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  • 1. Design for Six Sigma Conference Las Vegas June 8-10, 2005 Dr. Steven Null Six Sigma Champion & Master Black Belt Northrop Grumman Corporation Seamless Incorporation of DFSS into Work Practice
  • 2. Stretching Six Sigma in Many CLASSIC SIX SIGMA LEAN SIX SIGMA DMAIC LEAN DFSS & DMAIC EMBEDDED SIX SIGMA DFSS Lean Consumption Design Directions ENTERPRISE VISION cmmi Stretching Six Sigma Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation
  • 3. CLASSIC SIX SIGMA LEAN SIX SIGMA DMAIC LEAN DFSS & DMAIC EMBEDDED SIX SIGMA DFSS Lean Consumption Design ENTERPRISE VISION cmmi Embedded Six Sigma in the midst of the Others Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation
  • 4.
    • CMMI
    • ISO
    • EMM*
    • E MBEDDED
    • SIX SIGMA
    • AGILE ENGINEERING
    ARMOR ENTERPRISE VISION CMMI Rigorous, Heavyweight, One size fits all standard MOBILITY Both are Useful and Support Each Other * EMM Enterprise Maturity Model Embedded Six Sigma Risk-driven combination of discipline & agility Strategy Execution - CMMI & Six Sigma Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation
  • 5. What is it and how does it differ from just doing robust design? Embedded Six Sigma is -using sigma tools & methodologies under sigma program guidance -product design work Discriminators -are about deployment of embedded sigma -are about what the project looks like -does not use a different tool set. Embedded, by definition, suggests -primarily DFSS embedded projects -“ work” is usually more about product design and delivery , than process design or repair. What is Embedded Six Sigma EMBEDDED SIGMA IS PURE DFSS Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation
  • 6. Embedded Sigma can be Key to Making Six Sigma Work in Lean Engineering Environments Copyright Dr. Steven R. Null 5/22/04 ENTERPRISE VISION
      • Embedded DFSS makes..
      • -Design more Robust
      • -Simplicity of Design means Cheaper
      • -Product functions drive architecture
      • -Less parts & Less processes
      • -Modularity means easy customization
      • -Better manufacture-ability, maintain-ability, upgrade-ability
      • -and more
      • Embedded DFSS enables..
      • -Opportunities sought and found
        • -“Figure out how to think about the problem” (A. Einstein)
        • -“Innovation success flows from systematic pursuit of opportunities, not genius” (P.Drucker)
    EMBEDDED SIGMA ANSWERS THE CHALLENGE OF COST EFFECTIVE QUALITY Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation
  • 7. Embedded DFSS can be Key to Rapid, High Quality & Cost Effective Engineering Design EMBEDDED SIGMA ANSWERS THE CHALLENGE OF COST EFFECTIVE QUALITY Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation Unstable Parts and Material Inadequate Design Margin Insufficient Process Capability DFSS
  • 8. Business Goals Translation and Embedded DFSS Performance Sigma Savings Dollars Program Goals Bus Unit Goals Individual BB Goals Annual Schedule Project Cycle Time . Embedded projects (DFSS) tend to open and drive DMAIC/DFSS projects via the Design Scorecard ENTERPRISE GOALS TRANSLATION INTO ENGINEERING PRACTICES Business Goals are deployed to the Operating Units Projects DESIGN SCORECARD Tactical Design Targets -Reduce -Integrate -Re-Use -Standardize -more Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation
  • 9. New product introduction and product delivery on schedule and budget are the primary engineering and manufacturing concerns. Pure process improvement is wasteful if it is not a paid (contractual) item. The Practice: Embedded Six Sigma & Six Sigma’s Paradigm Shift Embedded Sigma delivers engineering value with much less waste than Classic Six Sigma. Six Sigma training, process-project time, and other “non-work task” activities are waste. Embedded Sigma minimizes these wastes, while employing sigma tools to work tasks. *Process Triage’ is the most that one should expect from Black Belts aka Project Engineers who are tasked to deliver product DFSS and the Business Efficiencies achieved from process improvements are valuable, but are not the primary concern of designers.* Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation
  • 10. Design Score Card Requirements Parts Sigma Process Sigma Performance Sigma Software Sigma Design Analysis Capability/Defects Data Parts information People/ Process Capability Performance specs simulations Software defect data Embedded DFSS is Good Engineering Design Gates Embedded DFSS EMBEDDED SIGMA IS ROBUST SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation
  • 11. Influence of Design On Cost - Value of Embedded DFSS Design Influences 70% of Initial Product Cost Courtesy of Munro and Associates % D E S I G N 5 % M A T E R I A L 5 0 % L A B O R 1 5 % MANUFACTURING 3 0 % 5% 5% 15% 75% A D ACTUAL INFLUENCE ON TOTAL COST Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation
  • 12. Embedding Sigma in “Work” WORKING PRACTICE DFSS EMBEDDED SIGMA Schedule Project for Training Industry Best Practice: train people with Identify top priority projects, based on gap Assign Green Belts & Black Belt to Project Scope project / financial benefit Complete Project Refine Business Case Review Projects Identify Key Opportunities – Near and Longer Term Schedule Project for Training Industry Best Practice: train people with projects Identify top priority projects, based on gap Assign Green Belts & Black Belt to Project Scope project / financial benefit Complete Project Refine Business Case Identify Key Opportunities CLASSIC Schedule Project for Training Identify top priority projects, based on gap Belt to Project Scope project / financial benefit Complete Project Refine Business Case Review Projects Identify Key Opportunities – Near and Longer Term Launch Embedded Sigma Project Lean DFSS Practice: Identify critical product design tasks Train Embedded BB Form Work Group Team Scope embedded task / financial benefit Deliver Closure Briefing & Product DFSS Attributes MBB/Champion attend Design Reviews Complete Embedded Project/Work Task Identify Key Products & Deliverables EMBEDDED The Six Sigma Project Life Cycle Review Projects Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation
  • 13. Embedded Project Life Cycle WORKING PRACTICE DFSS EMBEDDED SIGMA 1. Program Task Identification & Description 2. Embedded Project Progress Gates 3. Solution Options 5. Solution Approach 4. Process Triage’ Option 7. Embedded Project Closure Briefing 6. Work (Embedded Project) Team Composition Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation Schedule Project for Training Identify top priority projects, based on gap Belt to Project Scope project / financial benefit Complete Project Refine Business Case Review Projects Identify Key Opportunities – Near and Longer Term Launch Embedded Sigma Project Lean DFSS Practice: Identify critical product design tasks Train Embedded BB Form Work Group Team Scope embedded task / financial benefit Deliver Closure Briefing & Product DFSS Attributes MBB/Champion attend Design Reviews Complete Embedded Project/Work Task Identify Key Products & Deliverables EMBEDDED
  • 14.
      • 2. Embedded Project Progress Gates
        • Measurement of net sigma-based gain based upon metrics identified in Step 1
        • Identification of product resulting from embedded project
        • Identification of criticality of task/subtask within project
        • Development of direct charge rationale for project
        • Identify task program reviews and specify as embedded six sigma project gates
        • Development of embedded project closure briefing at end of project life cycle
      • 3. Solution Options
        • Identify - Determine methodological approach to job
        • Ensure metrics (from Step 1) can be used to measure job
        • Ensure metrics (from Step 1) are quantifiable/measurable
        • Evaluate & Use DFSS-DIDOV as appropriate
        • Develop solution options / Develop Business Case logic
    PROGRAM TASK IDENTIFICATION & DESRIPTION Embedded Project Progress Gates Solution Options Process Triage’ WORKING PRACTICE DFSS EMBEDDED SIGMA
      • 4. Process Triage’
      • Process tinkering is acceptable as required
      • Criteria for Process tinkering based upon the need for process improvement to meet schedule or budget requirements
      • Process triage’ should be captured on a viable process mechanism from six sigma toolbox
      • Notify Classic BB for you Business Unit of significant process improvement needs
    Solution Approach
      • 5 . Solution Approach
        • Description of Design Approach to solution / Document data associated with design
        • Validate that metrics
        • Follow systems engineering conventions for solution approach
        • Follow systems engineering documentation
      • 1. Program Task Identification & Description
      • Problem within program task identification
      • Metric to measure program task
      • Metric must be objectively quantifiable
      • 6. Embedded Project Closure Briefing
      • Add embedded sigma project artifacts to project closure briefing
      • Document Program Task Identification & Description
      • Document Solution Options / Document any Process Triage’ Options
      • Document Solution Approach / Document Business Case
      • Document Work Team Composition
    Embedded Project Closure Briefing Embedded Project Guideline, Specs & Lifecycle Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation
  • 15. Linking the Sigma Tools to the Product DIDOV Systems Engineering Model Common Process Production Operation Embedded DFSS Guidelines Engineering Process Framework
    • Sigma Tools:
    • Customer Research Methods
    • Kano Analysis
    • Affinity Diagram
    • Structure Tree
    • Quality Function Deployment
    • Tolerance Analysis
    • Performance Benchmarking
    • Optimize Scorecard
    • Functional Analysis
    • Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
    • Benchmarking
    • Pugh Matrix
    • Technology Visioning
    • Process Maps
    • IT Architecture
    • Layout Diagrams
    • Organizational Design
    EMBEDDED DFSS TRAINING Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation
  • 16. DFSS TARGETS THE “DESIGN”, WHILE BEING CONSCIOUS OF PARTS AND PROCESS CAPABILITIES DESIGN PROCESS PARTS DFSS Embedded Sigma Works the Design Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation
  • 17. Embedded Sigma Works within Engineering Design Requirements Customer Needs CTQs Functional/Process Requirements Design Requirements Critical Factors Variables Control Plan (Incorporates All Of Above) User Functional Requirements Synthesis Evaluation Description Rqts Identification Allocation & Decision of System Elements SYSTEMS ENGINEERING MODEL EMBEDDED SIX SIGMA New Product Design Optimize Principles Develop Optimize Alternatives Processes REQUIREMENTS 3-C’S CUSTOMER COMPETITION CONCEPTUAL DESIGN (FUNCTIONS TO MEET CTQS) DETAILED DESIGN CP OF DESIGN & PROCESSES RISK ASSESSMENT PILOT PLAN EVALUATE & RE-DESIGN PLAN DO CHECK ACT Specific DIDOV Six Sigma Model EMBEDDED DFSS IMPLEMENTATION LEAN DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation O P T I M I Z E D E S I G N D E F I N E I D E N T I F Y V E R I F Y New Product/Service Concept
    • Customer
    • Research
    • ID Customers
    • Build Data Collection Plan
    • Collect Data
    High-Level Customer Needs Risk Management Conceptual Design Measures
    • Organized
    • Prioritized
    Customer Needs Targets High-Level Design, Design Product/Service Processes Facilities Equipment Materials/Supplies Information Human Pugh Matrix Criteria Alternatives Divide Design Effort Into Manageable Pieces Develop Design Alternatives Processes Choose Best Alternative Act Plan Check Do Results OK? Yes No Act Plan Check Do Redesign Results OK? Yes No Redesign Evaluation
  • 18. Supporting Tools and Infrastructure DFSS Engineering Model RESOURCE INTEGRATION - MANNAGING AND INTEGRATING YOUR RESOURCES Embedded Six Sigma Training Common Sigma Tools, Common Metrics & Dashboards Embedded Six Sigma Design Scorecard DFSS Systems Engineering Model
  • 19. Embedded “Cost Effective” DFSS - Key to Customer Value
    • Enterprise Vision and Business Goals -SUPERIOR
    • CUSTOMER VALUE
    • Pure DFSS = LOYALTY > COST ADVANTAGE
    • DFSS Challenge
    • DO IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME VIA TOOLS VIA SURPLUS CASH CREATED, REINVESTED IN PRODUCTIVITY
    • Embedded Approach drives Six Sigma Deployment & DFSS Employment
    • PRODUCTIVITYAND SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IS CREATED VIA PRODUCT VALUE (Quality and Low Price) AS PERCEIVED BY CUSTOMER
    • Embedded DFSS View & Approach
    • PRODUCTIVITY AND COMPENSATION ADVANTAGE; NEXT STATION AS CUSTOMER; EMPLOYEE LOYALTY
    • Six Sigma > DFSS > Embedded DFSS > Competitive Advantage >
    • Embedded DFSS directly impacts Enterprise Performance
    Copyright 2004 Northrop Grumman Corporation Superior Customer Value The Right New Customers Customers Loyalty The Right New Employees Employees Loyalty Growth Compensation Advantage Superior Productivity Cost Advantage Profile The Right New Investors Investor Loyalty Surplus Cash Reinvested Six Sigma & Embedded DFSS Here