Lean Six Sigma: Going Beyond           g          g y the Project to the Business in          Healthcare      Forrest W. B...
Learning Objectives• Describe issues with current process  improvement efforts.• Summarize problems with current business ...
Team Exercise: Selecting                Improvement Projects for a Hospital• You work for a hospital• Y t  Your team h b  ...
Team Exercise: Report-out• Do you think that this situation could occur?• T ll th audience th name of one project th t you...
Improvement Project Selection• In Lean Six Sigma, improvement projects  are typically selected from a ranked list of  oppo...
Improvement Project Selection• Organizational improvement efforts need to be  integrated with a predictive scorecard and  ...
Process Tracking and Performance                 Metrics: Issues and ResolutionTYPICAL METRICS• Fiscal year• Unrelated to ...
Process Tracking and Performance                 Metrics: Issues and ResolutionHowever …                                Xs...
Process Tracking and Performance                 Metrics: Issues and ResolutionEFFECTIVE METRICS• Vi the enterprise as a s...
Graphic View on the 9 Steps to                    Excellence in Governance                                                ...
1. Describe vision and missionMission, vision and values outlines                                                         ...
2. Create the Enterprise Value                 Chain                                                                      ...
2. Create the Enterprise Value                Chain                                                                       ...
2. Create the Enterprise Value                Chain                                                                       ...
2. Create the Enterprise Value                Chain                                                                       ...
2. Create the Enterprise Value                   Chain                                                                    ...
VOC step                                                                                                           Documen...
VOC step drill down                                                                                                       ...
VOC step drill down                                              Conduct random survey to 1% of                           ...
VOC step drill down                                                                            Monthly evaluate 30,000-foo...
2. Create the Enterprise Value                  Chain                   Produce and Deliver Products                      ...
Business Goals and Measures:                                            Traditional Approaches                            ...
Business Goals and Measures:                             Traditional Approaches                                           ...
2. Create the Enterprise                                                                                                  ...
Product                               Quote                                                                               ...
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare
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Lean Six Sigma Going Beyond The Project To The Business In Healthcare

  1. 1. Lean Six Sigma: Going Beyond g g y the Project to the Business in Healthcare Forrest W. Breyfogle, III Smarter Solutions, Inc. www.SmarterSolutions.com
  2. 2. Learning Objectives• Describe issues with current process improvement efforts.• Summarize problems with current business p management system.• Create predictive scorecards scorecards.• Describe an enhanced system where business metric improvement needs pull for projects that benefit the business as a whole. Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 2
  3. 3. Team Exercise: Selecting Improvement Projects for a Hospital• You work for a hospital• Y t Your team h b has been formed to iimprove th h it l f dt the hospital• Your team has five minutes to determine what projects to undertake• Select a team spokespersonCopyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 3
  4. 4. Team Exercise: Report-out• Do you think that this situation could occur?• T ll th audience th name of one project th t your t Tell the di the f j t that team selected.• H did you select th t project? How l t that j t?• Who owns completion of the project?• D you think that th project could f ll off a b lt’ plate? Do thi k th t the j t ld fall ff belt’s l t ?• Four years from now the company’s industry sector will experience h d times and b lt ti ht i i hard ti d belt tightening – Do you think that the process improvement function will survive downsizing efforts? Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 4
  5. 5. Improvement Project Selection• In Lean Six Sigma, improvement projects are typically selected from a ranked list of opportunities – This push (using as a Lean term) for a project creation can lead to significant resources being spent on the sub-optimization of p p p processes, where the business as a whole does not benefit Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 5
  6. 6. Improvement Project Selection• Organizational improvement efforts need to be integrated with a predictive scorecard and analytically/innovatively strategic p y y y g planning system g y so that the – organization can move toward achievement of the 3 Rs of business; i.e., everyone doing the Right things, and doing them Right, at the Right time.• This objective is achieved through the Integrated Enterprise Excellence (IEE) business system system. Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 6
  7. 7. Process Tracking and Performance Metrics: Issues and ResolutionTYPICAL METRICS• Fiscal year• Unrelated to improvement system p y• Point to point comparisons Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 7
  8. 8. Process Tracking and Performance Metrics: Issues and ResolutionHowever … Xs Xs Xs Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 8
  9. 9. Process Tracking and Performance Metrics: Issues and ResolutionEFFECTIVE METRICS• Vi the enterprise as a system of processes View th t i t f• Acknowledge the effect of variability• S Support long-lasting systematic process tl l ti t ti improvement Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 9
  10. 10. Graphic View on the 9 Steps to Excellence in Governance 4. Establish1. Describe 2. Describe value chain, 3. 3 Analyze SMART vision and including satellite-level and enterprise. satellite-level mission. 30,000-foot-level metrics. metric goals. 6. Identify high 8. Assess projects potential improvement 7. Identify and5. Create completion impact 9. Maintain the areas and establish executestrategies. on enterprise gain. related SMART 30 000- 30,000- projects. projects goals. foot-level metric goals. Figure 4.7 Integrated Enterprise Excellence, Volume II, Copyright 2008 Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 10
  11. 11. 1. Describe vision and missionMission, vision and values outlines 1. Describe vision and mission.• Who we are 2. 2 Describe value chain chain, including satellite-level and 30,000-foot-level metrics.• What we seek to achieve 3. Analyze enterprise. 4. Establish SMART• When and how we want to achieve it. satellite-level metric goals. 5. Create strategies. 6. Identify high potential improvement areas and establish related SMART 30,000-foot-level metric goals. 7. Identify and execute projects. 8. Assess projects completion impact on enterprise goals. 9. Maintain the gain. Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 11
  12. 12. 2. Create the Enterprise Value Chain 1. Describe vision andBasic “Business Value Chain” chart mission.represents activities, without regard t ti iti ith t d 2. 2 Describe value chain chain, including satellite-level and 30,000-foot-level metrics. to the organization chart 3. Analyze enterprise. 4. Establish SMART satellite-level metric goals. 5. Create strategies. 6. Identify high potential improvement areas and establish related SMART 30,000-foot-level metric goals. 7. Identify and execute projects. 8. Assess projects completion impact on enterprise goals. 9. Maintain the gain. Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 12
  13. 13. 2. Create the Enterprise Value Chain 1. Describe vision and mission. 2. 2 Describe value chain chain, including satellite-level and 30,000-foot-level metrics. 3. Analyze enterprise. 4. Establish SMART satellite-level metric goals. 5. Create strategies. 6. Identify high potential improvement areas and establish related SMART 30,000-foot-level metric Basic value chain can be goals. expanded t i l d significant d d to include i ifi t 7. Identify and execute projects. inputs and outputs 8. Assess projects completion impact on enterprise goals. 9. Maintain the gain.Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 13
  14. 14. 2. Create the Enterprise Value Chain 1. Describe vision and mission. 2. 2 Describe value chain chain, including satellite-level and 30,000-foot-level metrics. 3. Analyze enterprise. 4. Establish SMART satellite-level metric goals. 5. Create strategies. 6. Identify high potential Activities improvement areas and establish related SMART 30,000-foot-level metric Activities outside of the the flow outside of main goals. can be added as standalone units main flow can 7. Identify and execute projects. be added as 8. Assess projects standalone completion impact on enterprise goals. units 9. Maintain the gain.Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 14
  15. 15. 2. Create the Enterprise Value Chain 1. Describe vision and mission. 2. 2 Describe value chain chain, including satellite-level and 30,000-foot-level metrics. 3. Analyze enterprise. 4. Establish SMART satellite-level metric goals. 5. Create strategies. 6. Identify high potential improvement areas and establish related SMART 30,000-foot-level metric goals. 7. Identify and execute projects. 8. Assess projects completion impact on enterprise goals.Shaded steps can be 9. Maintain the gain. “drilled down”Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 15
  16. 16. 2. Create the Enterprise Value Chain Product Quote New Customer Gross Effective Inputs Development Response Lead Time Additions Revenue Lead Time Time 1. Describe vision and Percent Timely Inputs Developed Product Design Existing Customer Quote Quality Defective Rate Days Sales Outstanding Annualized Gain in Gross mission. Quality Additions (DSO) Revenue Voice of the Invoice and Develop Produce & Report Customer Market Product Sell Product Collect Product Deliver Product Financials (VOC) Payment 2. 2 Describe value chain chain, Net Profit RFQ Response Acceptance Work in Margins including satellite-level and Process (WIP) Rate Labor Human Information 30,000-foot-level metrics. Relations Relations (HR) Safety and Internal Technology On-time Environment Process (IT) Delivery Reworks Enterprise Learning and Process Growth Management Product TOC Legal Finance (EPM) Margins Throughput 3. Analyze enterprise. No 4. Establish SMART Start Step 1 Step 2 Decision Step 3 satellite-level metric goals. Yes 5. Create strategies. Step 4 6. Identify high potential improvement areas and End establish related SMART 30,000-foot-level metric goals. Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 7. Identify and execute projects. 8. Assess projects Process Start Step 6A Step 6B Step 6C End completion impact on Step 6 enterprise goals. 9. Maintain the gain. Subprocess drilldown exampleCopyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 16
  17. 17. VOC step Document Evaluation of complaint Document results in drill down data warehouse and Receive complaint in by Enterprise Process Complaints give feedback to complaint data Management person who warehouse Department complained Weekly someone acts Document Audits as a customer results i d l in data and documents warehouse findings Conduct Cond ct random survey to 1% of s r e end customers, asking about Document Customer Satisfaction Product Development New Customer Quote Response Lead Time Gross Surveys system problems and one results in data Additions Revenue with Feedback Lead Time Time suggestion what should done warehouse Developed Existing Days Sales Percent Annualized differently to improve. Timely Inputs Product Design Customer Quote Quality Defective Rate Outstanding Gain in Gross Quality Additions (DSO) RevenueVoice of the Invoice and Develop Produce & Report Customer Market Product Sell Product Collect Product Deliver Product Financials (VOC) Payment Net Profit Client turnover RFQ Response Margins Work in Acceptance Rate Process (WIP) Conducts a survey of 1/12 of the Internal Document Information employees every month; e.g., as Labor Internal Safety and Technology Survey results in data Relations Human Process On-time Environment (IT) described in chapter 43 of Relations (HR) Reworks Delivery warehouse Implementing Six Sigma Enterprise Process Learning and Product TOC Legal Finance Management Growth Margins Throughput (EPM) Monthly evaluate 30,000-foot- Monthly statistically Report on findings, Data level reported defective and on- analyze complaint, making suggestions, Warehouse time delivery metrics, checking audits, survey, and when appropriate, for for metric degradation and g retention data improvement improvement project(s) status Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 17
  18. 18. VOC step drill down Document results in Document Evaluation of complaint data warehouse and Receive complaint in by Enterprise Process Complaints give feedback to complaint data Management person who warehouse Department complained Weekly someone acts Document Audits as a customer results in data and documents warehouse findingsCopyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 18
  19. 19. VOC step drill down Conduct random survey to 1% of end customers, asking about Document Surveys system problems and one y p results in data suggestion what should done warehouse differently to improve. Conducts a survey of 1/12 of the Internal Document employees every month; e.g., as Survey results in data described in chapter 43 of warehouse Implementing Six SigmaCopyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 19
  20. 20. VOC step drill down Monthly evaluate 30,000-foot- Monthly statistically Report on findings, Data level reported defective and on- p analyze complaint complaint, making suggestions suggestions, Warehouse time delivery metrics, checking audits, survey, and when appropriate, for for metric degradation and retention data improvement improvement project(s) statusCopyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 20
  21. 21. 2. Create the Enterprise Value Chain Produce and Deliver Products 1. Describe vision and mission. 2. 2 Describe value chain chain, including satellite-level and 30,000-foot-level metrics. 3. Analyze enterprise. 4. Establish SMART satellite-level metric goals. 5. Create strategies. 6. Identify high potentialAdding enterprise improvement areas and establish related SMART 30,000-foot-level metric& operational level Lead Time goals. performance 7. Identify and execute Defective Rate projects.metrics completes 8. Assess projects value chain WIP completion impact on enterprise goals. 9. Maintain the gain. On-time Del. Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 21
  22. 22. Business Goals and Measures: Traditional Approaches Tabular Reporting Balanced Scorecard P erformanc e Meas ure  F Y  2001  F Y  2002  F Y  2003  F Y  2003   F Y  2004 P erc entag e of c us tomers  s atis fied  Ac tual  Ac tual  Ac tual  Amended  Amended  Financials 99.99% 100% 99.99% 98% 98% with dis with dis patc h s taff  h s taff P erc entag e of priority one c alls   dis patc hed to field c rews  within  99.99% 99% 99.99% 95% 95% 80 minutes  of rec eipt  L abor c os t per c us tomer c all  Vision and $4.20  $5.31  $5.09  $4.88  $5.09  taken in Dis patc h O perations    Number of c alls  taken throug h  Customer Processes Strategy Dis patc h Operations   62,054 59,828 63,046 60,000 60,000 Number of priority one c alls   dis patc hed to field c rews   hed to field c 5,797 4,828 6,686 5,000 6,500 PROFIT IN % Number of work orders  and  CUSTOMER SATISFACTION 30 c omponent parts  (s eg ments )  8,226 4,724 7,742 5,500 6,700 10 0 ! c reated in databas e  20 Classic Bar Charts Learning 600000 Sales Person 1 0 10 ! 2 QUALIY SPEED COURTESY HELPFULNESS COMPETENCE T COMMUNI ON 0 500000 CATI 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 5 enue (Dollars) 400000 300000 These traditional performance measures often p p provide Reve 200000 stories of the past but do not provide a predict of the future 100000 or give direction where improvement efforts should focus 0 Month 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 Targets Aug04 Sep04 Oct04 Nov04 Dec04 Jan05 Feb05 Mar05 Apr05 May05 Jun05 Jul05 Aug05 Finance Metric B 2.10 2.25 2.35 2.21 2.32 2.21 2.16 2.49 2.51 2.16 2.17 2.29 2.14 Yellow if equal to or higher than 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 Green if equal to or higher than 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 22
  23. 23. Business Goals and Measures: Traditional Approaches TRADITIONAL  SCORECARD  EXCERPT                                Traditional Performance Reporting Example – Red-Yellow-Green Scorecard Targets Aug04 Sep04 Oct04 Nov04 Dec04 Jan05 Feb05 Mar05 Apr05 May05 Jun05 Jul05 Aug05 Finance Metric B 2.10 2 10 2.25 2 25 2.35 2 35 2.21 2 21 2.32 2 32 2.21 2 21 2.16 2 16 2.49 2 49 2.51 2 51 2.16 2 16 2.17 2 17 2.29 2 29 2.14 2 14 Yellow if equal to or higher than 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 Green if equal to or higher than 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 IEE Improved Reporting for Process Assessment and Improvement INDIVIDUALS CONTROL CHART Normal Probability Plot Individuals Control Chart 99 2.7 2.6 UCL=2.6192 95 90The metric is colored red when a goal is not being  2.5 2.4 80 70 ponse rcent 60 2.3 _ met and corrective action needs to be taken. t d ti ti d t b t k 50 Per X=2.2583 Resp 40 32.657 2.2 30 20 2.1 10 2.0 5 2.2 1.9 LCL=1.8974 1 1.9 19 2.0 20 2.1 21 2.2 22 2.3 23 2.4 24 2.5 25 2.6 26 04 04 t04 v 04 c04 05 05 r 05 r05 y05 05 l05 0 5 Response g p n b n Ju A ug Au Se Oc No De Ja Fe M a A p Ma Ju Most importantly it tells us nothing about what  Date 4 Histogram 2.2 to expect  in the future! to expect in the future! Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 23
  24. 24. 2. Create the Enterprise Product Quote New Customer Gross Effective Inputs Development Response Lead Time Additions Revenue Lead Time Time Percent Developed Existing Days Sales Annualized Timely Inputs Product Design Customer Quote Quality Defective Rate Outstanding Gain in Gross Quality Additions (DSO) Revenue Voice of the Invoice and Develop Produce & Report Customer Market Product Sell Product Collect Product Deliver Product Financials (VOC) Payment Value Chain Net Profit RFQ Response Margins Work in Acceptance Process (WIP) Rate Labor Human Information Relations Relations (HR) Safety and Internal Technology On time On-time Environment Process (IT) Delivery Reworks Enterprise Learning and Process Growth Management Product TOC Legal Finance (EPM) Margins Throughput 1. Describe vision and mission. TRADITIONAL PERFORMANCE REPORTING SCORECARD 2. 2 Describe value chain chain, Targets Aug04 Sep04 Oct04 Nov04 Dec04 Jan05 Feb05 Mar05 Apr05 May05 Jun05 Jul05 Aug05 including satellite-level and Finance Metric B 2.10 2.25 2.35 2.21 2.32 2.21 2.16 2.49 2.51 2.16 2.17 2.29 2.14 30,000-foot-level metrics. Yellow if equal to or higher than 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20 Green if equal to or higher than 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.251 3. Analyze enterprise. Individuals Control ChartSAME  2.7 4. Establish SMART 2.6 UCL=2.6192 satellite-level metric goals.DATA 2.5 ponse 2.4 2.3 _ P Process is 5. Create strategies. X=2.2583 2.2 22 1 R Resp 2.1 Predictable P O t bl di 6. Identify high potential improvement areas and 2.0 establish related SMART 30,000-foot-level metric 1.9 LCL=1.8974 goals. O 04 M 0 5 Ju 5 5 S e 0 4 N 0 4 De 0 4 J a 04 Fe 05 Ap 05 ay 5 Ju 05 ug 5 0 r 0 l 0 0 p n n c ar ct ov g b Au M A 7. Identify and execute Date projects. If there is a recent region of stability then 8. Assess projects completion impact on can say that the process is predictable enterprise goals. 9. Maintain the gain. Copyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 24
  25. 25. Product Quote New Customer Gross Effective Inputs Development Response Lead Time Additions Revenue Lead Time Time 2. Create the Enterprise Value Percent Developed Existing Days Sales Annualized Timely Inputs Product Design Customer Quote Quality Defective Rate Outstanding Gain in Gross Quality Additions (DSO) Revenue Voice of the Invoice and Develop Produce & Report Customer Market Product Sell Product Collect Product Deliver Product Financials (VOC) Payment Chain Net Profit RFQ Response Margins Work in Acceptance Process (WIP) Rate Labor Human Information Relations Relations (HR) Safety and Internal Technology On time On-time Environment Process (IT) Delivery Reworks Enterprise Learning and Process Growth Management Product TOC Legal Finance (EPM) Margins Throughput 1. Describe vision and mission. 2. 2 Describe value chain chain, including satellite-level and 30,000-foot-level metrics. 3. Analyze enterprise. 25 4. Establish SMART 24 satellite-level metric goals. 23 5. Create strategies. 22 6. Identify high potential improvement areas and establish related SMART 30,000-foot-level metric goals. 7. Identify and execute projects. If a process is predictable, we can 8. Assess projects completion impact on enterprise goals. consider data from recent region of 9. Maintain the gain. stability is a random sample of the futureCopyright 1992 – 2011. All rights reserved. Smarter Solutions, Inc. (www.SmarterSolutions.com) 25

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