“ Short-Term Performance Effects of Weight Training with Multiple Sets Not to Failure vs. a Single Set to Failure in Women.” Sanborn, Kimberly, Rhonda Boros, Joe Hruby, Brian Schilling, Harold S. O’Bryant, Robert L. Johnson, Tommy Hoke, Meg E. Stone, and Michael H. Stone. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 14: 328-331, 2000. ERNIE RIMER MULTIPLE SET VS. SINGLE SET RESISTANCE TRAINING
RESISTANCE TRAINING CONTINUUM
Free Weight Exercises
Multiple Sets Per Exercise
Repetitions Not Performed to Failure
Machine Based Exercises
Circuit Training – One Set Per Exercise
Repetitions Performed to Failure
Regimens Exist Along Entire Continuum:
Hi Intensity with Free Weights
Machines with Multiple Sets
Machines and Free Weights
Multiple Sets and Single Sets
Multiple Sets to Failure
Several Other Variables Exist:
MODE: Specificity, Single Joint, Multiple Joint, etc.
INTENSITY: Volume, Load, Rest, etc.
FREQUENCY: Workouts Sessions Per Week
DURATION: Total Training Time
TODAY’S FOCUS: Multiple Set Exercises not to Failure Versus Single Set Exercises to Failure.
MULTIPLE SET NOT TO FAILURE VS. SINGLE SETS TO FAILURE
To Evaluate Short-term muscular strength and power
adaptations in women created from free weight resistance
training consisting of multiple sets not to failure versus
single sets to failure.
Multiple sets not to failure provide greater short-term
muscular adaptations in women than single sets to failure.
SUBJECTS: 17 Untrained College Females Divided into Multiple
Set and Single Set Training Groups.
TESTING: Maximal Leg Strength with 1RM Squat and Maximal
Leg Power with Vertical Jump before and after Training Period.
Both Groups Trained 3 days/week for Eight Weeks. Each Group Worked the Entire Body while Performing the Same Multijoint Exercises in Each Session.
The Single Set Training Group Performed 1 Set of 8-12 Reps to Failure for each Exercise during each Session, and Increased Load 2.5-5 Kg after Completing More than 12 Reps.
The Multiple Set Training Group Performed 3 sets of a Prescribed Weight and Repetitions per Exercise, and each Session Varied between Heavy and Light Workouts. Reps were Explosive and Lifted as Fast as Possible.
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS MAXIMAL LEG STRENGTH (1RM SQUAT): Both Groups Improved Significantly, but the Multiple Set Group Showed Greater Adaptations. The Multiple Set Group Increased By 34.7% , and the Single Set Group Increased By 24.2 %. MAXIMAL LEG POWER (VERTICAL JUMP): Only the Multiple Set Group Showed Significant Increases. The Multiple Set Group Increased By 11.2%, and the Single Set Group only Showed a 0.3% Increase.
INDICATION: Performing Free Weight Multiple Set Exercises not to Failure Improves Short-Term Muscle Strength and Power in Untrained Women to a Greater Extent than Performing Single Set Free Weight Exercises to Failure.
ARE THESE FINDINGS ACCURATE? WHAT VARIABLES CONTRIBUTED TO GAINS? WHY WERE MULTIPLE SET BETTER?
JUST MULTIPLE SETS?
Neuromuscular Adaptations Contributed to the Early Strength Gains in Both Groups, but Why Did the Multiple Set Group Show Greater Improvements in Strength and Power?
However, Several Other Variables Contributed to the Larger Gains in the Multiple Set Group.
3 - 5 REPS PER SET
HEAVY & LIGHT DAYS
8 – 12 REPS SET
ONLY HEAVY DAYS
NON EXPLOSIVE REPS
DID OTHER VARIABLES HELP?
HEAVY & LIGHT DAYS:
STRENGH: 4 – 8 Reps
ENDURANCE: 8 – 12 + Reps
Wath e n et. al. 2000
HEAVY ASSISTS STRENGTH
LIGHT ASSISTS POWER
Force Velocity and Power Velocity Relationships? Harris et. al. 2000
The Lower Repetitions Most Likely Assisted the Strength Gains in the Multiple Set Group.
Did The Single Set Group Improve Muscular Endurance? Not Tested!
The Heavy & Light Complex Training Most Likely Assisted Power Gains in the Multiple Set Group.
DO MULTIPLE SETS WORK?
Kramer et al. (1997) Demonstrated that Multiple Sets Not to Failure Improves Maximal Leg Strength to a Greater Extent Than Single Sets To Failure.
Gotshalk et. al. (1997) Showed that Multiple Sets Not To Failure Significantly Increased Acute Growth Hormone and Testosterone Levels to a Greater Extent Than Single Sets To Failure.
MULTIPLE SET ROUTINES INDUCE GREATER OVERLOAD ON THE BODY!
Schlumber et. al. (2001) Showed that Multiple Sets to Failure Improved Strength greater than Multiple Sets Not to Failure. Still More Work!
PROBLEM : Greater Recovery Time. Does that Matter?
Hass et. al. (2000) Found that after ONE YEAR of training with Multiple Sets to Failure or Single Sets to Failure, Both Groups Showed Significant Strength and Adaptations with no difference between the Groups.
HMMM? Maybe It Doesn’t Matter after Prolonged Training?
ALTHOUGH BIAS DOES EXIST IN THE RESEARCH, MULTIPLE SET RESISTANCE TRAINING APPEARS TO INDUCE A GREATER WORK LOAD ON THE BODY WHICH SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVES MUSCLE STRENGTH TO A MUCH GREATER EXTENT THAN SINGLE SET EXERCISES TO FAILURE.
Gotshalk, L.A., C.C. Loebel, B.C. Nindl, M. Putukian, W.J. Sebastienelli, R.U. Newton, K.Hakkinen, and W.J. Kraemer. “Hormonal Responses of Multiset Versus Single-Set Heavy-Resistance Exercise Protocols.” Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology . 11:244-55, 1997.
Harris, G.R., M.H. Stone, H.S. O’Bryant, S.M. Proul, and R.L. Johnson. “Short-Term Performance Effects of High Power, High Force, of Combined Weight-Training Methods.” The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research . 14: 14-20, 2000.
Hass, C.J., L. Garzarella, D. de Hoyas, M.L. Pollock. “Single vs. Multiple Sets in Long-Term Recreational Weightlifters.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise . 32:235-42, 2000.
Kramer, J.B., M.H. Stone, S.H. O-Bryant, M.S. Conley, R.L. Johnson, D.C. Niemen, D.R. Honeycutt, T.P. Hoke. “Effects of single vs. Multiple Weight Training: Impact on Volume, Intensity, and Variation.” The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 11: 211-18, 1997.
Schlumbeger, A., J.Stec, and D. Schmidtbleicher. “Single vs. Multiple-Set Strength Training in Women.” The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research . 15: 284-89, 2001.
Wathen, D., T.R. Baechle, and R.W. Earle. “Training Variation: Periodization.” Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning . Eds. Thomas R. Baechle and Roger W. Earle. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2000. 513-28.
See Dr. Coast’s Website for an Extremely Detailed Multiple Set Prescription Chart for Your Own Personal Use.
For any Questions about How to Use the Charts:
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