Integration of Design and DFSS - A New Powerful Route for Innovation and Holistic Product Design
Integration ofDesign and DFSSA new powerful routefor innovation andholistic productdesignEmil GeorgievGE Healthcare
Role of Design organization in productdevelopment Responsibilities Skills Traditional Function• Design of enclosures / hardware • Industrial designers• Design of graphical user interface • Visual designers(GUI) • Human factors • Usability engineers Emerging Functions• Drive customer needs assessment • Design research experts• Drive evolutionary innovation • Facilitation experts
Traditional Role of Design with GE Healthcare Marketing Design push Decoration Engineering (R&D) station on the Manufacturing way out Supply Chain Design Marketing tools / DFSS process User Centered Design? Customer Needs What should we make? How should we make it? Time
The Uncertainty in Product Design due to the Human Element within the customer domainThey won’t tell you Or, will tell youwhat they really whatever you wantneed to hearOr will complain They will makeabout your product all sorts of userno matter what errors because they won’t read your manuals or follow your training instructions
Understanding the needs of ourcustomers…key to successful product design DFSS VOC Toolkit* Challenges• Customer Interviews • How do we separate wants form• Focus Groups needs?• Customer Surveys • How do we understand the real• Internal Research needs associated with wants?• Competitive Analysis• Affinity process • How do we understand needs that our customers have difficulties• Structure Tree articulating?• Kano Survey • How do we capture customer• Customer Oriented Product Concepting(COPC) needs our customers are not even aware of?• PUGH Matrix * GE DFSS Course, V2.0, Dec 2002
Observational Research“… the process of learning about ordinary users by observing and listening to them in action.”
What can we learn from Observing? Who are our users?……What are their actual needs? What do they do?………Why do they do it? - their goals? How do they work?…….What is their environment? Ultimate way to build customer intimacy… uncover untapped opportunities
What did we think we designed for? Manufacturer’s Perspective: The refrigerator is a device for cooling, preserving, and dispensing food.
How is it actually used? User’s Perspective: The refrigerator is all that + • family gallery • communication center • entertainment center Question: What are the implications of this observation to design?
How does Observational Research……differ from traditional VOC? Direct observation of how product / services are being used – foundation for understanding customer needs: • Verbalized (what customers will tell you) • Non-verbalized (deduced from observations) Understand the context of product use • Customer workflow • Overall environment in which equipment / services are being used • User roles and responsibilities • Safety hazards • Misuse
If they don’t know any better….The “Cable Jungle” in a CathLab Procedure The “Cable Jungle” in an MR Procedure with Anesthesia Pediatric Patient Our customers deliver a service to patients that often involves use of multiple products. Observation reveals the true needs.
At a GlanceWhat type of Data to capture as you observeThe Stage The StoriesThe Actors • Episodes of patient care • Clinical roles / responsibilities • User’s chief complaints of what does not • Patient segments / influences on workflow work and the key issues they are experiencing (verbatim)The Environment • What works or does not work in the tools • Pictures / sketches of the environment the user is using (from observation) (rooms, equipment….) • Non-articulated needs and opportunities • Any artifacts the user utilizes or refers to • Observed facial expressions and bodyHow Works gets Done, Why do they do it language • User’s key tasks, work strategies. What are they trying to do? How? • What is the user intent? Why? • Communications between users
A way to find outbefore we start designing……. What Customers Customers adapt to Customers cannot want isn’t always bad designs if there always articulatewhat they really need are no alternatives their needs
The Power of Observation The problems observed are opportunities to be solved
“We think innovation is alwaysa big technology breakthrough… it doesn’t have to be.”
Other Avenues to Innovation… Technology-Driven Process User-Centered Process Conventional product development process Design efforts that are more often led by led by engineers, marketers, sales, designers, human factors engineers, manufacturing and operations experts. anthropologists, sociologists, and engineers.Product Evolution Technology/Evolution User-Centered/EvolutionFocus on improvements toexisting products and Gillette Sensor Razor Apple iPodbrands. Uses conventional Created special mfg. processes “Late” to digital audio playermarket research to with 22 Patents; Not a radical market; offered completemeasure and respond to change in shaving. end-to-end system. 80%existing market needs. market share.Product Revolution Technology/Revolution User-Centered/RevolutionSeeks to create entirely newproduct categories and Garmin Portable GPS Tivomarkets. To move beyond Used existing GPS Infrastructure Transformed how television isexisting markets, to create a product most car watched; came from deepobservational research and owners probably wouldn’t know understanding of user behaviors anddesign methods should beused instead of common to ask for. needs and the ways they wereresearch methods. changing.
Key Factors Why we need to innovate differentlySupporting Global Trends Shift in Corporate Thinking • Globalization Design thinking • Consumerism • Learn from People • Ubiquitous Information Access • Connect with People • Social/Professional Networking People-centered Brands: • Open Innovation
User Centered Innovation Process - OverviewPhase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 ProcessCollect Determine Innovation Scope Solutions PilotCustomer Customer WorkoutNeeds Priorities Pilot review Business InstutionalizationObservational Participatory Business & Technology DecisionResearch Focus Groups Inputs SurveysInterviews / Design ResearchFocus Groups Needs Findings NPI Route Long Term Affinitization (Product) (Product)Business OpportunitiesKnowledge Workflow Prototyping Set Based Mapping Design Visualization User Testing / Ideation TechnicalBenchmarking Feedback Experience Solution Programs Briefs Proof of Concept Concepts GRC Projects Business Case IP Design Research M0 Phase 1 esign Driven D Business Driven
User Centered Innovation …a Data based ProcessData Inputs / Outputs Observations Participatory Focus Groups, Technology Trends Existing Business Data Surveys Business Priorities Focus Groups Competitive Intelligence Surveys Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Collect Determine Innovation Customer Customer Workout Needs Priorities Problem Statements Prioritized Problem Solution Ideas & Concepts: Statements Photos /Video / Audio • Sketching Workflow Maps User Roles • Features Use scenarios Environment • Workflow and Process Maps Storyboards • Highlights • Strengths & Limitations • Next steps
Customer Needs Data Streams and Data Handling1. Primary data 2. Data aggregation 3. Data SelectionEthnography SourcesObservational ResearchCultural ProbesDFSS VOC ToolkitInterviews, Surveys, FocusGroups…. Building Data Affinities • Selecting representative set for prioritization 1. Extracting insights /Internal Business Data problem statements from • Identification of key insights /Complaints primary sources problems or categoriesTrade shows 2. Grouping data in • Subset usually restricted to 10 categories based on • Done preferably by customersBenchmarking subject commonality……
Establishing Customer Priorities…Conjoint Tools Survey Tool Participatory Focus Group 1.Affinitized Problem 1.Review of Problem Statements / Insights Statements / Insights 2. Selection of key problem statements for prioritization (customers)3. Conjoint containing 3. Paired Comparison Survey / Analysis Analysis (Conjoint)
Innovation Workout Where customer & business needs come in focus with technology capabilities Review Findings• Affinitized Insights Identify Key• Customer Opportunities Priorities• Visuals • Brainstorming• Workflow & Opportunities Develop Environmental • Grouping Opportunity Maps Opportunities Maps• Storyboards• Patient Segmentation • Mind Mapping • Key Insight• Benchmarking Statements Transfer Ideas Findings • Visualization Generation (Sketches, Workflow Maps, Cut-out and • Brainstorming OR images) • Idea generation Solution Concepts Tools Development • Ideas Shopping • Features • Sketching • New Workflow Maps • Description Highlights • Strengths and Limitations • Next steps
Design forUsability….IncorporatingUser Interface Design in DFSS
Every product has user interface…meant to beused by people Simple, One time use, Complex, Years of use Low user interactivity High user interactivity UI Design Complexity
Why is UI Design Important?Branding / Perception User / patient safety – user errorsCustomer productivity / ease of use + +
DFU is a DFSS Toolkit for designing the User Interface (UI) of a product or service.Typical User Interface Aspects include: Hardware / Enclosures / Graphical User Interface Technical Documentation Packaging (GUI) Defining customer interactions with product / service
How is DFU different from the OtherDesign Aspects?Human (User) Response drivenTypical Considerations include: • User productivity • Ergonomics / Human factors / Usability • User errors • Preferences / User satisfaction
Usability CTQs…the integration point of UCD and DFSS UCD DFSSUsability Goals Critical to Quality (CTQs) Measurable Human performance focused Uses Performance Standards More qualitative then Internal measure of success quantitative Data captured in scorecards Defined in the context of use Usability Traditionally defined for instrumental measurements of CTQs equipment /materials performance Measurable Human performance focused Defined in the context of use External measure of product success Usability performance standards Data captured in scorecards
How are Usability CTQs different from StandardDFSS CTQs?• Externally focused – Actual Users – Representative Tasks• Human Performance Data – Efficiency – Errors – Learnability – Satisfaction• Ultimate design success metrics
Usability CTQs – the first external DFSS metricsCustomers buy our products and services in order to complete specific jobs. Watch TV channelsTo complete these jobs Customers usually go through a set of specific tasks. Install system Load channels Channel selection Etc. Usability CTQs quantify how successful customers are in completing these tasks.
Usability CTQs and CTQ Flowdown Usability CTQs (HOW’s) System Features (HOW’s) Product House Functionality User tasks of (WHAT’s) (HOW’s) Usability CTQs Quality House (WHAT’s) #1 of System Features House Quality (WHAT’s) of #2 Quality #3 Usability Targets for Usability Targets Product For Product Performance System Features address Usability Performance ToTargets Usability address Targets * Adapted from House of Quality,Hauser & Clausing, Harvard Business Review MayJune 1988 -
Usability CTQs Definitions …..in context of tasksUsability Attribute* Definition Typical Metrics Data TypeSatisfaction** The system should be easy to use and S urve y Re spo nse s - Colle ct nume ric al ra nkings applie d to Discrete well-liked. us er interfac e qualities , mea s uring overall ea s e -of-us e. Observed confusion, frustration, or satisfaction - facial Qualitative expressions, verbal expressions, body language, etc. DescriptionEfficiency The system should be efficient to use, Time to finish a task - Track the time it takes to complete Continuous maximizing user productivity. key representative tasks with the system. Time spent navigating menus Time spent in online help Time spent recovering from errorsLow Errors The system should cause the user to Number of Errors - Track errors that are made by novice Discrete have few errors and make error recovery and experienced users during the completion of high easy. priority tasks with the system.Learnability The system should be easy to learn, so Ability to repeat a process - Can a relatively new user Attribute (Y/N) users can get work done with minimal successfully repeat key tasks? training. Time to complete task - Track the time it takes for a new Continuous user to become proficient with the system (able to complete key tasks successfully). Number of Tasks completed successfully Track the Discrete number of key tasks successfully completed .Memorability The system should be easy to remember, Number of Errors - Track the number of errors an Dis cre te so casual users dont have to re-learn it. intermittent user makes while completing key tasks. Time - Track the time it takes for an intermittent user to Continuous successfully complete key tasks. *As defined by Jakob Nielsen in “Usability Engineering”, AP Professional, Boston. 1994 ** Only usability CTQ not defined in a task context (catch all metrics)
Defining Usability CTQs – Approach Develop Usability CTQs based on baseline data for key tasks associated with breakthrough program opportunities System Level Sub-System Level CTQs CTQs (GUI) Simplified Exam Set Scan Interactions Parameters Data Competitor Competitor Lower Upper CTQ Units Type GE Baseline A B Limit Limit TargetNumber of Steps count D 15 12 16 <10Time to Complete sec C 150 135 120Number of Errors count D 0.5 <0.3User Satisfaction 1-7 Scale D 4.7 (Median) >5 Berryman scorecard area
Defining Usability CTQ – WIP Challenges• Rapidly evolving technology….hard to set performancestandards…..but strong sense of direction• Resources intensive…, limited clinical resources availability• Expensive equipment…very limited external benchmarkingopportunities• Multiple additional sources of variability: • Operator profile (novice, expert etc…) • Operator familiarity with system • Significant degree of customization of protocols • Multiple responses (image quality, time to complete, ease of use attributes etc.)
DFU Highlights – Usability StudiesAll usability studies have the following 5 characteristics:1. Improve product usability2. Actual (or prospective) users.3. Performing real representative tasks.4. Observe and record actions / users feedback5. Analyze the data / recommend design changes
Formative Usability Studies – looking for red flags 5-8 ParticipantsPlan Assessment, ExplorationPrepare Materials Pilot Iterate design & evaluations Execute Report results
Summative Usability Studies – establishcapability 30+ ParticipantsPlan Validation, Baseline,Prepare Materials Comparative Pilot Move to next phase (tollgate) or freeze UI Execute design Report results
MR Product Redesign Goals – CTQ TranslationUCD Goal Improve scanner productivity to lower the cost per exam 25% Reduction of the time needed toUsability CTQ complete routine MR exams (exp. user)UCD Goal Speed the rate of learning a new scannerUsability CTQ 20% Reduction of the time needed to obtain proficiency for routine exams (exp. user)
MR System Usability CTQs – Detailed DefinitionsWhy Relative Targets? GE Exam Protocols Protocols CustomizationDefinitionsCTQ Definition Lower Upper Data No CTQ name Unit Limit Limit Target Type How to measure? GRR Targets 25% reduction of the time to complete routine MR exams Exam 25% reduction versus (brain, knee, abdomen) for completion previous product, Morae time stamp of experienced 1 experienced users efficiency min TBD benchmarked locally C user sessions Y Targets 25% reduction of the time to complete routine MR exams 20% reduction versus Inflection point of time to complete (brain, knee, abdomen) for MR System previous product, vs duration of use since instalation 2 experienced users Learnability days TBD benchmarked locally C for experienced users Y
Example - MR Sub-system Usability CTQs Designing the GUI
Setting Usability CTQs for a design iteration Deliverables Concept Goals Metrics Improved visual recognition (60% last 1.Task completion Iter. 3 unresolved Task view vs Data view iteration) 2. Learnability Improved visual recognition for status of post processing task and in particular Status indicators - applications that are running in the 1.Visual recognition post processing tasks background 2. Learnability Collapsing/Expanding Still needs improvements on the indicator. 1.Visual recognition nested tasks (40% last iteration ) 2. Learnability Allow for redundancy in accessing how to edit tasks - access options include "Set- Edit Film / Archive / up", "Add", Right click, click on status Network tasks box Task Completion Viewing application Improved, more intuitive, design that running in the allows users to access this view (Task background completion around 60% last iteration) Task completion Iter. 4 concepts Scan Functionality Intuitive way to run a simple scan Task completion Ability to successfully complete a manual 1.Task completion prescan 2. Learnability 1.Task completion Ability to execute breath-hold scan 2. Learnability Ability to uutilize Realtime (use protocol 1.Task completion notes?) 2. Learnability Ability to execute a scan that requires user control of pressing scan multiple 1.Task completion times?? 2. Learnability
Developing Usability testing script / datacapture approachStep Expected Action Task Assessment / Feedback CommentsTask # 1 Complete T1 Sagittal ScanQ: Your localizer just finished. You now need to prescribe and run the T1 sagittal series. Whatwould you do? Scan range and parameters for T1 sagittal are OK.1 Click on “Set-up” Completed independently Required prompts 1…2…3 Failed Step Expected Action Task Assessment / Feedback Comments2 Click on “Save Rx” Completed independently Required prompts 1…2…3 Task # 5 Complete 3DTOF Scan Failed Q: You need to prescribe your 3D TOF next. What would you do?3 Click on “Scan” Completed independently 1 Select Requiredand click1…2…3 3DTOF prompts on Completed independently “set-up” Failed Required prompts 1…2…3 Failed Q: If you wanted to add SAT pulses to this series, how would you do it? 2 User presses SAT in Graphic Completed independently Rx toolbar. Required prompts 1…2…3 Failed Q: What would you do if you wanted to zoom the localized image? 3 Click on Magnify + icon Completed independently Required prompts 1…2…3 Failed Q: Imagine that you had zoomed and moved the image around, how would to reset your image display? 3 Click on Tools menu and Completed independently Display Normal Required prompts 1…2…3 Failed
Iteration data capture and scorecard summary CTQ CTQ name Unit Target Actual Z target Z actual 1 WFM Navigation Task Completion % 80% completion of underlying tasks 71% 2.34 2.06 2 WFM Navigation Task Learnability % 95% completion of underlying tasks in 90% 3.15 2.08 a repeat situation 3 WFM Navigation Status Visual Recognition % 80% for initial recognition 79% 2.34 2.32 4 WFM Navigation Status Learnability % 90% for navigation status recognition in 100% 2.78 6.00 a repeat situation 5 Graphic Rx Task Completion % 80% completion of underlying tasks 73% 2.34 2.14 10 Scanning Functionality Task Completion % 80% completion of underlying tasks 100% 2.34 5.76 11 Overall User Satisfaction with Design Likert 70% of users will rate the overall 100% 2.02 6.00 Scale satisfaction greater then neutral Assembly Zst 2.48 2.43
Example – Discovery MR System level CTQs Initial Data
Use UPM for product pricing / positioningProduct Definition Phase Pre-Release Evaluation• Define Product SuccessTargets (Usability CTQs) • Measure Usability CTQs• Usability CTQs setting • Use UPM data as key inputaround critical customers into product pricing customertasks in terms of: impact considerations Design • Efficiency • Develop go to market strategy • Learnability and product release marketing • Error rates communication materials • Memmorability leveraging UPM • SatisfactionCTQ: 25% reduction of time to Capability: 32% reduction ofcomplete routine exams (brain, time to complete brain examknee, abdomen) by experienced (preliminary estimates usingusers Fitt’s law evaluation)
Discovery MR…post release workflowdata…Cardiac exam Scanner: Baseline Baseline Discovery System 1 System 2 MR Minimum Exam Room 20:30 19:30 11:15 Time Mouse Clicks / Tech. 76 41 6 Actions Patient Breath-Hold 21 16 6-10 Time (sec) Opportunities for >30 14 <6 Error 85% reduction in steps 42% reduction of exam time Customer Productivity 57% + reduction in error opportunities 37% reduction of breath hold time Patient Comfort / Satisfaction
Emerging Role of Design within GE Healthcareand other GE Businesses Marketing Design Engineering (R&D) Manufacturing Supply Chain User Centered Innovation Design for Usability WIP Marketing tools / process (CECOR) DFSSWhat should we make? How should we make it? Time
Food for thought –opportunities to expand DFSS • Include Observational Research in DFSS toolkit • Extend DFSS into UI design / absorb UCD toolkit • Innovation???…is DFSS still focused on how to build products, not what to build?