Synopsis tibal ,v b nikam
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  • 1 A PROPOSED RESEARCH PROPOSAL on “A Study of Administrative effectiveness of Self Employment Schemes in Tribal Areas” SUBMITTED TO UNIVERSITY OF PUNE Commerce Faculty Subject: - Business Administration FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF Dr. Udmale K. R. (M.Com, M. Phil, Ph. D) SUBMITTED BY Mr. Vijay Balkrishna Nikam. RESEARCH CENTRE
  • 2 1. Introduction Development & Progress of any nation is a holistic phenomenon which considered various aspects of human activities such as economic, social, political, or technical point of view. Nations are believed that development is basically depends upon its society, if society grow & develop automatically nations will develop. That’s why growth of any country calculated on the basis of its GDP, per capita income & National Income etc. This core truth realized by Indian government hence they announced and launches ns various schemes for the development of rural, tribal & backward people of the Indian society, because the tribal and indigenous peoples of India constitute an important segment of the Indian population. They are duly listed in the Constitution, which also accords them special rights and privileges. India, a democratic and secular nation is committed to the development and welfare of the tribal’s who form approximately 8.1 percent of the total population1 . Accordingly several tribal development programmes have been undertaken from time to time entailing enormous human, financial and material resources. Both the Government and the Non- Government Organizations (NGOs) have been engaged in their socio-economic development ever since Independence. But the question is whether the tribal’s have benefited from the various development interventions and been empowered in the country’s growth & development in terms of governance and active participation. In this research study, researcher focuses on the Tribal’s overall development through Self Employment Development Scheme launched by Government of India. Such kind of an analysis & Research Study will enable to get a systematic view of the efforts made overtime for uplifting the tribal’s who constitute historically the most marginalized sections of Indian society. Further, a detailed review of the administration of Self Employment Development Scheme for Tribal does help to examine the pace of the socio- economic transformation of tribal economies in India. It also benefited to Indian Government for better administration of various schemes, by which they can minimize the expenditure on the poverty problems. History of Tribes in India The epic of Mahabharata refers to the death of Krishna at the hands of a Bhil Jaratha. In the ancient scriptures, considered to be sacred by the upper castes, various terms are used
  • 3 depicting Adivasis as almost non-humans. The epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata, the Puranas, Samhitas and other so-called 'sacred books' refer to Adivasis as Rakshasa (demons), Vanara (monkeys), Jambuvan (boar men), Naga (serpents), Bhusundi Kaka (crow), Garuda (King of Eagles) etc. In medieval India, they were called derogatorily as Kolla, Villa, Kirata, Nishada, and those who surrendered or were subjugated were termed as Dasa (slave) and those who refused to accept the bondage of slavery were termed as Dasyu (a hostile robber). Ekalavya, one of their archers was so skillful that the hero of the Aryans, Arjuna, could not stand before him. But they assaulted him, cutting his thumb and destroying his ability to fight - and then fashioned a story in which he accepted Drona as his Guru and surrendered his thumb as an offering to the master! The renowned writer Maheshwata Devi points out that Adivasis predated Hinduism and Aryanism, that Siva was not an Aryan god and that in the 8th century, the tribal forest goddess or harvest goddess was absorbed and adapted as Siva's wife. Goddess Kali, the goddess of hunters, has definitely had a tribal origin. Tribal population details The 67.7 million people belonging to "Scheduled Tribes" in India are generally considered to be 'Adivasis', literally meaning 'indigenous people' or 'original inhabitants', though the term 'Scheduled Tribes' (STs) is not coterminous with the term 'Adivasis'. Scheduled Tribes is an administrative term used for purposes of 'administering' certain specific constitutional privileges, protection and benefits for specific sections of peoples considered historically disadvantaged and 'backward'. However, this administrative term does not exactly match all the peoples called 'Adivasis'. Out of the 5653 distinct communities in India, 635 are considered to be 'tribes' or 'Adivasis'. In comparison, one finds that the estimated number of STs varies from 250 to 593 For practical purposes, the United Nations and multilateral agencies generally consider the STs as 'indigenous peoples'. With the ST population making up 8.08% (as of 1991) of the total population of India, it is the nation with the highest concentration of 'indigenous peoples' in the world!
  • 4 The Constitution of India The British East India Company passed the scheduled District Act in 1874, the normal Law should not automatically apply to the tribal areas was the principle that underlay the passage of scheduled District Act.' In the 1919Act the concept of backward area was shaped.4 However, without overlooking the vested interest of the British, it is a tribute to British ruler that they recognized the need of special protection for the tribal’s. In this sense, the British can be considered as the pioneers of tribal policy in India. In 1930s there was thought provoking debate about the pros and cons of the principle.5 The imperialist school contended that the aborigines formed a distinct element in India and should be placed in charge of British government. The Constitution of India, which came into existence on 26 January 1950, prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth (Article 15) and it provides the right to equality (Article 14), to freedom of religion (Articles 25-28) and to culture and education (Articles 29-30). STs are supposedly addressed by as many as 209 Articles and 2 special schedules of the Constitution - Articles and special schedules which are protective and paternalistic. The introduction of the alien concept of private property began with the Permanent Settlement of the British in 1793 and the establishment of the "Zamindari" system that conferred control over vast territories, including Adivasi territories, to designated feudal lords for the purpose of revenue collection by the British. This drastically commenced the forced restructuring of the relationship of Adivasis to their territories as well as the power relationship between Adivasis and 'others'. The predominant external caste-based religion sanctioned and practiced a rigid and highly discriminatory hierarchical ordering with a strong cultural mooring.
  • 5 2. Statement of the Problem India is the country which contains various numbers of cast and languages. India is the country which originated from various villages. In globalization era world’s economic development is increasing rapidly. Each and every country is focusing on to decrease the poverty line. The government of each and every country is conscious about this problem; hence they had designed so many development schemes for backward class. Based on this term the researcher wants to work for development of tribal people. In India the population of backward class is high as stated above. In these segment maximum communities like OBC, SBC & SC now developed and shown good growth rate. Government able to approach and distribute their development schemes easily to these back word classes, as compare to the tribal, because of the literacy ratio, education, awareness and social connect is good in other backward classes. Basic problems of tribal are given below. Maharashtra Government is facing numbers of problems in implementation of SEST (self Employment Schemes for Tribal’s) administration. 1. Due to low income, Lack of awareness about education, economic development, social connectivity. 2. Poor Standard of Living & life style. 3. Lack of infrastructural facilities. 4. They have to face negligence in society. 5. Lack of proper guidance and training 6. Is there any way-out to overcome on above mentioned barriers of administration of SEST? 7. How government can utilize their resources for administration of SEST? These are the basic problems faced by the Government of India; hence researcher wants to find out the following solutions for better administration of SEST.
  • 6 3. Relevance Of the study Maharashtra government schemes. The scheme is very flexible, and covers housing, infrastructure development, education, health, land distribution/development, agriculture development, cattle development, social security, insurance, etc. During 2007-08, comprehensive long term “Conservation- cum-Development (CCD) Plans” for PTGs has been formulated for Eleventh Plan period through baseline surveys conducted by respective State Governments/Union territory. These Plans envisage a synergy between efforts of State Governments and non- governmental organizations. This research will helps for effectively administrate SEST & their distribution among the needy Tribal’s. It will also helpful to the government of Maharashtra to minimize the Loopholes & misadministration of various schemes, so that the money will goes in proper hands. Some other relevance of this research is- 1. The study creates awareness among Tribal’s about current economical development in country, education, progress of other classes in society. 2. The study creates awareness about self employment development schemes for Tribal’s provided by government t of Maharashtra. 3. The study creates awareness regarding the administration of Maharashtra state government for development of tribes. 4. The study will upgrade Tribal’s standard of Living. Importance of the Development of tribal Areas. Development of tribal areas is highly important in our country. Development of tribal will deliver following important benefits to our country. 1. Cut down the cost, which spend by the government on bellow poverty line people. 2. Development of tribal’s will help to our economical development in some extent. 3. Employment generation ratio will increase in the country. Schemes introduced by the Government for tribal. 1. Various schemes on education for tribal’s 2. GOI Scholarships and hostel facility for Students. 3. Scheme for Primitive development of tribal group. 4. Scheme of marketing for tribal product. 5. Various funding schemes for starting up business for Tribal’s. 6. Self Employment Schemes for Tribal’s (SEST from hence further it’s called) By considering the importance of tribal area development through the proper implementation of SEST the Researcher has been decided this research topic “A Study of Administrative effectiveness of Self Employment Schemes in Tribal Areas”. For the purpose of study above title is selected by the researcher. 4
  • 7 5 Objectives of the study The study has undertaken with the following major objectives:- 1. To know about Tribal area of India and Maharashtra. 2. To study the tribal development schemes provided by the government of India and Maharashtra. 3. To study the Administrative effectiveness of implemented SEST in tribal areas. 4. To Study & analyze the SEST in tribal area of Maharashtra. 5. To study benefits and utilities of SEST in Selected Districts of Maharashtra. 6. To study the tribal people related with the SEST in selected district of Maharashtra. 7. To know problems faced by the tribal’s particularly to SEST.
  • 8 5. Justification for the Objectives In this research study the researcher analyzed the literature review and concluded, for tribal self employment every researcher selected end numbers of district and states. Researcher selected that district in Maharashtra state which is the neglected one by the other researcher. The justification for objectives is given serial wise as per the objectives. Such are as follows. First objective is taken for the understanding the available tribal area in the country as well as in Maharashtra state. The researcher going to find out tribal introduction, origin, history, community, stands in society, etc. Second objective, now researcher will have the sufficient understanding about the tribal area. Based on this study in next step researcher will try to know about central and state government efforts in terms of Self Employment Schemes for Tribal (SEST). Third Objective, on available data the researcher will take next step to understand the working of these schemes. The researcher will understand, How the government directing, coordinating and controlling these kind of services? Fourth objective, how that SEST is working in the tribal area? Fifth objective, after understanding all above mentioned information the researcher will conduct further study related to the SEST output in that Particular Area . Whether the beneficiaries are benefited or not? Sixth objective, if beneficiaries are not benefited then the researcher will go in-depth of the problem and will reach to the findings for all above mentioned problem and will give the suggestions with some best solutions. Scope and Limitation of the study Scope 1. The study is related with the selected tribal area of Maharashtra. 2. The study is based on schemes provided by state and central government for tribals. 3. The main cause of this study is to find out truth and facts of tribal’s Self Employment Scheme and its administrative effectiveness. Limitation 1. The study is limited to selected tribal district only out of 28 tribal districts of Maharashtra. 2. This study is not covered NGOs schemes for tribals. 3. This study is concerned with the administrative practices of SEST only.
  • 9 6. Statement of hypothesis Proposition is a statement about observable phenomena that may be judged as true or false. When proposition is formulated for empirical testing we call it a hypothesis. The study will have following hypothesis- 1. Organization and Administration of SEST is satisfactory. 2. SEST is allotted various benefits to the tribal’s in tribal areas of Maharashtra. 3. The Maharashtra Government successfully implemented the SEST in tribal areas of Maharashtra. 7. Working definitions of terms used SEST: - Self Employment Schemes for tribals. (SEST) That SEST is sponsored by Government of India to the tribal’s with the help of state government. For the betterment of tribal’s government has taken up initiative and started this kind of an activity. This is good initiative but because of some reasons that help is not reaching up to the beneficiaries. Tribal’s In general usage, the word “Tribe” is taken to denote a primary aggregate of peoples living in a primitive or barbarous condition under a headman or chief. The unnecessary moralistic overtones that this usage implies can be avoided or minimized by the use of the face “tribal society,” which is to be preferred to such synonyms as “primitive society” or “preliterate society.” At the same time, the word “tribe” need not be discarded. The original Latin use of the word is for political divisions or patrician orders of the Roman state.
  • 10 8. Classes of respondents to be contacted The research topic is related with the administrative effectiveness of SEST. Classes of the respondents to be contacted by the researcher Viz.-Employees of Ministry of tribal’s, Tribal Development offices of Central and State government class I, Class II, Public relationship officers (PRO),Tribal schemes marketing Officers ,etc and beneficiaries like tribal’s. 9. Research Methodology. The study will be Qualitative (descriptive) and analytical in nature which will be focus on depth understanding of research topic. A. Primary Data. Data that has been collected from first-hand-experience is known as Primary Data. Primary data has not been published yet and is more reliable, authentic and objective. Primary data has not been changed or altered by human beings; therefore its validity is greater than secondary data. Method of Primary data collection will laid on the Observation, unorganized and structured interviews of respondents .Tribal development offices of selected Tribal area of Maharashtra are the respondents in this study. B. Secondary Data. Data collected from a source that has already been published in any form is called as secondary data. The review of literature in nay research is based on secondary data. That data means Mostly from books, journals and periodicals. The present study is mainly based on secondary data. The following will be the Main Sources of Data.
  • 11 SOURCE OF SECONDARY DATA a. Books b. Internet & Websites c. Business Magazines. d. Journals. e. News paper. f. Annual reports of government offices. g. Various survey Reports. h. Tribal development offices. For the collection of data researcher will visit following places. Ministry office of Maharashtra (Mantralaya at Mumbai) Tribal Ministry head office at Mumbai Tribal Development Offices in selected districts of Maharashtra. Selected tribal areas of Maharashtra. 10.Selection of Sample Size . Universe of the Research Maharashtra is the one of the state of India out of 28 states. There are 35 Districts in the Maharashtra State and the tribal population is largely concentrated in the western hilly Districts of Dhule, Nandurbar, Jalgaon, Nashik and Thane (Sahyadri Region) and the eastern forest Districts of Chandrapur, Gadchiroli, Bhandara, Gondiya, Nagpur, Amravati and Yavatmal (Gondwana Region). The population percentage of tribal’s is high in Thane, Nashik, Nandurbar, Dhulia and in Maharashtra. There is huge scope for development of tribal’s. In this Districts industry and infrastructure development is good. This provides resources for the development of business opportunities for the citizens. Analysing all these features researcher decided to select these district for conducting research. These are as follows, 1. Thane 2. Nashik 3. Dhulia 4. Nandurbar Researcher will contact to the respondents in government offices and tribal’s in this area only.
  • 12 Table 1. Details of selection of sample size Sr. Number Name of the District Total Talukas Tribal Talukas Selected tribal Talukas Selected respondents inTalukas 1 Thane 16 07 01 25 2 Nasik 14 06 01 25 3 Dhulia 04 02 01 25 4 Nandurbar 06 05 01 25 Total 40 20 04 100 List of selected Talukas . 1. Thane – Shahapur 2. Nashik – Paint 3. Dhulia – Sakri 4. Nandurbar - Navapur SAMPLING TECHNIQUE – 1. Sapling method is probability and non-probability sampling Method. A probability sampling is one in which every unit in the population has a chance (greater than zero) of being selected in the sample, and this probability can be accurately determined. The combination of these traits makes it possible to produce unbiased estimates of population totals, by weighting sampled units according to their probability of selection. Nonprobability sampling is any sampling method where some elements of the population have no chance of selection (these are sometimes referred to as 'out of coverage'/'under covered'), or where the probability of selection can't be accurately determined. It involves the selection of elements based on assumptions regarding the
  • 13 population of interest, which forms the criteria for selection. Hence, because the selection of elements is nonrandom, non-probability sampling does not allow the estimation of sampling errors. These conditions give rise to exclusion bias, placing limits on how much information a sample can provide about the population. Information about the relationship between sample and population is limited, making it difficult to extrapolate from the sample to the population. 11. Techniques of Data analysis. Data Processing The interview schedules administered on migrant tribal were edited, codified and tabulated. Data processing was carried out with the help of computers. The data analysis was planned in such a way that possible errors during data processing would be excluded. Numerical symbols were assigned to the responses in the interview schedule yielding a total of 58 variables. Computers were also used for statistical analysis of the data. In the first instance sorting was done to generate frequency tables for each independent variable. The report that follows incorporates the data, analysis, the interpretation and the inferences draw 12. Note on Statistical Tools To be Used The next stage was that of data collection. Proper tools and methods had to be designed for data collection before setting out for fieldwork. Keeping in view the composition of the universe of investigation, it was decided to use interviewing and observation techniques. The tribal to districts were mostly illiterate and were not well conversant with social science investigations. Hence, Interview Schedule was used as the main tool of data collection. The Interview Schedule was drafted on the basis of major variables, parameters and objectives of the study. Along with the Interview schedule the investigators were also provided with observation sheets to record relevant and useful observations with a view to strengthen and cross-check the information gathered through other tools. In this manner the Researcher will conduct the research and for data analysis Chi Square test Method will be applied for future research as a statistical tool.
  • 14 13. Review of important and relevant Literature on the study. 1. Verrier, Elwin, The Aborginals, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1943. A new trend in ethno methodology which came during the British period was a theory propounded by Vemer Elwin (1943)' who suggested that tribals should be kept isolated in their hills and forests. Elwin's theory is known in social anthropology as 'public park theory'. He suggested that ordinarily the non-tribal people should not be allowed to enter into tribal pockets without permission of the state government. This system would guarantee the isolation of the tribals.1 2.Ghurye, G.S., The Tribals so called and their Future, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Poona, 1943. G.S. Ghurye (1943) contested the theory of Public Park. He argued that the tribal’s were nothing more than backward caste Hindus. They should be treated at par with the Hindus.2 3.Majumdar, D.N., Races and Cultures of India, Asia Publishing House Delhi, 1944. Following Ghurye's argument, D.N. Majumdar (1944)t~o ok a slightlydifferent position. His suggestion was that the cultural identity of the tribals as far as possible should be retained. He feared that if the isolation was broken the tribals would lose their ethnic identity. To maintain it, he hypothesized that there should be 'selected integration' of the tribals. While spelling out, he argued that not all the elements of civilization should be allowed to enter the tribal area. Only those which have relevance with tribal life should be permitted into such area. Such a policy would keep the tribal’s away from the vices of urban life.3 4. D.D. Nag, Baiga Economy of Madhya Pradesh, M.K. Publications, Calcutta, 1958 The scientific study of tribal economy in India was first undertaken by two scholars D.D.N ag and R.P. Saxena. Nag (1958)~m ade an extensive field tour in the areas of Madhya Pradesh like, Mandla, Bilaspur, Durg, Balaghat and studied the Baiga economy in the context of general economic theories lying emphasis on the sources of economy of Baigas. Saxena followed a model of Nag and studied the tribals of Western Hills in Madhya Pradesh and presented the economy of five tribes. These two studies have some limitations like, exclusion of socio-cultural conditions of the tribes on their study areas.4
  • 15 5. N.N. Yyas, Customs and Traditions of Some Indian Tribes, Vikas. Presents the historical, social and economic life of theBaniyas ofRajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Gujarat. Yyas thus points outthe differences in customs and practices of the Bani yas of different States. Thisstudy has a good comparative background, still it has a limitation likeunsuitability of the methodology.5 6. S.L. Doshi, Process of Tribal Unification and Integration, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1978. S.L. Doshi (1978)" takes a case study of Bhils, on the process ofunification and integration. He said that, a sort of integration is achieved by the tribals' with the wider society as a result of political unification. They are awareof the working of democracy, democratic institutions and identification with thelevel of values. This study has limitation like neglecting the economic aspectsof tribals.6 7. Gopala Rao. N, Land Alienation - A Menace of Tribal Economy,Tribe, Vol. x, No. 4, 1978. Gopala Rao. N. (1 978) examines the process of transfer of land from the tribals to the non-tribals and the various factors influencing such transfers, bytaking a case study of Mondemkhal, a mixed village of tribes and castes, atParvathipwarn taluk of former Srikakulam district. Data were collected by canvassing schedule and by holding prolonged interviews with the tribal elders and village officials. Land has been alienated by some people to financeagricultural operations. Cultivators require cash to buy cattle and to pay thelabourers. It is clear from the study, that credit being taken on pledging land ledto land alienation. Land has a tremendous prestige value in the rural context and it could stand as a security both for borrowing and lending.7 8.Devendra Thakur, Socio-Economic Development of Tribes in India,Deep Publishers, New Delhi, 1986. Devendra Thakur (1986)' made an elaborate study about the Santhals inBihar. The study highlights their socio-economic conditions. It has beenobserved to what extent they were responsive to the projects and programmesundertaken during the different developmental plans.Before the introduction of Five Year Plans, during the colonial rule, thetribals in the country as a whole remained in isolation. If the problem ofuntouchables in pre- independent India was that ofpollution, vis-a-vis purity, theproblem of tribals or adivasis was that of isolation. They were consideredbackward and savage.8
  • 16 9. S. Ramamani, Tribal Economy Problems and Prospects, ChoughPublications, Allahabad, 1 98 8. V.S. Ramamani (1988) ,presents a descriptive analysis of the main features of tribal economy. She also postulates in this study the gap between the tribal and non-tribal’s, and the protective and promotional measures in order to reduce this gap.9 10. Christoph Von Purer, Harnendarf, Tribes of lndia the Struggle for Survival, M.K. Publications, Rajasthan, 1988. Christoph Von Furer - Harnendart (1988), has discussed the pattern and causes of disintegration of the traditional tribal system, failure of welfare programmes by taking the example of two tribes, Apa Tanis of Arunachal Pradesh and Gonds of Andhra Pradesh. He found that the two tribes stood at opposite ends of a spectrum today. While Apa Tanis were clearly set on upward path, the Gonds were threatened by an apparently irreversible decline in their fortunes. He claims that Apa-Tani tribe of Arunachal Pradesh numbered about 15000, achieved development and integration without losing its identity because of protection given by the Government of India.10 So as per the above mentioned literature review, the research is conducted on the tribal’s. That was done in other states of India excluding Maharashtra. The study was conducted in states like arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh , Mizoram ,Kerala. Analyzing these all literature review researcher decided to do conduct study on the selected Tribal areas of Maharashtra.
  • 17 14. CHAPTER SCHEME:- 1. Introduction and Research Methodology. 2. Tribal Areas An overview. 3. Profile of selected Districts of Maharashtra. 4. Organization and Administration of Tribal areas of Development Schemes in Maharashtra. 5. Administrative Effectiveness of the Self Employment Schemes in Selected Districts of Maharashtra. 6. Problems in Implementation of the schemes in selected Districts of Maharashtra. 7. Data Analysis. 8. Summery. 9. Conclusion and Suggestions. 15. Bibliography
  • 18 REFERENCES Books & Magazines – 1. Verrier, Elwin, The Aborginals, Oxford University Press, New Delhi,1943. 2. Ghurye, G.S., The Tribals so called and their Future, Gokale Institute of Politics and Economics, Poona, 1943. 3. Majumdar, D.N., Races and Cultures of India, Asia Publishing House Delhi, 1944. 4. D.D. Nag, Baiga Economy of Madhya Pradesh, M.K. Publications, Calcutta, 1958. Strategic Financial Management – DR G. P. Jakhotiya . Policy for India’s Service Sector – Dr .H.A.C. Prasad. R Satish , 2010 5. N.N. Yyas, Customs and Traditions of Some Indian Tribes, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, 1967. 6. S.L. Doshi, Process of Tribal Unification and Integration, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1978. 7. Gopala Rao. N, Land Alienation - A Menace of Tribal Economy, Tribe, Vol. x, No. 4, 1978. 8. Devendra Thakur, Socio-Economic Development of Tribes in India, Deep Publishers, New Delhi, 1986. 9. S. Ramamani, Tribal Economy Problems and Prospects, Chough Publications, Allahabad, 1 98 8. 10. Christoph Von Purer, Harnendarf, Tribes oflndiar the Struggle for Survival, M.K. Publications, Rajasthan, 198 8. India Today (July 25, 2012) – The Makeover brings trouble. Tomas Havranek & Zuzana Irsova (2011-04-30) Personnel Management - Dr S A sherlekar .
  • 19 Webilography :- 1., 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Research Student Research Guide (Mr. NikamVijay B.) (Dr. Udmale K. R.)
  • 20