“ Short-Term Performance Effects of Weight Training with Multiple Sets Not to Failure vs. a Single Set to Failure in Women.” Sanborn, Kimberly, Rhonda Boros, Joe Hruby, Brian Schilling, Harold S. O’Bryant, Robert L. Johnson, Tommy Hoke, Meg E. Stone, and Michael H. Stone. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 14: 328-331, 2000. ERNIE RIMER MULTIPLE SET VS. SINGLE SET RESISTANCE TRAINING
SUBJECTS: 17 Untrained College Females Divided into Multiple
Set and Single Set Training Groups.
TESTING: Maximal Leg Strength with 1RM Squat and Maximal
Leg Power with Vertical Jump before and after Training Period.
Both Groups Trained 3 days/week for Eight Weeks. Each Group Worked the Entire Body while Performing the Same Multijoint Exercises in Each Session.
The Single Set Training Group Performed 1 Set of 8-12 Reps to Failure for each Exercise during each Session, and Increased Load 2.5-5 Kg after Completing More than 12 Reps.
The Multiple Set Training Group Performed 3 sets of a Prescribed Weight and Repetitions per Exercise, and each Session Varied between Heavy and Light Workouts. Reps were Explosive and Lifted as Fast as Possible.
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS MAXIMAL LEG STRENGTH (1RM SQUAT): Both Groups Improved Significantly, but the Multiple Set Group Showed Greater Adaptations. The Multiple Set Group Increased By 34.7% , and the Single Set Group Increased By 24.2 %. MAXIMAL LEG POWER (VERTICAL JUMP): Only the Multiple Set Group Showed Significant Increases. The Multiple Set Group Increased By 11.2%, and the Single Set Group only Showed a 0.3% Increase.
INDICATION: Performing Free Weight Multiple Set Exercises not to Failure Improves Short-Term Muscle Strength and Power in Untrained Women to a Greater Extent than Performing Single Set Free Weight Exercises to Failure.
ARE THESE FINDINGS ACCURATE? WHAT VARIABLES CONTRIBUTED TO GAINS? WHY WERE MULTIPLE SET BETTER?
Schlumber et. al. (2001) Showed that Multiple Sets to Failure Improved Strength greater than Multiple Sets Not to Failure. Still More Work!
PROBLEM : Greater Recovery Time. Does that Matter?
Hass et. al. (2000) Found that after ONE YEAR of training with Multiple Sets to Failure or Single Sets to Failure, Both Groups Showed Significant Strength and Adaptations with no difference between the Groups.
HMMM? Maybe It Doesn’t Matter after Prolonged Training?
ALTHOUGH BIAS DOES EXIST IN THE RESEARCH, MULTIPLE SET RESISTANCE TRAINING APPEARS TO INDUCE A GREATER WORK LOAD ON THE BODY WHICH SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVES MUSCLE STRENGTH TO A MUCH GREATER EXTENT THAN SINGLE SET EXERCISES TO FAILURE.
Gotshalk, L.A., C.C. Loebel, B.C. Nindl, M. Putukian, W.J. Sebastienelli, R.U. Newton, K.Hakkinen, and W.J. Kraemer. “Hormonal Responses of Multiset Versus Single-Set Heavy-Resistance Exercise Protocols.” Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology . 11:244-55, 1997.
Harris, G.R., M.H. Stone, H.S. O’Bryant, S.M. Proul, and R.L. Johnson. “Short-Term Performance Effects of High Power, High Force, of Combined Weight-Training Methods.” The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research . 14: 14-20, 2000.
Hass, C.J., L. Garzarella, D. de Hoyas, M.L. Pollock. “Single vs. Multiple Sets in Long-Term Recreational Weightlifters.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise . 32:235-42, 2000.
Kramer, J.B., M.H. Stone, S.H. O-Bryant, M.S. Conley, R.L. Johnson, D.C. Niemen, D.R. Honeycutt, T.P. Hoke. “Effects of single vs. Multiple Weight Training: Impact on Volume, Intensity, and Variation.” The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 11: 211-18, 1997.
Schlumbeger, A., J.Stec, and D. Schmidtbleicher. “Single vs. Multiple-Set Strength Training in Women.” The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research . 15: 284-89, 2001.
Wathen, D., T.R. Baechle, and R.W. Earle. “Training Variation: Periodization.” Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning . Eds. Thomas R. Baechle and Roger W. Earle. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2000. 513-28.