INTRODUCTIONSea ports are historic, commercial andinfrastructural assets that form the backbone ofnational and regional economies.OUTLINE:Main features and operations of portsImportance of portsEvolution of portsTypes of portsPort management
MAIN FEATURES & OPERATIONS OF PORTS:Ports reflect national heritage, local commercialattitudes, practices, and laws that differ widely betweennations.Ports require long-term, expensive, and specializedinvestments and resources that represent a substantialchunk of national economy.Ports are large civil engineering undertakings and acollection of activities entailing huge sunk costs.Ports provide ship/shore intermodal interface.
The advent of intermodalism has caused ports to competefor cargoes. This has jolted businesses to increase portefficiency and value-added activities in recent years.Value-added activities range from cargo loading and discharging, industrial services in ports, combining and separating cargoes, up-to-date information on inventory and cargo movements, stuffing/de-stuffing containers, loading cargo in crates and crates on pallets, shrink-wrapping, labeling, weighing, repackaging.
Civil engineering features: Sea and land access Infrastructures for ships berthing & unberthing Road and rail networks Industrial area managementAdministrative functions: Control of all modes of vehicles entering and leaving the port Environmental control Dangerous and hazardous cargo control Safety and security within the port area Immigration, health, customs, and commercial documentary control
Hong Kong Port Container Terminalhttp://my.hktdc.com/photolib/showhk.asp?id=0700036
Operational functions: Facilitating arrival and departure of ships Providing navigational aids and Vessel Traffic Separation (VTS) facilities Pilotage, tugging and mooring activities Use of berths, sheds, etc Loading, discharging, storage and distribution of cargo Facilitating supply chain logistics and management
WHY ARE SEAPORTS IMPORTANT?Seaports are a haven with facilities for berthing andanchoring ships and providing equipment for transfer ofgoods from ship-shore, shore-ship & ship-ship.Ports function as distribution centers; industrial zones; energy supply bases; mercantile trading centers with banks, brokers, and traders; urbanization and city redevelopment centers; life activity bases in rural ports; maritime leisure bases in cruise passenger ship terminals; private yacht marinas;
Ports form a vital aspect of the national transportinfrastructure.Ports form the main transport link with theirinternational trading partners and are a focal point fornational and regional motorways and railways.Ports are a blessing for national prosperity – theyprovide a gateway for trade and attract commercialinfrastructure such as banks, shipping agencies, freightforwarders, stevedores, etc.Ports create a hustle and bustle of industrial activity.Ports are places where foreign cultures and ideasinfluence a nation.
Ports are a focal point with shallow waters whereships converge thereby making them vulnerable tomaritime accidents.Ports are places where valuables are concentrated andwhere cargo can be damaged or stolen during handling.Ports are places where repairs and/or plannedmaintenance is carried out on ships. Ports are places where costly delays can occur, ships are surveyed, most shipping services – agents, brokers, etc are located, cargoes come from, and customs and government policies are implemented.
EVOLUTION OF PORTSPorts have evolved over timeTheir development phases can be classified as follows: First Generation Port: Existed before and until 1960s Comprised of a basic cargo interface between land and sea transport Isolated from transport and trade activities Resembled an independent kingdom Isolation between different port activities Usually a bulk cargo port
Second Generation Port: During 1960s – 1980s They were developed transport, industrial and commercial service centres Offered various types of industrial and commercial activities They reflected sophisticated port policies and development strategies Provided industrial facilities within the port area Well developed network of transport infrastructure They integrated different activities and zonal relationships
Third Generation Port: From 1980 onwards Arose from global containerization, inter- modalism, and booming trade requirements They are hubs of international production and distribution Combine traditional, specialized and integrated activities Well-planned infrastructure and information processing facilities Offer value-added services User friendly Offer simplified customs procedures More environmentally conscious
Nagoya Port, Japanhttp://www.iaphworldports.org/gallery/img/Nagoya2_jpg.jpg
DIFFERENT TYPES OF PORTSHub, center or mega port – a major port dealing withinternational trade. Example: Rotterdam in TheNetherlands.Feeder port – to feed and distribute cargo from majorports. Example: Port Riga in Latvia provides feederservice to Hamburg in Germany.Entrepot or transit port – serves as a transit port.Example: Batumi seaport in Georgia is a transit port forKazakh and Azerbaijan.Domestic port – provides a natural outlet forsurrounding hinterland. Example: Jafarabad port inIndia.
An aerial view of Rotterdam Port in The Netherlandshttp://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=164137&page=4Rotterdam
PORT MANAGEMENT – A BRIEFPorts last longer than ships and this requires the portmanagement to avoid any costly blunders.Ports are classified according to their ownership oradministration. Basic types are: State owned ports Autonomous ports Municipal owned ports Private owned portsThere is an impetus to increase private ownership ofports.
Ports are governed by various types of boards such as Representative Board – consisting of persons representing interests concerned with port operation Board of Experts – consisting of members with proven expertise Two Tier Boards – consisting of one tier to run the port on day-to-day basis and other tier to plan and implement major policies
Port management aims to: Operate with overall cost-leadership Minimize user payment by ensuring quick ship turnover in port Minimize through-transport costs Minimize port costs Maximize benefits To port owners To the town, region or nation Generate employment
CONCLUSIONPorts have historical, commercial andinfrastructural significance.They form the backbone of national andregional economies.Supporting efficient port operations andmanagement is vital for national prosperity.
ReferencesAlderton P.M. (1999). Port Management & Operations.London: LLPGrammenos Costas Th. (2002). The Handbook ofMaritime Economics and Business. London: InformaProfessional.