
Nano-particles of Mg, Zn, Fe and P are the structural component of enzymes
(phosphatases and phytase), polysaccharides and chlorophyll. They are known to
stabilize the enzyme complexes in plants. We aim on utilizing this property for
increasing photosynthesis that would most likely lead to higher exudation which in
turn would increase the energy supply and supply of C skeleton compounds to
PMM and exo-polysaccharide producing micro-organisms. This approach would
enable in breaking of existing barriers in utilization of native P and reduce
dependence on imported P fertilizers.
Most of the P in soil is bound as highly stable Ca-P, Fe-P, Al-P and as plant
unavailable inorganic form besides C-O-P ester bond in organic form. These bonds
can be solubilized/hydrolyzed by phosphatases, phytase enzymes and organic acid
produced by microorganisms viz. phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, phosphatase
and phytase producing microorganisms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi through
biochemical reactions. But this biochemical process is energy intensive. Total
energy availability in arid soils is low due to low SOC. As a consequence the
population, survivability and efficacy of phosphorus mobilizing microorganisms
(PSM) in soil is low.
Utilization efficiency of phosphatic fertilizers is very low due to their inversion to
insoluble forms in general and it is further aggravated in arid soils by higher
concentration of silicic acid and calcium carbonate. We propose to synthesize
nano-particles of rock phosphate and use them as fertilizer by direct application on
plant surface. This would avoid contact of P with soil to avert inversion and
increase utilization efficiency of fertilizer P by crops. Moreover, there would be no
competition with silicic acid and also no fixation by calcium.
NOW WE OFFER COLION_P
IONISED PHOSPHOROUS EMBEDDED IN A MATRIX OF COLLOIDAL
AMINOACID LIKE L LYSINE, WHICH IS CONSIDERED AS AN ESSENTIAL
COLION_P is totally bioavailable and enters into plant system as a
bioencapsulated molecule in whole and results in no antagonisms.
Organic P content in COLION_P can replace ten folds inorganic P
MMMOOODDDEEE OOOFFF AAACCCTTTIIIOOONNN OOOFFF CCCOOOLLLIIIOOONNN___PPP
Natural Ionised Phosphorus and Colloidal Protein successfully combined with a
This blend has been delicately handled to ensure the full benefit of a boost to
metabolism of high performance ruminants, poultry, fish, prawn, agricultural crops
etc, in a safe naturally occurring manner.
This product is totally bioassimable as a whole without break up and will also
improve the performance of the microflora.
COLION_P is a non-phosphite phosphorous nutrient formulation to help harvest the best
COLION_P safely replaces Use of Dicalcium phosphate and Phytase in animal feeds.
In Agriculture, COLION_P can be conveniently applied through the drippers at early stages
of crops and through the leaves ( foliar ) during the fruiting and later stages of growth to
produce the best quality crop with higher yields.
In Animals it can be safely used either in feed or in drinking water.
COLION_P contains Phosphorous, Metabolites of Phosphorous Solubilising Bacteria,
Phytase and Phosphatase Enzymes, which is an unique combination.
When available P is considered
COLION_P replaces inorganic phosphorus sources like rock Phosphate and
Organic phosphorous content of 1 L COLION_P can replace 15 Kg Superphosphate.
Metabolites of the Microbes and enzymes impart efficiency to the plants to uptake the
insoluble Phosphorus available in the soil.
Combinations of trisodium phosphate with boric acid and sodium humate gave superior
results as compared to superphosphate (maximum productivity 74.7 t/ha). Use of
trisodium phosphate also obtained beetroot with the highest sugar (9.7%) and the lowest
nitrate (1232 mg/kg) contents.
SALIENT FEATURES OF CCCOOOLLLIIIOOONNN___PPP
100% WATER SOLUBLE PHOSPHOROUS
ABSORBED AND METABOLIZED MORE EFFICIENTLY.
ABSORBED BY DIFFERENT ROUTES THAN INORGANIC MINERALS.
ABSORBED BY THE AMINO ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEM.
BUILDS CRITICAL LEVELS OF PHOSPHOROUS
DELIVERED IN A FORM SIMILAR TO THAT FOUND IN THE PLANT.
EASY TO ADMINISTER
HELPFUL IN THE CASES OF MALABSORPTION CONDITIONS
IMPARTS THE PLANTS ABILITY TO WITHSTAND PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY.
IMPROVED PLANT HEALTH
INCREASES LEVELS FOR ENERGY, WATER AND NUTRIENT HOLDING CAPACITY
INCREASES PASSIVE ABSORPTION BY INCREASING WATER AND LIPID SOLUBILITY
OF THE MINERAL NUTRIENT.
INCREASES THE ABILITY OF PLANTS TO RESIST PEST AND DISEASE ATTACK
MAKES THE PLANTS EFFICIENT TO UPTAKE THE ORGANIC P AVAILABLE IN THE SOIL.
MEETS THE DEMANDS OF MODERN PLANT GENOTYPES WITH HIGHER
MOST USEFUL IN STRESS CONDITIONS
MOVEMENT THROUGH CELL MEMBRANES.
NON-TOXIC TO THE PLANTS.
PROMOTES AVAILABILITY OF BOTH PHOSPHOROUS AND PROTEINS
REBUILDS TIRED NUTRITION THROUGH REMINERALISATION
REDUCES INPUT COSTS THROUGH EFFICIENCY
RESISTS DISEASES LIKE DOWNY MILDEW OF GRAPES, FRUIT ROT, ROOT ROT &
CITRUS GUMMOSIS, LATE BLIGHT OF TOMATO ETC.
STABLE AT A LOW PH.
WORKS WELL IN NEUTRAL AND LITTLE ALKALINE SOILS ALSO.
Corn, Soy bean, Fruits, Vegetables, Rice, Sugar cane, Wheat, Cotton, Tobacco etc
POULTRY, CATTLE, SHEEP, FISH AND PRAWN
As P Source:
6.66 L COLION_P can replace 100 Kg Single super phosphate.
8 to 16 ml per liter of water for spraying/ Sprinkler/Drip; first during preparation of the
soil before sowing; Then when the crop is 1-2 weeks old; Again one week before when it is
going to flowering, Lastly 1-2 weeks before harvesting.
In the cases of diseases like downy mildew of grapes, fruit rot, Root Rot & citrus
Gummosis, Late blight of Tomato etc;
20- 30 ml per L of Water for spraying/ Sprinkler/Drip.
Other key nutrients like all water-soluble fertilizers, nitrogen and trace elements can be
mixed with COLION_P except for calcium fertilizers and concentrated magnesium
In hydroponic systems, it should normally be added to the B tank along with the sulphates
and trace elements.
COLION_P has a buffering effect which will help stabilize the pH of the solution at around
IN ANIMAL FEEDS:
1 L per MT Feed regularly replacing 10 Kg DCP of 18% P, and 50g PHYTASE of 10000
0.5 ml per 1 L in drinking water to replace 10 Kg DCP of 18% P, and 50g PHYTASE of
10000 IU/g in feed
Phosphorous as P: 0.18 % Min
Phosphorous as P2O5: 0.382 % Min
Chloride as Cl : 0.01%max
Iron(as Fe): 0.0005%max
Arsenic(as As): 0.0005%max.
Suitable pH Buffers
Barrett, SR, BL Shearer and GE Hardy (2002). Australian J. Bot.
Lucas, RE, DD Warncke and VA Thorpe (1979). Agron. J. 71, 1063-1065.
McDonald, AE, BR Grant and WC Plaxton (2001). J. Plant Nutr. 24, 1505-
Mitchell, C and J Adam (2004). Alabama Coop. Ext. Sys., S-04-04. May 2004.
Wells, KL, JE Dollaride and RE Mundell (2000). Comm. Soil Sci Plant Anal.
Bellack E, Baker RJ. (1970). Fluoridation chemicals – the supply picture. Journal of
the American Water Works Association 62: 223-224.
Coplan MJ, Masters RD. (2001). Silicofluorides and fluoridation. Fluoride 34(3):161-
Denzinger HF, et al. (1979). Fluorine recovery in the fertilizer industry – a review.
Phosphorus & Potassium Sept/Oct: 33-39.
Ender F. (1969). “The effect of air pollution on animals.” pp. 245-254. In: Air
Pollution – Proceedings of the First European Congress on the Influence of Air
Pollution on Plants and Animals, Wageningen, April 22 to 27, 1968. Centre for
Agricultural Publishing & Documentation, Wageningen.
Hirzy JW. (2000). Video-taped interview with Dr. J. William Hirzy, Senior Vice
President, EPA Headquarters Union. Interview by Michael Connett. July 3.
Hodge HC, Smith FA. (1977). Occupational fluoride exposure. Journal of
Occupational Medicine 19: 12-39.
Lillie RJ. (1970). Air Pollutants Affecting the Performance of Domestic Animals: A
Literature Review. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Agricultural Handbook No. 380.
Masters R, et al. (2000). Association of Silicofluoride Treated Water with Elevated
Blood Lead. Neurotoxicology 21(6): 1091-1099.
Masters RD, Coplan M. (1999). Water treatment with Silicofluorides and Lead
Toxicity. International Journal of Environmental Studies 56: 435-449.
Shupe JL. (1970). Fluorine toxicosis and industry. American Industrial Hygiene
Association Journal 31: 240-247.
Urbansky ET, Schock MR. (2000). Can Fluoridation Affect Water Lead(II) Levels and
Lead(II) Neurotoxicity? United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research
Laboratory, Water Supply and Water Resources Division, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Weinstein LH. (1983). “Effects of Fluorides on Plants and Plant Communities: An
Overview.” pp. 53-59. In: Shupe JL, Peterson HB, Leone NC, (Eds). Fluorides: Effects
on Vegetation, Animals, and Humans. Paragon Press. Salt Lake City, Utah.
Westendorf J. (1975). The kinetics of acetylcholinesterase inhibition and the
influence of fluoride and fluoride complexes on the permeability of erythrocyte
membranes. Ph.D. Dissertation in Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Germany.