GROWTH IN NON VEGETERIAN FOOD CONSUMPTION BY 2014 AND IT’S IMPACT ON ANIMAL HEALTH INPUTS WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO PROBIOTICS I. PREAMBLEProduction and consumption of Non vegetarian food are increasing every year in spite ofsome health conscious by birth non vegetarians are avoiding non vegetarian foodKalyan Chakravarthy, country head of the food and agriculture division of Yes Bank saysthat in China and India, the youth and high-income population is adapting to meat.Current global livestock production is growing more dynamically than any otheragricultural sector around the world; livestock are now the worlds largest land user(FAOa 2001).According to the agriculture ministry, meat production in India has been growing at acompounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5 per cent over the past 15 years.Trends have shown that non vegetarian food consumption in India has gone up fromonce a week to three times.According to International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), per capita meatconsumption in India could reach 18 kg in 2020, compared to 10-12 kg now.At present, in India Per capita availability of meat is 1.6 kg. Per capita availability of egg is 1.8 kg or 42 eggs. Average consumption of eggs in major cities is 170 eggs Average consumption of eggs in smaller cities is 40 eggs Average consumption of developed rural areas is 20 eggs Average consumption of undeveloped rural areas is only 5 eggs.
While 20% of Indian population is vegetarian.Driven by population, income increases, rapid urbanization, and changing dietary habits,there is an unprecedented expansion of the livestock industry throughout the developingworld where per capita meat production is expected to increase by nearly 50% between2000 and 2020. Global meat demand is expected to grow by 35% and milk demand by25% over the same period.The increase in consumption of non vegetarian food is largely owing to the followingfacts.1. In developing countries, Governments are providing midday meal to school goingchildren where Eggs are provided periodically.2. Compared to Vegetables, prices of Eggs are low in several countries.3. Dining out is becoming a regular habit and while dining in restaurants people tryseveral non vegetarian dishes.4. With the increase in earning and purchasing capacities, people are tending towardsNon vegetarian food.5. Urbanization. Rural folk moving to cities are more prone for increased intake of meatand eggs.Demand for meat worldwide is forecast to rise more than 55 per cent between 1997 and2020, with China alone accounting for more than 40 per cent of this increase, and India,4 per cent, according to IFPRI.(http://www.businessworld.in/index.php/Commodities/Meat-Of-The-Matter.html)By the year 2020, it is estimated that there will be some 800 million additional people tofeed on the planet. This together with higher income for food spending will put atremendous demand on crop production.The USDA reports that animals cycled through the U.S. meat industry produce 61 milliontons of waste each year, which is 130 times the volume of human waste, or .2 tons forevery US citizen (Horrigan et al. 1999). In the United States, waste from every type oflivestock increased between 1987 and 1997, with the largest increases in waste fromsheep and poultry. Large manure volumes will continue to be produced and distributedon less land in the coming years (Beegle and Lanyon 1994). These consequences ofanimal waste can be divided into three primary categories: water degradation, landdegradation, and air pollution.Hence the need arises to put efforts in the following. 1. Achieving more quantity and quality of meat, eggs and milk employing less land, water and time. This can be achieved by • Encouraging high yielding varieties of animals • Improving pre and post harvest technologies to avoid losses in transit. • Improving the disease resistance and disease curing to reduce mortality rates and to curb any weight falls during ailments • Improving the quality of feed, FCR. • Reducing the quantities og inputs by increasing TDN, reducing excreta, employing newer technologies like DFM (Direct Fed Microbes to produce
Amino Acids, Organic Acids, Enzymes, Growth promoters, Toxin degraders etc) 2. Achieve agricultural production without damaging the environment by • Employing greener technologies • Preferring organic farming 3. Biodegrade all the wastes and pollutants of the industry like litter and make them more environment friendly. 4. Convert the poultry litter and cow dung into fit animal feeding stuff rather than usage of the same as manure.Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts,confer a health benefit on the host.Prebiotics are nondigestible substances that provide a beneficial physiological effect forthe host by selectively stimulating the favorable growth or activity of a limited number ofindigenous bacteriaSynbiotics are products that contain both probiotics and probiotics.At the start of the 20th century, probiotics were thought to beneficially affect the host byimproving its intestinal microbial balance, thus inhibiting pathogens and toxin producingbacteria.Today, specific health effects are being investigated and documented includingalleviation of chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, prevention and treatment ofpathogen-induced diarrhea, urogenital infections, and atopic diseases.Today, Scientists and Industry has recognized the important role of probioticsIn improving • The survival rate, • Weight gain • FCR • Egg laying capacity, • Milk yielding capacity,And in reducing • Residual antibiotics, hormones, pesticides, dewormers • Mortality rate • Crop time • Pollution
• Damage to Mother Earth.According to a new market research report, Probiotics Market (2009-2014)(www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/probiotic-market-advanced-technologies-and-global-market-69.html), published by MarketsandMarkets(www.marketsandmarkets.com), the global probiotics market is expectedto be worth US$ 32.6 billion by 2014, with the Europe and Asia accounting fornearly 42% and 30% of the total revenues respectively. The global market isexpected to record a CAGR of 12.6% from 2009 to 2014.Probiotics, belonging to the functional group of gut flora stabilisers within the category ofzootechnical feed additives (according to the Regulation EC No 1831/2003) is a fastgrowing marketIn 2004, the global market value of probiotics was €32 million, with a forecasted annualgrowth of approximately 3%. However, due to the ban of antimicrobial feed additives, theprobiotic market in Western Europe showed an annual growth of more than 7%. In 2006,Western Europe produced around 296 tons of probiotics, with a value of €15.5 million.With 1012 CFU (equivalent to about 100g) usually added to a ton of mixed feed,approximately 3 million tons of feed containing probiotics was produced last year.(www.allaboutfeed.net/article-database/potenti...)Probiotic Foods & Beverages segment is expected to command over 75% of theoverall probiotics market in 2009.Probiotic dairy products are accounting for almost 70% in the year 2009 and reaching amarket size of almost $24 billion by the end of 2014.Probiotic dairy products market in USA is expected to grow at a CAGR of 17% from2009 to 2014.Probiotic chocolates, probiotic ice creams and probiotic baked products areexpected to enjoy a much larger market share.Europe market for probiotics is estimated at $13.5 billion by 2014. Its 12.2% CAGR from2009 to 2014 is driven by consumer demand for health-enhancing probiotic products,such as probiotic yogurts, other probiotic dairy products and probiotic dietarysupplements.Asia is the second largest segment, growing at with an estimated CAGR of 11.2% toreach $9.0 billion by 2014.Animals can be classified as follows. 1. Companion animals 2. Animals used in Agriculture
3. Human food product (Milk, Eggs) producing Animals 4. Animals used as Human Food 5. Animals used in Industry( Wool bearing) 6. Laboratory Animals 7. Wild AnimalsBeneficial microorganisms can be used in food, feed, drinking water; over pond watermediums; in the environment.Beneficial microorganisms can be used in controlling • Bacterial, fungal and viral infections • Cancer • Cholesterol • External parasites • Insects • Internal parasites • Obesity • PestsBeneficial microorganisms can be used as alternate antibiotics, pesticides, insecticides,growth promoters.Beneficial microorganisms can be used as • Anifungals • Antibiotic s • Antivirals • Enzyme producers • FCR Improvers • Growth promoters • Gut acidifiers • Immuno modulators • Insecticides • Meat tenderizers • Oxygen liberators • Parasiticides • Pesticides • Pollutant degraders • Protozoacides • Toxin binders • ZoothamnicidesRole of Probiotics • To combat diseases like as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), dyspepsia, chronic diarrhea or constipation.
• To curdle milk • To detoxify • To eliminate pathogens • To exist symbiotically • To fight against certain cancers. • To help in Lactic intolerance • To help in producing short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) • To help liver and kidneys in discharging their functions • To help regulate the immune response • To improve mineral absorption • To improve Total digestible Nutrients (TDN) of the food intake. • To inhibit LDL accumulation • To maintain optimum micro flora • To reduce Triglycerides • To reduce the stress owing to high levels of AntibioticsActivities of Probiotic Bacteria • Anti colon cancer effects • Anti Milk allergy • Anti-diarrheal effects • Cholesterol lowering • Correction of Hypertension • Immune system modulation • Improved tolerance to milk • Intestinal health maintenance • Reduction of Lactose intolerance • Suppression of harmful intestinal microbe activities • Suppression of pathogen translocation • Vaginal/urinary tract health maintenanceOf the 18 authorised probiotics in the EU, 12 are authorised for pig feed (10 areapproved for piglets, 6 for sows and 5 for fattening pigs). The micro-organisms for pigfeed are of various origins. Most preparations contain defined strains of bacteria andonly three of them contain yeasts. Bacillus strains are spore forming bacteria and areapplied as spore preparations while enterococci and pediococci do not form spores andare applied as desiccated vegetative cells. Therefore, Bacillus probiotics are much morestable during feed processing (including pelleting and during in-feed storage). We havefound that the recovery of B. cereus var. toyoi was 95% after pelleting (conditioner 80°C,dye 87°C), while the recovery of viable counts of an E. faecium strain decreased withincreasing treatment temperature (Figure 1). However, the stability of vegetative cellscan be improved by various techniques (soaking on globuli, coating). Although viabilitylosses can be compensated by initial overdosing during feed production if the rate ofinactivation is known, storage of the complete feed is still a matter of concern. Bacterialspores, on the other hand, are remarkably stable during storage in pelleted feed (Figure2 ). Yeasts are the most sensitive to heat treatment. Probably influenced by their stability
characteristics, sales volume of used probiotic organisms in pig feeding can becategorised as follows: Bacillus spore probiotics > Enterococcus strains (lactic acidbacteria) > yeast probiotics (viable cells).The European Union has not yet implemented regulations for the risk assessment ofgenetically modified microorganisms (GMO) in animal nutrition.Especially when GMOs are used to deliver drugs or vaccines, they could not beregulated as feed additives but have to be treated as therapeutic agents.(http://www.allaboutfeed.net/article-database/potentials-of-probiotics-in-pig-nutrition-id1140.html)In Japan a standard was developed by the Fermented Milks and Lactic Acid BacteriaBeverages Association stipulating that a product contain 1 x 107 viablebifidobacteria/g or mL product to be considered a probiotic food.Complete Ban on All Growth-promoting Antimicrobials in the EU Drives Growth in theAnimal Feed Probiotics Market.A huge demand for phytase is predicted in the future. This is a result of theEnvironmental Protection Agencys (EPA) concerns about chemical emissions from theagricultural industry. Farmers are also looking to reduce phosphate content in animalwastes. Thus, the most rapid growth is expected in the area of animal feed enzymes ledby phytase.Global market for chemotherapeutic drugs which either kill parasite populations orprevent the development of immature parasites into adult forms, is worth almost $4.7billion, making it the single most valuable sector of the animal health products market.At the moment very few companies like DVS BioLife Ltd employ probiotics for controllinginternal and external parasites.The global market for nutraceuticals for companion animals was estimated in excess of$1 billion in 2006. Several algae like spirulina, chlorella, Dunaliella Salina are employed.The global probiotics market is estimated to grow at a CAGR of around 13% from 2009-2014 and Europe and Asia would be occupying the maximum market share by the endof 2014.There is good in vitro evidence that certain probiotic strains can inhibit thegrowth and adhesion of a range of enteropathogens (Coconnier et al., 1993, 1997;Hudault et al., 1997; Gopal et al., 2001; Bernet Camard et al., 1997), and animal studieshave indicated beneficial effects against pathogens such as Salmonella (Ogawa et al.,2001; Shu et al., 2000).The intestinal microflora likely plays a critical role in inflammatory conditions inthe gut, and potentially probiotics could remediate such conditions through modulation ofthe microflora.Administration of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria could theoretically modify the floraleading to decreased β-glucuronidase and carcinogen levels (Hosada et al., 1996).Furthermore, there is some evidence that cancer recurrences at other sites, such as the
urinary bladder can be reduced by intestinal instillation of probiotics including L. caseiShirota (Aso et al., 1995). In vitro studies with L. rhamnosus GG and bifidobacteria andan in vivo study using L. rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 as well asPropionibacterium sp. showed a decrease in availability of carcinogenic aflatoxin in thelumen (El-Nezami et al., 2000; Oatley et al., 2000).(http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_management/en/probiotics.pdf)Intravenous, intraperitoneal and intrapleural injection of L. casei Shirota into micesignificantly increased NK activity of mesenteric node cells but not of Peyers patch cellsor of spleen cells (Matsuzaki and Chin, 2000), supporting the concept that someprobiotic strains can enhance the innate immune response.(Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Propertiesof Probiotics in Food Including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria, October2001)In a series of randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trials, it wasdemonstrated that dietary consumption of B.lactis HN019 and L. rhamnosus HN001resulted in measurable enhancement of immune parameters in the elderly(Arunachalam et al., 2000; Gill et al., 2001; Sheih et al., 2001).Some probiotic strains were shown to inhibit the growth of enteropathogens, such asSalmonella enteritidis, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Serratia marcesens, in vitro(48, 49) and in this respect may offer considerable therapeutic potential. This finding,together with more recent evidence showing that Lactobacillus GG exerts antagonistactivity against Salmonella typhimurium C5 infection both in vitro and in vivo (50),provides a basis for the clinical use of probiotics in suppression of pathogens.(http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/73/2/476S)Potential for probiotics microorganisms to modulate the immune response and preventonset of allergic diseases has been demonstrated.Ability of lactobacilli to reverse increased intestinal permeability, enhance gut-specificIgA responses, promote gut barrier function through restoration of normal microbes, andenhance transforming growth factor beta and interleukin 10 production as well ascytokines that promote production of IgE antibodies(Kalliomaki et al., 2001; Isolauri, 2001).Certain microorganisms can contribute to the generation of counter-regulatory T-helpercell immune responses, indicating that use of specific probiotic microorganisms couldredirect the polarized immunological memory to a healthy one(McCracken and Lorenz, 2001).There is preliminary evidence that use of probiotic lactobacilli and metabolic by-productspotentially confer benefits to the heart, including prevention and therapy of variousischemic heart syndromes (Oxman et al., 2001) and lowering serum cholesterol(De Roos and Katan, 2000).There is some clinical evidence to suggest that oral and vaginal administration oflactobacilli can eradicate asymptomatic (Reid et al., 2001a; 2001b) and symptomaticBacterial vaginosis
(Hilton et al., 1995; Sieber and Dietz, 1998).One study of day care centres in Finland showed that probiotic use reduced theincidence of respiratory infections and days absent due to ill health(Hatakka et al., 2001).Probiotic bacteria containing β-galactosidase can be added to food to improve lactosemaldigestion(Kim and Gilliland, 1983).The global market estimate of functional foods has been up to 73 Billion € and anannular growth rate of 8-16%. In a recent study undertaken by Leatherhead Food RA,the market for functional foods in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Spain,Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden was reviewed. The results of thestudy showed that the probiotic yogurt market in these 9 countries totalled >250 millionkg in 1997 (11), with France representing the largest market, having sales of 90million kg, valued at US$219 million. The German market for probiotic yogurts is growingrapidly; for example, during 1996–1997, it increased by 150%, whereas the UK marketgrew by a more modest 26% during the same period. On average, probiotic yogurtsaccounted for 10% of all yogurts sold in the 9 countries studied, with Denmark havingthe highest proportion (20%) of probiotic yogurts, followed by Germany and the UnitedKingdom (both at 13%) and then France (11%). On the lower end of the scale were theNetherlands and Belgium (both at 6%) and then Finland and Sweden (both at 5%) (11).Seen as crucial to market expansion in Europe is further clarity on the use of healthclaims. The market for functional foods in Europe could ultimately account for 5% oftotal food expenditure in Europe, which, based on current prices, would equate toUS$30 billion (5).This study on the envisaged growth in the consumption of Non Vegetarian Foods andthe role of probiotics in improving the scenario is based on the assumptions narratedbelow.Several factors may influence these observations. Some of them are listed below. I.II. ASSUMPTIONS IN PREPARING THIS REPORT 1. Agricultural support and trade policies influence markets 2. Agricultural production continues to expand, but more slowly In spite of reduction in the Acreage; production will improve owing to the improved Seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and due to the better package of practices in pre and post harvesting including storage and transporting. 3. Agricultural lands are becoming scarce day by day owing to • Submerging in oncoming projects on rivers • Conversion into residential and industrial usage • Immersion into sea owing to rise in mean sea level caused by ice glacier melting (Due to Global Warming)
4. Consumption to grow faster in developing countries due to higher earning capacities 5. Despite rekindled fears, inflation expected to remain low 6. Diseases like Asian soya bean rust could change the outlook for oilseed markets 7. Population growth rates to declineWorld population is projected to soar from 6.1 billion in 2000 to 7.9 billion in 2025 and9.3 billion in 2050(Sadik 2001). 8. Sustained, broad-based growth in farm animals is expected in the medium to longer term I. III. FACTORS THAT MAY INFLUENCE THE DEMAND OF NON VEGETARIAN FOOD1. Climatic changes2. Changes in Food habits3. Increase in Population4. Urbanization I. IV. FACTORS THAT MAY INFLUENCE THE SUPPLY OF NON VEGETARIAN FOOD1. Climatic changes2. Improvements in Feed Technology4. GM in Poultry and other Breeds6. Change in the Priorities in feeding stuff7. Change of size and concept of operators like a shift from small families to small companies8. Better usage of land and water resources I. V. FACTORS THAT MAY INFLUENCE THE AVAILABILITY OF FEEDING STUFF FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 1. Demand for biofuels such as ethanol from grain 2. Demand for biodiesel from edible oil 3. Demand for human consumption. 4. Conversion of Lands used to produce Grains and Oil Seeds to better remunerating crops like Horticulture, Flowers, Vegetables, Medicinal Herbs etc. I. VI. FACTORS THAT MAKE USAGE OF PROBIOTICS AS THE ONLY BEST ALTERNATIVE
• Abuse of Antibiotics • Abuse of Growth promoting antibiotics and chemicals • Abuse of Hormones • Abuse of Pesticides, insecticides • Abuse of dewormers, parasiticides, disinfectants, sanitizers etc Table I.01.• When GDP increases to developing country status, growth in meat consumption rises quickly reflecting consumer desires. In many countries, per capita income levels have more than doubled over the past two decades.
Table I. 02. Average annual percentage increase over 10 year period 1995-2004 2005-2014 1995-2004 2005-2014 Population Income % % % %World 1.27 1.01 2.62 3.10Africa 2.28 1.83 3.37 3.80America 1.36 1.04 3.02 3.24Asia 1.29 1.02 2.61 3.56Europe 0.01 -0.07 2.13 2.40Oceania 1.15 0.73 3.51 3.53Note: Income is at 1995 USD market prices.Source: World Bank, December 2004. • World population is projected to soar from 6.1 billion in 2000 to 7.9 billion in 2025 and 9.3 billion in 2050 (Sadik 2001). • Countries with large population bases and high growth rates are Indonesia- 240 m, 1.5%, India - 1,065 m, 1.4%, Pakistan - 161 m, 2.0%, Bangladesh -143 m , 2.1% and Brazil - 185 m 1.1% (Anon, 2007). • A 10% increase in income would result in a 1% increase in food expenditure in the U.S., a 6.5% increase in the Philippines and 18% in Tanzania (Seale and Bernstein, 2003). Table I.03 As per CFLMA, Indian feed production details are as follows.Species Year Feed in KgBroiler 2004 6.2 x 109Layer 2004 8.1 x 109Cattle 2004 4 x 109Shrimp 2005 0.307 x 109Fish 2004 0.01 x 109It is estimated that the real productions by 2014 will be enhanced at an average growth rate of 9.25% • The top 15 countries that produce animal feed accounted for 73% of a total production of 625 mmt in 2005 (Gill, 2007). Table I. 04. Production and consumption average annual growth rates, 2004-2014 PRODUCTION CONSUMPTION Total OECD NON-OECD Total OECD NON-OECD % %Beef 1.6 0.7 2.6 1.6 0.6 2.3Pig meat 1.8 0.8 2.6 1.8 0.8 2.3Poultry meat 2.2 1.8 3.0 2.2 1.8 2.5Milk 1.9 0.9 3.0 .. .. ..Butter 1.7 -0.3 3.4 1.8 -0.3 2.9Cheese 1.8 1.8 2.8 1.9 1.6 2.7
Skim milk powder -0.5 -1.3 2.5 -0.9 -2.5 1.3Whole milk powder 2.0 1.2 3.4 2.0 -0.3 2.6Source: OECD and FAO Secretariats Table I. 05. Per capita consumption for selected commodities Average annual growth (%) (1) 2002-04 2014 1995-04 2005-14WorldMeat 31.2 34.5 3.38 0.88OECDMeat 64.5 69.9 7.03 0.73Non-OECDMeat 23.2 26.5 1.64 1.18Note: (1) The least squares growth rate, r is estimated by fitting a linear regression trend line as follows:Ln(xt)=a+r*tEconometrics and models and Econometrics forecasts, Robert S. Pindyck.Source: OECD and FAO Secretariats.