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Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
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Voice over Internet Protocol

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  • PATS: Publicly Available Telephone Service (same as PSTN)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Comparative Telecommunications Law Spring, 2007 Prof. Karl Manheim 13: VoIP Copyright © 2007
    • 2. Basics of Internet Telephony
      • Different network than the PSTN
        • May use some of same physical infrastructure
          • PSTN is circuit-switched; Internet is packet-switched
    • 3. VoIP Technology
      • Packet Switching
        • Analog voice signal converted to digital signal, which is then divided into data “packets”
        • Packets are sent over Internet like other data
        • Reverse process at destination computer
      • Resilient VoIP problems
        • Latency
        • Echo
        • DTMF propagation
      FCC website on IP-enabled services
    • 4. VoIP Technology
      • Voice ≠ POTS telephony
      • In an end-to-end world, applications are defined at the edges
      • Innovation happens
    • 5. VoIP Business Applications
    • 6. VoIP Technology
      • IP Applications
        • All Internet traffic is TCP/IP
          • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
          • Established by IETF (ITU?)
      • Benefits of IP
        • Use of existing open networks @ lower cost
        • Scalable; efficient
        • Limitless variety of applications
        • Geographic independence
      • Skype
        • C-C (free) C-PSTN (traffic-sensitive fee) PSTN-C (nts)
    • 7.  
    • 8. VoIP Economics
      • Internet telephony bypasses telcos,
        • No interconnection obligations
          • Exception: VoIP call from or to standard telephone (e.g., “Computer-to-Phone”, “Phone-to-Phone”)
          • Termination charges apply
        • No Universal Service surcharges (until recently)
      • Competitive pressure on telcos
        • Telcos demand compensation from ISPs
        • Telcos urge regulation/licensing of VoIP
        • Special problem where telco is state-owned
    • 9. VoIP Regulation
      • Regulatory issues generally < FCC fact sheet >
        • Internet not under NRA jurisdiction
          • Advent of unregulated services, displacing regulated ones, is disruptive; may spur general deregulation
        • VoIP defies national boundaries
          • Users are “nomadic” whenever on Internet
        • Numbering (E.164 -> ENUM)
          • t E lephone NU mber M apping; number portability
        • Emergency geolocation (911 / 112)
        • Universal Service
        • Law Enforcement Access/Interception
    • 10. VoIP Regulation in US
      • Pulver.com Free World Dialup (2004)
        • C-C VoIP is
          • Not telecommunications
            • VoIP is merely an application (such as a browser, email)
            • Not a transmission service
          • Not a telecommunications service
            • VoIP providers don’t offer telecommunications
            • No common carrier obligations
          • An information service
            • capability for generating, acquiring, storing, transforming, processing, retrieving, utilizing info via telecommunications
        • Therefore, not regulated by Comm’ns Act.
    • 11. VoIP Regulation in US
      • NPRM: IP-Enabled Services (3/10/2004)
        • Focus on VoIP
          • Offered by telcos and facilities-based telecom cos.
          • Also by Session Initiated Protocol ( SIP ) providers
            • Signaling (ring) used by VoIP, video-conferencing, etc.
        • Beyond VoIP
          • TTY, VPN, IPTV, VOD, ( VoIP Summit – 5/7/2004)
      • First Report and Order (6/3/2005)
        • Limited to E911 service; Wiretap functionality
      • Telecom Act of 2005/06 (pending)
        • Local number portability; Univ.Svc. funding
    • 12. VoIP Regulation in US
      • Order re AT&T Access Charges (4/21/2004)
        • AT&T uses Internet to route interexchange calls
          • LEC -> VoIP -> LEC
          • Bypasses IXC and IXC obligation to compensate destination LEC to terminate calls, but otherwise looks identical to wireline telephony (incl. CPE)
          • So-called “Phone-to-Phone”
        • No reason to treat termination any differently
          • AT&T must pay access charges
          • Order doesn’t apply to Computer-to-Computer VoIP
    • 13. VoIP Regulation in US
      • Order in Vonage VoIP Services (11/9/2004)
        • LECs normally subject to state PUC regulation
          • Joint State Federal Board & Separation requirements
        • C-C VoIP bypasses LECs; therefore not subject to state regulation
          • E.g., E911 services
      • Order in Time-Warner Cable (1 Mar 2007)
        • Wholesale Comm’n Carrier providing VoIP
          • Entitled to ILEC interconnection per § 251(a)(b)
          • Intercon’n to PSTN needed for full VoIP deployment
        • Number portability and resources
    • 14. VoIP Regulation in US
      • E911 Services
        • Interconnected VoIP E911 order (6/3/05) < link >
        • Joint FCC/NARUC Task Force (July 2005)
        • IVoIP compliance required by 11/28/06 < link >
          • Appeal pending before DC Court of Appeals
    • 15. VoIP Regulation in EU
      • EC v. Italy (ECJ 2000)
        • Does Open Networks Provision apply to VoIP?
          • ONP: Council Directive 90/387/EEC
            • Open Access; standards; interoperability
        • No, VoIP is not a voice telephony service
      • VoIP under Telecoms Package (2002)
        • Telecom should be technology neutral
          • No licensing of VoIP (Authorization Directive)
          • But many FPTN obligations apply
            • E.g., if VoIP is marketed as a Publicly Available Telephone Service (PATS) in UK - Voice over Broadband (VoB)
    • 16. VoIP Regulation in EU
      • DGIS Consultation Document (14 June 2004)
        • Application of Telecom. Framework Directives
          • NRA authorization not required for Electronic Communications Services (Internet services)
        • Commission takes “light touch” reg. approach
          • VoIP contributes to creation of single European mkt
          • VoIP providers may be able to compete with PATS
            • Still investigating impact on telephony markets
      • Current Issues < EU fact sheet >
        • Numbering/portability; emergency svcs; Un.Svc
          • See European Regulators’ Group white paper
    • 17. VoIP Regulation in EU
      • Recent Developments
        • Differentiation between VoB and VoIP
          • VoB: as a replacement for standard telephony
          • Subject to ex ante regulation in appropriate cases
        • EC approves ARCEP (FR) decision not to impose ex ante regulation on VoB (2005) < link >
          • Robust competition; FPTN elements regulated
        • EC approves BNetzA (DE) decision to impose ex ante regulation on VDSL (very high speed broadband) < link >
          • May affect market for VoIP and VoB services
    • 18. VoIP Regulation in Asia
      • China
        • Ministry of Information Industry (MII)
          • Not regulated, at least if bypasses PSTN
          • Very competitive; many calling cards use VoIP
      • Singapore
        • Info-Communications Development Auth. (IDA)
          • Interconnection req’d; reg. forbearance; no E911
      • Korea
        • Ministry of Information & Communications (MCI)
          • Treatment/regulation as basic telephony service
    • 19. VoIP Regulation - other countries
      • Canada
        • Can. Radiotelevision & Telecom C’mm’n (CRTC)
          • IP services using PSTN/telephone numbers are subject to PSTN regulation
      • Mexico
        • VoIP treated same as voice telephony
      • UK
        • Office of Communications (OFCOM)
          • Reg. forbearance, access to number pool, no E911
      • Other Countries < link >

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