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  • 1. Audio and Video Streaming By Nanda Ganesan, Ph.D. © Nanda Ganesan, All rights reserved
  • 2. AUDIO STREAMING OVERVIEW
    • Audio File Features
    • Audio Streaming Concept
    • Audio Streaming Advantages
    • Audio Streaming Applications
    • Audio Streaming Format
    • Audio Streaming Products
  • 3. Audio File Features
    • Audio file is a record of captured sound that can be played back
      • The WAV File is an example
    • Audio files are compressed for storage and faster transmission
    • Requires high bandwidth to transfer across the network and the Internet
  • 4. The Wav File Format
    • The wav file format is also known as the basic file format
      • Somewhat similar to the .bmp format for images
    • Requires the highest storage compared to other compressed and streamed file formats
      • Example: rm, wma etc.
  • 5. Audio Streaming Concept .WAV .ASF, .WMA Real Producer . RM Windows Media Encoder or Real Producer  PC Audio Format  PC Windows Media Streaming Software
  • 6. Audio Streaming
    • Step1: Digitize audio
      • PCM
    • Step 2: Compress the digitized audio
      • Lowering the audio’s sampling rate
      • Filtering high frequencies
      • Performing other waveform transformation
    • Ensure the continuous streaming of audio packets
  • 7. Pulse Code Modulation Values
    • Sampling Frequency
      • 11,000 Hz for example
    • Sampling depth
      • 8 bits for example
    • Channels
      • Mono or stereo
  • 8. Streaming Process Digitize (PCM) Audio Digitized audio Streaming Software Streamed audio
  • 9. Audio Streaming Advantages
    • Low bandwidth and storage
    • Able to deliver audio in real time over a communication line
    • Efficient and effective delivery of audio over the Internet
  • 10. Audio Streaming Applications
    • Long-distance or automated seminars and training sessions
    • Internet music
    • Internet radio
    • Streamed audio for a variety of web and CD applications
  • 11. Audio Format: MPEG
    • Moving Pictures Expert Format
      • mp3
  • 12. Audio Format: Apple Related
    • Quicktime and other Macintosh related standards
      • .qt, .aif, .aifc, .aiff, .mov
  • 13. Audio Format: Unix Related
    • au
    • snd
  • 14. Audio Streaming Products
    • Window Media Technologies (Microsoft)
    • Real System (Real Networks)
    • Shockwave Streaming Audio (Macromedia)
    • Linux based streaming products
  • 15. Windows Media Technologies
    • Windows Media Audio 9 Series
    • Windows Media Video 9 Series
    • Windows Media Encoder 9 Series
    • Windows Media Services 9 Series
    • Windows Media Player 9 Series
    • Windows Media Rights Manager 9 Series
    • Windows Media 9 Series SDK
  • 16. Windows Media Link
    • http://www. microsoft .com/windows/ windowsmedia /
  • 17. Windows Media Technologies (WMT)
    • Windows Media Audio CODEC provides excellent quality at low bit rates
    • Integration with other Microsoft products (Windows NT Server, Microsoft Site Server, Microsoft BackOffice)
    • Digital rights management
    • Advanced Compression Technology Broadcasting
  • 18. Audio Comparison
  • 19. Video Comparison
  • 20. WMT Advantages
    • Multiple Bit Rate and Multiple Language Support
    • Variable speed playback
    • Highly compressed audio and video
    • Audio CODEC is optimized for dial-up rates
    • Digital 5.1 surround sound CODEC
    • Lossless audio compression
    • Good scalability to larger audience
    • Live digital rights management
    • Support for Plug-in (C++ etc.)
    • (For further info: )
  • 21. Multiple Bit Rate and Multiple Language Support
    • With a single click of one file, the Windows Media Player 9 Series can automatically pick the best video size and audio quality to stream, based on the current connection speed – and it dynamically adapts during streaming.
    • The player can automatically choose the preferred audio language, or the user can select or change languages on-the-fly during playback.
    • (source: Microsoft)
  • 22. Real Networks
    • High quality streaming audio at all bandwidths on both the Internet and corporate Intranets.
    • Support realtime and on-demand, all sounds (stereo and mono)
    • Take advantage of key features of Window 2000 (load balancing, clustering, stability)
    • Operating systems such as Window NT, Linux, Sun Solaris etc. are all supported
  • 23. Real System G2 Products & Advantages
    • RealPlayer 8
      • Over 150 live radio stations built-in, superb audio
    • RealProducer 7
      • Streaming Software; Efficient encoding; Reach the widest possible audience; choice of operating systems
    • RealPresenter G2
      • Live/recorded capability; Presentation Manager
  • 24. RealSystem G2 Products & Advantages
    • RealSlideshow 2
      • Combine pictures with music or speech, customize the layout of presentation
    • RealServer 7
      • 60 simultaneous sessions of live or on-demand streaming; Near CD quality Internet audio
    • Free download at:
      • http://www.realnetworks.com/products/
  • 25. Video Streaming
    • Video Streaming Objective
    • Streaming Advantages
    • Video Streaming Architecture
    • Compression and Decompression-codec
    • MPEG 1-4 Introduction
    • Major Products and Features Comparison
  • 26. Video Streaming Objective
    • The object is to overcome the negative effects of physical distance and network technology limitation.
  • 27. Streaming Advantages
    • Reduce setup time
    • Reduction in client storage requirement
    • Video can be viewed in real time
    • Transmission signals over low bandwidth facilities
  • 28. Video Streaming Architecture
    • Content Creation/Capture
    • Content Management
    • Content Formatting (Compression)
    • Delivery
    • Distribution
    • Presentation (Viewing)
    • View Control
  • 29. Video Capture
    • Converting analog to video signals
      • A special video capture card to convert the analog signals to digital form and compresses the data.
      • Also digital video devices that can capture images and transfer to a computer
  • 30. Content Management
    • Critical in video server
    • The purpose including create, collect, catalog, organize, store, and access to massive multimedia information database
  • 31. Video Input Formats
    • AVI
    • ActiveMovie
    • Cinepak
    • Indeo
    • motion-JPEG
    • MPEG
    • QuickTime
    • RealVideo
    • Video for Windows
    • XGA
  • 32. Video Formats AVI & ASF
    • Developed by Microsoft
    • AVI (Audio Video Interleaved)
    • - limited to 320x240 resolution
    • - 30 frames per second
    • ASF (Advanced Streaming Format)
    • - Has been submitted to ISO for standardization
    • - Expected to replace AVI format
  • 33. Standard Window Size
    • 320X240
    • 640X480
  • 34. Frame Rates
    • 4-6 fps
      • Absolute minimum for video conferencing
    • 11-14 fps
      • The norm for video conferencing
    • 30 fps
      • Full motion video
  • 35. Codec (Compressor/Decompressor)
    • Coding techniques to compress video data
    • The newest codec change their sampling rate as they run
    • Choice of codec is the biggest factor to determine the bandwidth needed to connect the server and receive content
    • Many of the codecs follow international standards
  • 36. Content Compression
    • MPEG (A working group of ISO)
    • - The most common standard for video
    • compression and file formats
    • - Generally produce better quality video than other
    • formats
    • - High compression rate
    • - MPEG1, MPEG2, MPEG3 and MPEG4
  • 37. MPEG-1
    • MPEG-1 was designed for coding progressive video at a transmission rate of about 1.5 million bits per second.
    • It was designed specifically for Video-CD and CD-i media.
    • MPEG-1 audio layer-3 (MP3) has also evolved from early MPEG work.
  • 38. MPEG-2
    • MPEG-2 was designed for coding interlaced images at transmission rates above 4 million bits per second.
    • MPEG-2 is used for digital TV broadcast and
    • DVD.
    • An MPEG-2 player can handle MPEG-1 data as well.
  • 39. MPEG-3
    • A proposed MPEG-3 standard, intended for High Definition TV (HDTV), was merged with the MPEG-2 standard when it became apparent that the MPEG-2 standard met the HDTV requirements.
  • 40. MPEG-4
    • An MPEG-4 standard is in the final stages of development and release.
    • It is a much more ambitious standard and addresses speech and video synthesis, fractal geometry, computer visualization, and an artificial intelligence (AI) approach to reconstructing images.
  • 41. Major Products
    • Microsoft Windows Media Technologies
    • http://www. microsoft .com/windows/ windowsmedia /
    • RealSystem G2
    • http://www. realnetwork .com
  • 42. Comparison WMT –vs- RealSystem G2
    • Head to head comparison
    • Feature Comparison
    • M ore Information http://www. microsoft .com/windows/ windowsmedia /
  • 43. Comparison WMT –vs- RealSystem G2
    • Cost Analysis
    • - Prepared by Approach, Inc.,
    • Key findings
    • - Both streaming products results in positive
    • returns on investment
    • - Microsoft solution is more economical than the
    • RealNetwork solution
    • Download in Word format
  • 44. Audio Streaming Architecture
    • Creating Audio File
    • Demonstration of Streaming Software
    • Demo of Streaming Process
      • Windows Media Encoder
      • RealProducer 7 Basic
    • Play the Audio File
  • 45. Creating Audio File
    • Record From File
      • Audio files located in your hard drive
    • Record Form Media Device
      • Media device such as Microphone, CD Player, PC Camera, etc.
    • Live Broadcast
      • Broadcast live media stream from your computer
  • 46. Installation of Streaming Software
    • Windows Media Tools
      • Windows Media Encoder
    • RealSystems G2
      • RealProducer 7 Basic
  • 47. Windows Media Technologies http://www.microsoft.com/windows/windowsmedia Download Windows Media Tools
  • 48. RealSystem G2 Download RealProducer http://www.realnetworks.com/products/producer/
  • 49. Playing Audio File
    • Windows Media Player
    • RealPlayer
  • 50. Windows Media Player 7 http://www.microsoft.com/windows/windowsmedia/
  • 51. Download RealPlayer http://www.real.com/player/index
  • 52. Real Player 7.0 Basic
  • 53. Video Streaming Presentation
    • Active Streaming Format (ASF)
    • - MS Defacto standard for streaming video.
    • Real Media (RM)
    • - Real’s standard for streaming video
  • 54. Video Streaming
    • Codec selections from Real Media.
  • 55. Video Streaming
    • Codec Selections from Windows Media.
  • 56. Video Streaming
    • Streaming with Real Producer.
    • Real Producer.
      • - C:Program FilesREAL RealProducer realprod .exe
  • 57. Video Streaming
    • Streaming with Windows Media Encoder .
    • Windows Media.
      • - C:Program FilesWindows Media ComponentsTools NsRex .exe
  • 58. Video Streaming
    • Using Windows Media Player.
      • - C:Program FilesWindows Media Playermplayer2.exe
  • 59. Video Streaming
    • Streamed file size comparison.
    • - C:WINDOWSEXPLORER.SCF
    • Unstreamed *.AVI file = 155,290 KB
    • RealMedia Streamed file *.RM = 483 KB
    • Windows Media Streamed file *.ASF = 1,283 KB
  • 60. Video Streaming Statistics
  • 61. Video Streaming Statistics
  • 62. Video Streaming
    • Live feed Video Capture.
      • - C:Program FilesLogitechLogitech QuickCam QuickCam .exe
    • Stream from live feed.
    • - C:Program FilesREAL RealProducer realprod .exe
    • - C:Program FilesWindows Media ComponentsTools NsRex .exe
  • 63. Audio/Video Streaming Summary
    • Capture Audio/Video
      • Create your file
    • Install the streaming software
      • Windows Media Tools http://www. microsoft .com/windows/ windowsmedia /
      • RealProducer 7 Basic http://www. realnetworks .com/products/
  • 64. Audio/Video Streaming Summary
    • Play the Audio Stream File
      • Windows Media Player 7
      • http://www.microsoft.com/windows/windowsmedia/
      • RealPlayer 7 Basic
      • http://www.real.com/player/index
  • 65. The End