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Voice over Internet Protocol

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  • PATS: Publicly Available Telephone Service (same as PSTN)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Comparative Telecommunications Law Spring, 2007 Prof. Karl Manheim 13: VoIP Copyright © 2007
    • 2. Basics of Internet Telephony
      • Different network than the PSTN
        • May use some of same physical infrastructure
          • PSTN is circuit-switched; Internet is packet-switched
    • 3. VoIP Technology
      • Packet Switching
        • Analog voice signal converted to digital signal, which is then divided into data “packets”
        • Packets are sent over Internet like other data
        • Reverse process at destination computer
      • Resilient VoIP problems
        • Latency
        • Echo
        • DTMF propagation
      FCC website on IP-enabled services
    • 4. VoIP Technology
      • Voice ≠ POTS telephony
      • In an end-to-end world, applications are defined at the edges
      • Innovation happens
    • 5. VoIP Business Applications
    • 6. VoIP Technology
      • IP Applications
        • All Internet traffic is TCP/IP
          • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
          • Established by IETF (ITU?)
      • Benefits of IP
        • Use of existing open networks @ lower cost
        • Scalable; efficient
        • Limitless variety of applications
        • Geographic independence
      • Skype
        • C-C (free) C-PSTN (traffic-sensitive fee) PSTN-C (nts)
    • 7.  
    • 8. VoIP Economics
      • Internet telephony bypasses telcos,
        • No interconnection obligations
          • Exception: VoIP call from or to standard telephone (e.g., “Computer-to-Phone”, “Phone-to-Phone”)
          • Termination charges apply
        • No Universal Service surcharges (until recently)
      • Competitive pressure on telcos
        • Telcos demand compensation from ISPs
        • Telcos urge regulation/licensing of VoIP
        • Special problem where telco is state-owned
    • 9. VoIP Regulation
      • Regulatory issues generally < FCC fact sheet >
        • Internet not under NRA jurisdiction
          • Advent of unregulated services, displacing regulated ones, is disruptive; may spur general deregulation
        • VoIP defies national boundaries
          • Users are “nomadic” whenever on Internet
        • Numbering (E.164 -> ENUM)
          • t E lephone NU mber M apping; number portability
        • Emergency geolocation (911 / 112)
        • Universal Service
        • Law Enforcement Access/Interception
    • 10. VoIP Regulation in US
      • Pulver.com Free World Dialup (2004)
        • C-C VoIP is
          • Not telecommunications
            • VoIP is merely an application (such as a browser, email)
            • Not a transmission service
          • Not a telecommunications service
            • VoIP providers don’t offer telecommunications
            • No common carrier obligations
          • An information service
            • capability for generating, acquiring, storing, transforming, processing, retrieving, utilizing info via telecommunications
        • Therefore, not regulated by Comm’ns Act.
    • 11. VoIP Regulation in US
      • NPRM: IP-Enabled Services (3/10/2004)
        • Focus on VoIP
          • Offered by telcos and facilities-based telecom cos.
          • Also by Session Initiated Protocol ( SIP ) providers
            • Signaling (ring) used by VoIP, video-conferencing, etc.
        • Beyond VoIP
          • TTY, VPN, IPTV, VOD, ( VoIP Summit – 5/7/2004)
      • First Report and Order (6/3/2005)
        • Limited to E911 service; Wiretap functionality
      • Telecom Act of 2005/06 (pending)
        • Local number portability; Univ.Svc. funding
    • 12. VoIP Regulation in US
      • Order re AT&T Access Charges (4/21/2004)
        • AT&T uses Internet to route interexchange calls
          • LEC -> VoIP -> LEC
          • Bypasses IXC and IXC obligation to compensate destination LEC to terminate calls, but otherwise looks identical to wireline telephony (incl. CPE)
          • So-called “Phone-to-Phone”
        • No reason to treat termination any differently
          • AT&T must pay access charges
          • Order doesn’t apply to Computer-to-Computer VoIP
    • 13. VoIP Regulation in US
      • Order in Vonage VoIP Services (11/9/2004)
        • LECs normally subject to state PUC regulation
          • Joint State Federal Board & Separation requirements
        • C-C VoIP bypasses LECs; therefore not subject to state regulation
          • E.g., E911 services
      • Order in Time-Warner Cable (1 Mar 2007)
        • Wholesale Comm’n Carrier providing VoIP
          • Entitled to ILEC interconnection per § 251(a)(b)
          • Intercon’n to PSTN needed for full VoIP deployment
        • Number portability and resources
    • 14. VoIP Regulation in US
      • E911 Services
        • Interconnected VoIP E911 order (6/3/05) < link >
        • Joint FCC/NARUC Task Force (July 2005)
        • IVoIP compliance required by 11/28/06 < link >
          • Appeal pending before DC Court of Appeals
    • 15. VoIP Regulation in EU
      • EC v. Italy (ECJ 2000)
        • Does Open Networks Provision apply to VoIP?
          • ONP: Council Directive 90/387/EEC
            • Open Access; standards; interoperability
        • No, VoIP is not a voice telephony service
      • VoIP under Telecoms Package (2002)
        • Telecom should be technology neutral
          • No licensing of VoIP (Authorization Directive)
          • But many FPTN obligations apply
            • E.g., if VoIP is marketed as a Publicly Available Telephone Service (PATS) in UK - Voice over Broadband (VoB)
    • 16. VoIP Regulation in EU
      • DGIS Consultation Document (14 June 2004)
        • Application of Telecom. Framework Directives
          • NRA authorization not required for Electronic Communications Services (Internet services)
        • Commission takes “light touch” reg. approach
          • VoIP contributes to creation of single European mkt
          • VoIP providers may be able to compete with PATS
            • Still investigating impact on telephony markets
      • Current Issues < EU fact sheet >
        • Numbering/portability; emergency svcs; Un.Svc
          • See European Regulators’ Group white paper
    • 17. VoIP Regulation in EU
      • Recent Developments
        • Differentiation between VoB and VoIP
          • VoB: as a replacement for standard telephony
          • Subject to ex ante regulation in appropriate cases
        • EC approves ARCEP (FR) decision not to impose ex ante regulation on VoB (2005) < link >
          • Robust competition; FPTN elements regulated
        • EC approves BNetzA (DE) decision to impose ex ante regulation on VDSL (very high speed broadband) < link >
          • May affect market for VoIP and VoB services
    • 18. VoIP Regulation in Asia
      • China
        • Ministry of Information Industry (MII)
          • Not regulated, at least if bypasses PSTN
          • Very competitive; many calling cards use VoIP
      • Singapore
        • Info-Communications Development Auth. (IDA)
          • Interconnection req’d; reg. forbearance; no E911
      • Korea
        • Ministry of Information & Communications (MCI)
          • Treatment/regulation as basic telephony service
    • 19. VoIP Regulation - other countries
      • Canada
        • Can. Radiotelevision & Telecom C’mm’n (CRTC)
          • IP services using PSTN/telephone numbers are subject to PSTN regulation
      • Mexico
        • VoIP treated same as voice telephony
      • UK
        • Office of Communications (OFCOM)
          • Reg. forbearance, access to number pool, no E911
      • Other Countries < link >

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