Foodborne diseases12


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Foodborne diseases12

  1. 1. Foodborne diseases- Diseases usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. Classified in 3 types:1)Food infection- ingestion of viable pathogens along with food. Eg- typhoid2)Food intoxication- ingestion of preformed toxins Eg- botulism, stapylococcal poisoning3)Toxi-infection- organisms produce toxins insitu when ingested along with food Eg- B.cereus poisoning
  2. 2. Sources of pathogenic organisms:- Dair y animals- Brucellosis, Q fever, Salmonellosis Handlers- TB, Scarlet fever, Septic sore throat Environment - Anthrax spores, Corynebacterial inf Milk borne infections- Salmonellosis - S.typhi- typhoid S.paratyphi- paratyphoid S.enteritidis, S.weltiverdin-FP Sources- water, handlers, flies, infected animals Symptoms- fever, enteritis, ulcers, chills, vomiting,characteristic rose spot eruptions on the abdomen, toxaemia
  3. 3. Paratyphoid- similar to typhoid but milder Salmonellosis- nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, chills, moderate fever Diagnosis- microscopic, cultural, fermentative, serological tests for detecting org in faeces, urine Specific test for typhoid- Widal test Bacillar y dysenter y- S.dysentriae, S.sonnei, S.flexneri Sources- water, utensils, flies, handlers Disease in humans- S.dysentriae-most severe, produces enterotoxin Symptoms- Acute shigellosis, diarrhoea with blood, pus, mucus, vomiting, abdominal cramps
  4. 4. Diagnosis- isolating org from rectal swab and plating on desoxycholate citrate agar Streptococcal infections- humans & animals responsible for contaminating milk S.pyogenes- scarlet fever,septic sore throat S.agalactiae- mastitis Group D (Enterococci)- food poisoning Sources- infected animals, faecal contamination of milk and its products, milking machines,carriers Symptoms- Septic sore throat- sudden & irregular fever, inflammation & swelling of lymph glands of throat,abscesses in cervical lymph glands
  5. 5. Scarlet fever- acute febrile disease of throat accompanied by scarlet rash, infection of middle ear, kidney Food poisoning- similar to Staph food poisoning Diagnosis- throat swabs for presence of hemolytic streptococci in septic sore throat Scarlet fever- clinical symptoms, isolation of org Dick test in humans Milk borne intoxications- Staphylococcal poisoning- S.aureus Causes gastroenteritis due to enterotoxins Capable of producing enterotoxins in raw milk at conc of 106 org/ml
  6. 6. Sources- handlers, milch animals Symptoms- nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, sweating, prostation Diagnosis- Biological method, Serological method, Coagulase test, Thermonuclease test Botulism- Cl.botulinum severest of all FP, affects NS. mainly prevalent in improperly canned products leading to bloating of cans Toxins are lethal in small doses, 0.1μg of toxin may cause death of an individual and 1mg of purified toxin is sufficient to kill 1 million people Sources- soil, water (serotype E )
  7. 7. Symptoms:- Botulism syndrome- nausea, vomiting, dryness of skin,mouth &throat, inability to swallow, double vision, progressive paralysis and suffocation; often fatal Diagnosis- microscopic examination, animal inoculation, cultural identification E.coli poisoning- causes traveller’s diarrhoea and FP produces 2 types of toxins- LT and ST min of 105 -107 cells/g- cause FP Sources- water, handlers, infected animals
  8. 8. Symptoms- LT toxin- massive watery diarrhoea ST toxin- diarrhoea with or without vomition, fever Cholera- Vibrio cholerae Unhygienic practices responsible for outbreaks Sources- unclean water, carriers, adulteration of milk with contaminated water Symptoms- diarrhoea in mild cases In severe cases- diarrhoea, vomiting, rice water stools, abdominal pain, dehydration, death Diagnosis- isolation of org from faeces i/p inoculation of g.pigs with pure culture results in death of the animal within 24 hours
  9. 9. Fungal intoxications- Aflatoxicosis- A.flavus, A.parasiticus Animals fed with aflatoxin containing feed excrete toxins M1,M2 in milk Recommended upper permissible limit – 90ppm Sources- environment, soil and contaminated food, poor storage conditions Disease in humans- Acute aflatoxicosis Symptoms- liver hyperplasia, tissue hemorrhage, anorexia, hepatitis organs like kidney, spleen, pancreas may also get affected
  10. 10. Milk borne toxi infections - Clostridial per fringes (Cl.welchii) cause-ingestion of contaminated milk/canned product Causes gas gangrene Sources- soil, faeces of man & animals, spores are present in cowshed; water supplies Disease in humans- severe gastroenteritis; toxins are resistant to intestinal juices.
  11. 11.  Bacillus cereus poisoning- aerobic spore former, seen in heat treated milk Sources- mastitis milk, environment, soil Toxins- Hemolysin, Lecithinase, enterotoxin Disease in man- 2 types of poisoning a) Diarrhoeal type b) Vomiting type Symptoms- nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain Pseudomonas infection- Ps.putrifaciens, Ps.viscosa, Ps.fragi, Ps.aeruginosa Sources- water, utensils,udder, teat, cowshed environment
  12. 12. Disease in humans- causes UT infections, eye and ear infections, abscesses, meningitis, enteritis, septicemia, gastrointestinal disturbances New emerging pathogensi) Listeriosis- L.monocytogenes mesophilic,psychrotrophic, produces hemolysins Sources- infected animals, handlers, unhygienic practices, faecal contamination of milk & water Survives pasteurization as gets hide in leucocytes
  13. 13. In humans- Listeriosis; In animals- mastitis, keratitis, meningeoencephalitis Symptoms- acute meningitis with or without septicemia, fever, headache, nausea, vomition, coma resulting in death Campylobacteriosis- (C.jejuni) Sources- faecal matter, polluted water, infected animal- causes gastroenteritis in man and mastitis in animals Symptoms- abdominal pain, diarrhoea Yersiniosis- (Y.enterocolitica) Source-faecal contamination,unhygienic practices Disease in man- Acute syndrome with appendicitis
  14. 14. Symptoms-fever,abdominalpain,diarrhoea,vomition Vibriosis- (V.parahemolytica) Causes gastroenteritis Source- Aquatic foods (fish, crabs and canned sea foods) Symptoms- diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomition, chills, fever Other milk borne diseases-a) Bacterial diseases: Tuberculosis- M.tuberculosis 2 types- Pulmonary TB- caused by M.tuberculosis Non pulmonary TB- caused by M.bovis Source-milch animals, handlers, environment,feed
  15. 15. Symptoms- pleurisy, cough, fever, fatigue, wt loss Diagnosis-examination of sputum, faeces, serum for the presence of bacilli using Ziel neelson’s staining Brucellosis- B.melitensis, B.abortus, B.suis Source-environment, persons, diseased animals Disease in man-Malta fever, undulent fever Symptoms-headache, sweating, chills, joint & muscle pain Diagnosis- blood culture, CFT, agglutination Diptheria- C.diptheriae Source- handlers, animals, environment produces extracellular toxin in resp tract Symptoms-febrile infection of nose, throat, tonsils
  16. 16. Diagnosis-isolating org from throat swab on Loeffler’s medium, staining with MB Source-infected animals, environment Anthrax- B.anthracis Disease in man- 2 forms Cutaneous anthrax- direct inoculation through skin, small fruncles, malignant carbuncle of skin Pulmonar y anthrax- inhalation of spores, pneumonia is the chief symptom Diagnosis-spore staining, biological test Rickettsial disease- Q fever- Coxiella burnetti can survive pasteurization & freezing temp
  17. 17. Symptoms- high fever,headache,malaise,severe sweating,pneumonia,weakness,mastitis in animalsii) Viral diseases-a)Enterovirus causes summer diarrhoea in childrenb)Infectious hepatitis- hepatitis ASymptoms- nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain,fever, chills, anorexia, sore throat, bile in urine, jaundicec) Tick borne encephalitis- Group B arbovirusSource-contaminated milk, ticks, mitesSymptom-biphasic meningeoencephalitisd)FMD-infected dairy products & animals-sourceSymptoms-fever, difficulty in swallowing, dryness of mouth, blisters in mouth
  18. 18. Control of milk borne diseases Strict hygienic measures during production, processing, storage & distribution Proper pasteurization of the milk Education to public Infected personals should not be allowed to handle milk and milk products Rigid sanitary discipline should be followed Detoxification of aflatoxins by physical, chemical or biological agents Vaccination of the herd
  19. 19. Meat borne infections-i) Bacterial diseases-a)Salmonellosis- S.typhi, S.paratyphi, S.typhimuriumSources- red meats, raw poultry, infected eggsSymptoms-same as that in milkb)Clostridial illness- 2 typesCl.perfringes-found in soil and faeces of all animalsSource-improper storage of the foodCauses 2 types of poisoningType A - mild form –nausea, abd pain, diarrhoeaType C- severe form, mainly due to β-toxin - necrotic enteritis, severe abdominal pain
  20. 20. Cl.Botulinum- canned foods, partly processed uneviscerated fish are the sources Symptoms- similar as that in milk Staphylococcus aureus- raw meat, improper storage of meat after cooking are the sources Symptoms- same as in milk Escherichia coli- E.coli (O157:H7) produces shiga like toxin Source- poultry meat Diarrhoeagenic strains of E.coli- Enteropathogenic – infantile diarrhoea Enterotoxigenic-watery stools,vomiting Enteroinvasive-bloody, mucoid stools, tenesmus, fever
  21. 21.  Enterohaemorrhagic- most pathogenic, produces haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome c) Bacillus poisoning- B.cereus Source-fresh meat and meat products, usually reflect the carcass contamination with soil, water Symptoms- same as in milk d)Listeriosis- L.monocytogenes Source- cooked and ready-to-eat meat products It is a psychrotrophic organism Symptoms-in pregnant women it causes abortion or still birth
  22. 22. e)Campylobacter jejuni-Source- poultry meat, red meat and offalsSymptom-enteritis in adults, abdominal pain-major feature f)Yersinia enterocolitica-Emerging pathogen,psychrotroph (0-2ºC)Symptom-same as in milkii) Viral diseases-Small gastroenteritis virus- include rotavirus, calcivirusSymptoms- diarrhoea, vomition, abdominal pain, pyrexia, nausea, malaise
  23. 23. Enteroviruses- includes hepatitis A virus (main), polio virus, echovirus and coxsachie virusSymptoms- similar to that in milkiii) Parasitic diseasesa)Cryptosporidiosis- raw or undercooked meat,offal symptom- diarrhoea, abdominal painb)Sarcocystosis- Sarcocyst occurs in skeletal and heart muscles of mammalsSource- consumption of food contaminated by carnivore excreta containing sarcocyst ovac)Taeniasis- T.saginata, T.soliumSource- consumption of raw and undercooked meat, unhygienic conditionsSymptoms- nervousness, anorexia, weight loss, abdominal pain, digestive disturbances
  24. 24. d) Trichinosis- Trichinella spiralisSource- raw and undercooked pork and pork productsSymptoms- diarrhoea, abdominal pain,influenza $ typhoid like fevere) Toxoplasmosis- Toxoplasma gondiiSource- meat and organs containing tissue cysts, infected meat eaten raw or undercookedSymptoms- transplacental transmission leading to congenital nervous and ocular lesionsf) Hydatidosis-Source- ingestion of gravid segments of Echinococcus granulosus of dogCysts get localized in organs like liver,heart muscle
  25. 25.  Control of meat borne diseases Strict ante mortem & post mortem inspection Slaughter hygiene Decontamination of meat End product handling Margin of safety Proper treatment of meat viz freezing or heating at high temperatures or salting Personal hygiene Proper disposal of affected meat/offal Public education for prevention of eating raw flesh
  26. 26. Investigation and repor ting of outbreaks Detailed description of cases should be made Record should be made of food eaten and a common source of infection should be identified History of previous illness of the personnel handling milk, meat and their products should be found out Evidence of enteric disorders, scratches, wounds, source of pyogenic infection or evidence of sepsis should be looked for and where indicated, swabs should be taken
  27. 27.  Sanitary facilities and practices used in the plants or shops should be recorded If a particular farm is suspected a detailed veterinary record of the animals should be obtained with particular attention to recent cases of mastitis Pooled milk samples from 1 or several animals should be taken aseptically, immediately cooled and held cool until delivered to the laboratory for examination After identification of suspected animals carrying the causative organism, the individual sample should be obtained All suspected specimens should be collected for investigation of outbreak