Session - 1Session - 1Basics Of ComputersBasics Of ComputersVIVEK KUMAR SINGHvivek@bhu.ac.in
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 22A Desktop MachineA Desktop Machine
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 33A Computer SystemA Computer System• Hardware• Softwa...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 44A Computer System (Contd.)A Computer System (Contd.)...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 55SoftwareSoftware• Software is set of programs (which...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 66Software (Contd.)Software (Contd.)System Software• I...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 77Software (Contd..)Software (Contd..)Application Soft...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 88Advantages of Using ComputersAdvantages of Using Com...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 99History of Evolution Of ComputersHistory of Evolutio...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1010Types of ComputersTypes of ComputersOn the basis o...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1111Language of ComputersLanguage of Computers• Comput...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1212Computer NetworkComputer Network• A Computer Netwo...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1313Types Of Computer NetworksTypes Of Computer Networ...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1414Benefits of Computer NetworksBenefits of Computer ...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1515InternetInternet• Internet is a huge network of co...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1616End Of Session #1ANY Queries ??????
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1717CPU ( Central Processing Unit)CPU ( Central Proces...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1818VDU (Monitor)VDU (Monitor)• This is the television...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1919KeyboardKeyboard• The keyboard looks like a typewr...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2020• Its a device that is used to control the compute...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2121PrinterPrinter• A printer is designed to output in...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2222ScannerScanner• A scanner is a device used to copy...
Session # 2Session # 2Inside The CPU CabinetInside The CPU Cabinet
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2424A Look Inside.A Look Inside.FloppyCD
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2525powersupplyharddrivemotherboardA Look Inside ..CD-...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2626A Look Inside…A Look Inside…• Identify all the maj...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2828What these components do.What these components do....
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2929What these components do..What these components do...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3030What these components do…What these components do…...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3131Power SupplyPower SupplySMPS – Switch Mode Power S...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3232MotherboMotherboardard
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3333CPUCPUExamples: Intel Family – Pentium 4, 3, 2, Pe...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3434RAMRAM
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3535Hard DriveHard DriveWe won’t remove this.
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3636Floppy DriveFloppy Drive
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3737CD-ROM Drive
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3838Ribbon CablesRibbon Cablespolarized
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3939Video Card
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4040Sound Card
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4141Back ofBack ofComputerComputerRemove these screws
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4242
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4343End of Session # 2End of Session # 2Queries???Quer...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4444CPUCPU• The central processing unit or (CPU) is th...
Session # 3Computer Peripherals
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4646Major PeripheralsMajor Peripherals• Keyboard• Mous...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4747KeyboardKeyboard• Keypad contains:– Alphabets– Num...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4848MouseMouse• Pointing & Click Device.• Two / Three ...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4949Hard DiskHard Disk• Magnetic Memory Device.• Non-r...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5050Floppy DiskFloppy Disk• Magnetic Memory Device.• R...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5151CD ROMCD ROM• Optical Device.• Removable Storage.•...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5252PrinterPrinter• Output Device, Produces Hard Copy•...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5353ScannerScanner• Input Device, Converts a hard copy...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5454End of Session #3End of Session #3Queries???
Session - 4Session - 4Overview of Operating SystemOverview of Operating System
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5656What is Operating SystemWhat is Operating SystemO...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5757Computer Machine(Hardware)User / ProgrammerOperati...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5858Types of OSTypes of OSMultiprogramming OSMultita...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5959A Second ClassificationA Second ClassificationThis...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6060Functions of OSFunctions of OSFile ManagementMem...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6161Types of ProcessingTypes of ProcessingSerial Proc...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6262MS-DOS OverviewMS-DOS Overview MS-DOS is an acron...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6363What is CommandWhat is Command It is a string of ...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6464Entering the DOS EnvironmentEntering the DOS Envir...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6565Files and DirectoryFiles and DirectoryFiles A fil...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6666Filenames in DOS?Filenames in DOS? The filename i...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6767Organization of files in DOSOrganization of files ...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6868Organization of files in DOS (Contd.)Organization ...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6969Organization of files in DOS (Contd.)Organization ...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7070Some DOS CommandsSome DOS Commandsdir: Listing of ...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7171Some DOS Commands (Contd.)Some DOS Commands (Contd...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7272Some DOS Commands (Contd.)Some DOS Commands (Contd...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7373Some DOS Commands (Contd.)Some DOS Commands (Contd...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7474Some DOS Commands (Contd.)Some DOS Commands (Contd...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7575Overview of WindowsOverview of Windows Windows is...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7676Folders and DocumentsFolders and Documents Folder...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7777End of Session #4End of Session #4Queries???
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7878QUIZQUIZ1. Name any four devices of a Computer.Key...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7979QUIZQUIZ3. What is the unit of measuring the speed...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 8080QUIZQUIZ5. Name any three storage devices.Hard Dis...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 8181QUIZQUIZ7. What is Internet?It is the network of n...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 8282QUIZQUIZ9.What is the use of Scanner?It is used to...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 8383QUIZQUIZ11. What is the difference between Primary...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 8484QUIZQUIZ12. What is MODEM. Why it is required?It i...
06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 8585QUIZQUIZ14. What is the command in DOS to see thec...
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  • Now click on the folder “From your Teacher” Then click on the Document “Welcome to Class” Explain the software program that was used to create this document.
  • Comp intro

    1. 1. Session - 1Session - 1Basics Of ComputersBasics Of ComputersVIVEK KUMAR SINGHvivek@bhu.ac.in
    2. 2. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 22A Desktop MachineA Desktop Machine
    3. 3. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 33A Computer SystemA Computer System• Hardware• Software• UserHardwareSoftwareUser
    4. 4. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 44A Computer System (Contd.)A Computer System (Contd.)• In general, a computer is a machine whichaccepts data, processes it and returns newinformation as output.Data InformationProcessing
    5. 5. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 55SoftwareSoftware• Software is set of programs (which are step bystep instructions) telling the computer how toprocess data.• Software needs to be installed on a computer,usually from a CD.• Softwares can be divided into two groups:- System SW- Application SW
    6. 6. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 66Software (Contd.)Software (Contd.)System Software• It controls the overall operation of the system.• It is stored in the computers memory andinstructs the computer to load, store, andexecute an application.• Examples: Operating System (OS), TranslatorsDOS, Windows, Unix etc.
    7. 7. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 77Software (Contd..)Software (Contd..)Application Software• They are Softwares written to perform specifictasks.• The basic types of application software are:word processing, database, spreadsheet,desktop publishing, and communication.Examples: MSOffice, Tally, MSOutlook,ISBS, MODBANKER BANKSOFT
    8. 8. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 88Advantages of Using ComputersAdvantages of Using Computers• Speed: Computers can carry out instructions in lessthan a millionth of a second.• Accuracy : Computers can do the calculations withouterrors and very accurately.• Diligence : Computers are capable of performing anytask given to them repetitively.• Storage Capacity : Computers can store largevolume of data and information on magnetic media.
    9. 9. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 99History of Evolution Of ComputersHistory of Evolution Of ComputersTwo Eras:• Mechanical Era (Before 1945)• Electronic Era (1945 - )Can be divided into generations.• First Generation (1945 – 1954)• Second Generation (1955 – 1964)• Third Generation (1965 – 1974)• Fourth Generation (1975 - )
    10. 10. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1010Types of ComputersTypes of ComputersOn the basis of Computing Power & Size:• Laptop / Palmtop• Micro Computer / Desktop• Mini Computer / Mainframe• Super Computer
    11. 11. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1111Language of ComputersLanguage of Computers• Computers only understand the electronicsignals.Either Current is flowing or not.• Current Flowing : ON• Current Not Flowing : OFF• Binary Language• ON : 1• OFF : 0• Bit, Byte, KB, MB, GB
    12. 12. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1212Computer NetworkComputer Network• A Computer Network is interconnection ofComputers to share resources.• Resources can be : Information, Load,Devices etc.
    13. 13. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1313Types Of Computer NetworksTypes Of Computer NetworksOn the basis of Size:• Local Area Network (LAN)Its a network of the computers locally i.e. inone room, one building.• Wide Area Network (WAN)Its a network of the computers spread widelygeographically.
    14. 14. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1414Benefits of Computer NetworksBenefits of Computer Networks• Information Sharing• Device Sharing• Load Sharing• Mobility• Fast Communication• Anywhere Anytime Banking
    15. 15. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1515InternetInternet• Internet is a huge network of computer networks.• Internet provides many services:– Email– World Wide Web (www)– Remote Login (Telnet)– File Transfer (FTP)
    16. 16. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1616End Of Session #1ANY Queries ??????
    17. 17. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1717CPU ( Central Processing Unit)CPU ( Central Processing Unit)• The central processing unit (CPU), alsoknown as just a "processor”, is the "brain"of your computer.• It contains various electronic circuits.
    18. 18. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1818VDU (Monitor)VDU (Monitor)• This is the television-like screen where the resultsof a computers tasks are displayed.• Monitors come in all sizes, but most commonlythey are either 15 or 17 inches(measured diagonally from one corner of thescreen to the opposite corner).
    19. 19. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 1919KeyboardKeyboard• The keyboard looks like a typewriter.• It contains all the letters of the alphabet,numbers and some special symbols.• It operates like a typewriter keypad, butinstead of moving an arm, which strikes thepaper, it sends an electronic impulse to thecomputer, which displays a character on themonitor.
    20. 20. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2020• Its a device that is used to control the computer.A cable connects the mouse to the computer.• When the mouse is moved on a pad, called amouse pad, the cursor on the screen moves.• A cursor is a small symbol displayed on thecomputer screen (normally a diagonal arrow thatis used as a pointer) that shows you what themouse is referencing on the screen.MouseMouse
    21. 21. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2121PrinterPrinter• A printer is designed to output informationfrom a computer onto a piece of paper.• There are three kinds of printers:dot matrix, laser, and inkjet.
    22. 22. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2222ScannerScanner• A scanner is a device used to copy an image offpaper and convert it into a digital image, whichcan be saved as a computer file and stored on ahard drive.• Scanners can also use a special kind oftechnology called Optical Character Recognition(OCR) to read text from paper and save it as aneditable document file
    23. 23. Session # 2Session # 2Inside The CPU CabinetInside The CPU Cabinet
    24. 24. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2424A Look Inside.A Look Inside.FloppyCD
    25. 25. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2525powersupplyharddrivemotherboardA Look Inside ..CD-ROMdrivefloppydrivecards
    26. 26. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2626A Look Inside…A Look Inside…• Identify all the major components:– Power Supply– Motherboard– Memory– Card Slots– Cards (sound, video, network)– CPU, heatsink and fan– Drives (floppy, hard and CD-ROM)
    27. 27. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2828What these components do.What these components do.• Power Supply – (heart) supplies power to all the circuitryand devices.• Motherboard – (body) acts as a manager for everythingon the computer – connects all the other componentstogether.• CPU – Central Processing Unit – (brain) this does all thework of computing.
    28. 28. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 2929What these components do..What these components do..• RAM – Random Access Memory – (short-termmemory) holds data and program instructionsthat the computer is currently using.• Hard Drive – (long-term memory) holds all of theinformation that needs to be stored betweenuses of the computer.• Floppy and CD-ROM drives – (mouth/ears) allowyou to give data to the computer and take dataaway from the computer.
    29. 29. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3030What these components do…What these components do…• Card Slots – (fingers) Allows other components tobe added to the computer.• Video card – (face) Does all of the processingnecessary to get stuff looking nice on screen,quickly.• Sound card – (vocal cords) Allows sounds fromHD or CD-ROM to be played.• Network Card – (telephone) allows computer totalk to other computers over a wire.
    30. 30. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3131Power SupplyPower SupplySMPS – Switch Mode Power SupplySwitching TransistorsOutputs + 5V, -5V, +12 V, -12 VTypical Costs are:• ATX – Rs.700• Non ATX – Rs.300Usually, SMPS comes with the CPU Cabinet.
    31. 31. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3232MotherboMotherboardard
    32. 32. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3333CPUCPUExamples: Intel Family – Pentium 4, 3, 2, Pentium,XEON, ItaniumAMD -- Athlon, K62IBM -- CyrixMotorola -- 68000 SeriesCUALUMemoryRegisters• A Single Chip
    33. 33. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3434RAMRAM
    34. 34. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3535Hard DriveHard DriveWe won’t remove this.
    35. 35. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3636Floppy DriveFloppy Drive
    36. 36. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3737CD-ROM Drive
    37. 37. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3838Ribbon CablesRibbon Cablespolarized
    38. 38. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 3939Video Card
    39. 39. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4040Sound Card
    40. 40. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4141Back ofBack ofComputerComputerRemove these screws
    41. 41. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4242
    42. 42. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4343End of Session # 2End of Session # 2Queries???Queries???
    43. 43. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4444CPUCPU• The central processing unit or (CPU) is the "brain"of your computer. It contains the electronic circuitsthat cause the computer to follow instructionsfrom memory.• The CPU contains three main parts, all housedin a single package (Chip):–Control Unit (CU)–Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)–MemoryBACK
    44. 44. Session # 3Computer Peripherals
    45. 45. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4646Major PeripheralsMajor Peripherals• Keyboard• Mouse• Hard Disk• Floppy Disk• CD ROM• Printer• Scanner• Joystick
    46. 46. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4747KeyboardKeyboard• Keypad contains:– Alphabets– Numbers– Special Symbols– Function Keys• qwert Keyboard (Typewriter Keyboard).• On key press it sends a code (ASCII Code) to the CPU.• Plug N Play device.• Typical Cost is Rs.300 – Rs.1200
    47. 47. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4848MouseMouse• Pointing & Click Device.• Two / Three Buttons• Wheel / Optical Mouse• Normally Left Click – Select/ RunRight Click – Popup Menu• Typical Cost is Rs.100 – Rs1000
    48. 48. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 4949Hard DiskHard Disk• Magnetic Memory Device.• Non-removable storage device.• Several Circular Magnetic Disks are housed in asingle case.• Data is stored as 1s & 0s.• Typical Capacity is 20 GB -80 GB• Typical Cost is Rs.2200 – Rs6000• Cost/Bit is Low.
    49. 49. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5050Floppy DiskFloppy Disk• Magnetic Memory Device.• Removable storage.• A single circular mylar plastic disk, coated with magneticmaterial is packed in a protective plastic casing.• Typical size is 3.5” & Capacity is 1.44MB• Typical Costs are:• Floppy Drive -- Rs.300• Floppy Disk -- Rs.10
    50. 50. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5151CD ROMCD ROM• Optical Device.• Removable Storage.• Read Only Memory.• Typical Capacity is 550 Mb – 800MB• Typical Costs are:• Drive -- Rs.1000• Disk Rs10 – Rs.35• Related Terms:• CD Writer• WORM• CD RW
    51. 51. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5252PrinterPrinter• Output Device, Produces Hard Copy• Types:– Dot Matrix– Inkjet– Laser• Typical Cost Ranges from Rs.3500 – Rs.2 lacs• Related Terms:– Impact – Non Impact– Ribbon, Cartridge, Toner, Duty Cycle• Major Vendors in India:– HP, Cannon, Samsung, TVS, Epson etc.
    52. 52. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5353ScannerScanner• Input Device, Converts a hard copy into acomputer file.• Used to Scan Signatures, Photographs etc.• Optical Device.• Typical Cost Rs.4000 – Rs.75000• Major Vendors in India:– HP, Umax, Cannon• Nowadays Scanners with OCR produceseditable documents.
    53. 53. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5454End of Session #3End of Session #3Queries???
    54. 54. Session - 4Session - 4Overview of Operating SystemOverview of Operating System
    55. 55. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5656What is Operating SystemWhat is Operating SystemOS is system software, which may be viewed ascollection of software consisting of procedures foroperating the computer.It provides an environment for execution of programs(application software).It’s an interface between user & computer.
    56. 56. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5757Computer Machine(Hardware)User / ProgrammerOperating SystemHuman UnderstandableLanguage (High Level Language)Machine Language (LowLevel Language)
    57. 57. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5858Types of OSTypes of OSMultiprogramming OSMultitasking/MultiprocessingMultiuser OSTime Sharing OSReal Time OSDistributed OS
    58. 58. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 5959A Second ClassificationA Second ClassificationThis Classification is based on the type of interfaceOperating System provides for the user to work in.Character User Interface (CUI)The User has to type the commands on thecommand prompt to get the work completed.Ex. DOS, UNIX.Graphical User Interface (GUI)The User need not type any commands. He/Shejust point and clicks on the desired Icon to get thework done.Ex. Windows (9X, XP, NT, 2000), Linux.
    59. 59. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6060Functions of OSFunctions of OSFile ManagementMemory ManagementProcess ManagementDevice Management
    60. 60. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6161Types of ProcessingTypes of ProcessingSerial ProcessingThe job is processed at the time whenit is submitted.Batch ProcessingThe similar jobs are bunched together andare kept for processing at an later time.
    61. 61. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6262MS-DOS OverviewMS-DOS Overview MS-DOS is an acronym for MicroSoft Disk Operating System It is a CUI based operating system. It provides user with a command prompt (generally called as C:) wherevarious command could be typed. When one operates in the DOS environment, one interacts with thecommand interpreter, which interprets the commands given by user. It provides an environment for execution of various application programslike MS-Word, MODBANKER, ISBS etc.
    62. 62. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6363What is CommandWhat is Command It is a string of characters which tells the computer what to do. When one types commands to a computer, one is conversingwith the operating systems command interpreter. For example, to copy a file called file.txt from the 3-1/2"floppy drive to the hard drive, one could typeC:> copy a:file.txt c:The word "copy" is a DOS command which causes files to becopied from one location to another
    63. 63. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6464Entering the DOS EnvironmentEntering the DOS Environment If the OS is DOS then the system will directly show prompt (C:>) If the OS is windows one must either terminate the Windows environment, oropen a DOS shell within the Windows environment.IstMethod: Terminating Windows EnvironmentSelect “Restart in MS-DOS Mode” from Shut Down in StartMenu.IIndMethod: Opening DOS Shell in WindowsSelect Start>Programs>Accessories>Command Prompt (XP)Start>Programs>Accessories>MS-DOS Prompt (98)
    64. 64. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6565Files and DirectoryFiles and DirectoryFiles A file is a collection of Records. It is the smallest unit of File System (Storage) in a computer. Any document created using computer is a file. This document could either be aletter, any excel sheet, any image or even a database.Directory A collection of files is directory (in DOS) or folder (in Windows) It is analogous to the Office Folder which contains various documents. A directory/folder eases the management of related files/ documents, like thevarious circulars related to personnel could be placed in a directory called“personnel” and all the circulars related to loans could be placed in a directorycalled “loans”.
    65. 65. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6666Filenames in DOS?Filenames in DOS? The filename in DOS have the following format.<name>.<ext> It has two parts the name and the extension. The name could be of 8 characters and the extension of 3characters. The filename can contain alphabets and numbers. It cannotcontain any special character other than underscore (_) andalso no spaces.
    66. 66. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6767Organization of files in DOSOrganization of files in DOSThe DOS file system is a hierarchical file system.Files are collected into directories, and directories may containboth files and other directories.There is always a directory which is not contained by anyother, called the root which is represented by the backslash character.
    67. 67. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6868Organization of files in DOS (Contd.)Organization of files in DOS (Contd.)Concept of Path: Every file can be specified by enumeratingall of the directories between the root and it, separated by thebackslash character, and appending the file name to the end.The drive which contains the root is specified at the head ofthe path, separated from the root by a colon (:)The hard drive is most commonly known as the C: drive, andthe floppy drives are usually called A:(3-1/2 inch) and B: (5-1/4 inch).
    68. 68. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 6969Organization of files in DOS (Contd.)Organization of files in DOS (Contd.)/circulars loans personneljanuary februaryretire.txtrest.txt abc.txtofficer.txt new.datFig. Hierarchical Structure of Files
    69. 69. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7070Some DOS CommandsSome DOS Commandsdir: Listing of all the directories.C:> dircls: Clears the screen.C:> clscopy con: Creates a file.C:> copy con <filename>< Write your Contents Here>Press Ctrl-Z (^Z) to finish writing.Ex: C:> copy con test.datLets Make UCO a top class Bank.Ctrl-Z (^Z)1 file(s) copied. (A Message will be shown on the system)This will create a file named test.dat having some data.
    70. 70. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7171Some DOS Commands (Contd.)Some DOS Commands (Contd.)edit: Edits a file.C:> edit <filename>This will open a editor window where the contents of file can be seen. Thesecontents could also be edited here and on saving, the contents of file willchange.type: Displays the content of a file.C:> type <filename>This will display the contents of file on the computer. The contents of file couldonly be viewed but could not be changed, as in the case of edit.
    71. 71. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7272Some DOS Commands (Contd.)Some DOS Commands (Contd.)md: Make Directory.C:> md (directory name>This will create a directory with the specified name.cd: Change Directory.C:> cd (directory name>This will change the directory from current directory to the specified directory.rd: Remove Directory.C:> rd (directory name>If the directory is needed to be removed permanently from the computer, usethis command. For this command to be executed it is necessary that thedirectory should be empty and user should be on a directory above it.
    72. 72. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7373Some DOS Commands (Contd.)Some DOS Commands (Contd.)copy: Copies a file.C:> copy <source> <destination>This will copy the file from the source location to the specified destination. Thecommand creates a copy of the file on the destination i.e. the file would befound on both the location.move: Moves a file.C:> move <source> <destination>This will move the file from the source location to the specified destination.The file from the source location would be removed and would be moved to thedestination.
    73. 73. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7474Some DOS Commands (Contd.)Some DOS Commands (Contd.)ren: Renames a file.C:> ren <old filename> <new filename>This will change the name (rename) of the file to a new name asspecified.del: Deletes a file.C:> del <filename>This will delete the file permanently from the system.
    74. 74. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7575Overview of WindowsOverview of Windows Windows is an GUI based operating system. It is also developed by Microsoft Corporation, which is headed byMr. Bill Gates. Over the years the Microsoft have evolved various versions ofWindows. Win95, Win98, Win2000, Win ME, Win NT, Win XP. It gives user a handy environment where he doesn’t have toremember and learn the syntaxes of various commands as is the casein DOS. The user can just point and click on the Icons provided to him on thescreen.
    75. 75. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7676Folders and DocumentsFolders and Documents Folders are a way to organize your documents within drives in Windows asare the directories in DOS. A document is each thing that you create on a computer. A document canbe made using any type of software.
    76. 76. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7777End of Session #4End of Session #4Queries???
    77. 77. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7878QUIZQUIZ1. Name any four devices of a Computer.Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Light Pen.2. What is the job of CPU?Central Processing Unit controls andcoordinates all the activities of the computer.
    78. 78. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 7979QUIZQUIZ3. What is the unit of measuring the speed of theprocessor?Mega Hertz or Kilo Hertz ( No. of CPUCycles/second)4. What is a computer network?It is interconnection of computers to make aLAN,MAN or WAN.
    79. 79. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 8080QUIZQUIZ5. Name any three storage devices.Hard Disk, Magnetic Tape, Compact Disk.6. What is command to create directory?C:>MD <<dir-name>>
    80. 80. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 8181QUIZQUIZ7. What is Internet?It is the network of networks.8. What are different types of printers?Dot Matrix Printer, InkjetLaser
    81. 81. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 8282QUIZQUIZ9.What is the use of Scanner?It is used to copy the real image onpaper to be stored as digital image inthe computer.10. Why Operating system is required?It is required to provide the interfacebetween the user and the computer.
    82. 82. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 8383QUIZQUIZ11. What is the difference between PrimaryStorage and Secondary Storage?Primary Storage is temporary storage,fast and costly.Secondary storage is permanent, slow andcheap.
    83. 83. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 8484QUIZQUIZ12. What is MODEM. Why it is required?It is Modulator Demodulator. It is used toconnect the PC to the Internet using AnalogTelephone Lines.13. What is the maximum length of filename in DOS?First Name- 8 characters, Last Name- 3characters.
    84. 84. 06/13/1306/13/13 Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers 8585QUIZQUIZ14. What is the command in DOS to see thecontents of the file?C:> Type<<File Name>>15. What are the two types of Software?Systems SoftwareApplication Software

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