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  • Streaming Video over the Internet: Approaches and Directions Dapeng Wu, Yiwei Thomas Hou et al. Presented by: Abhishek Gupta {}
  • Introduction
    • Issues in Video Streaming.
      • Transmission of Real Time Video typically has bandwidth and delay requirements.
      • Current Internet does not offer any QoS guarantees to streaming video.
      • For multicast it is difficult to achieve both efficiency and flexibility.
  • Overview
    • Key areas in streaming video.
      • Video Compression – Scalable and Nonscalable coding.
      • Application-layer QoS control.
      • Continuous media distribution services.
      • Streaming servers.
      • Media synchronization mechanisms.
      • Protocols for streaming media.
  • Architecture For Streaming Video
  • Video Compression
    • Nonscalable Video Coding.
    Nonscalable video Encoder Nonscalable video Encoder
  • Video Compression(contd.)
    • Scalable Video Encoding.
    Scalable video encoder Scalable video decoder
  • Application Requirements from Encoder and Decoder
    • Bandwidth – Rate control.
    • Delay - Buffering.
    • Loss – Multiple description coding.
    • Video Cassette recorder like functions.
    • Decoding Complexity.
  • Application Layer QoS Control
    • Congestion Control
      • Rate Control
        • Source Based – Probe based, Model based (“TCP friendly”)
        • Receiver Based – Channel based, Model based.
        • Hybrid Rate Control – Destination set grouping and layered multicast scheme.
      • Rate Shaping – Match the rate of a pre-compressed bitstream to a target rate by use of filters.
  • Application Layer QoS Control (contd.)
    • Error Control
      • Forward Error Correction (FEC) – Channel coding, Source coding, Joint channel/source coding.
      • Delay-Constrained Retransmission.
      • Error-resilient coding – Multiple description coding.
      • Error concealment – Spatial and Temporal Interpolation.
  • Continuous Media Distribution Services
    • Network filtering.
      • Improved video quality.
      • Bandwidth efficiency.
    • Application level multicast.
      • Media bridges-Interconnection of media multicast networks enabled through application level peering relationships.
    • Content replication.
      • Caching
      • Mirroring
  • Streaming Servers
    • Components.
      • Communicator – Application layer and transport protocols.
      • Operating System – Real time support for streaming applications.
      • Storage System – Support for continuous media storage and retrieval.
  • Streaming Servers (contd.)
    • Real Time Operating Systems
      • Process management – EDF and rate- monotonic scheduling.
      • Resource Management - Admission Control, Resource Allocation.
      • File Management
  • Streaming Servers (contd.)
    • Storage System
      • Increase throughput with data stripping.
      • Increase capacity with tertiary and hierarchical storage.
      • Use SAN, NAS.
      • Fault tolerance.
  • Media Synchronization
    • Intra-stream synchronization – Within a time dependent data stream.
    • Inter-stream synchronization – Between different time dependent data streams.
    • Inter-object synchronization – Between time dependent and time independent data.
  • Protocols for Streaming Video
    • Network layer protocols – IP.
    • Transport protocols – TCP, UDP, RTP, RTCP.
    • Session control protocols – RTSP, SIP.
  • Protocols for Streaming Video (contd.) Protocol Stacks for Media Streaming
  • Protocols for Streaming Video (contd.)
    • Transport Protocols – RTP and RTCP.
      • RTP
        • Time Stamping
        • Sequence numbering
        • Payload type identification
        • Source identification
      • RTCP
        • QoS Feedback
        • Participant information
        • Control packets scaling
        • Inter-media synchronization
        • Minimal session control information.
  • Protocols for Streaming Video (contd.)
    • Session control protocols – RTSP and SIP
      • RTSP
        • Support VCR like options
        • Provide means for choosing delivery channels and delivery mechanisms based upon RTP.
        • Media retrieval
        • Adding media to existing session.
      • SIP – Similar to RTSP but supports user mobility.
  • Future Directions
    • Video Compression – How about using a combination of encoding schemes?
    • Application Level QoS – The effectiveness of TCP like rate control.
    • Continuous media distribution services – A scalable, cost-effective, efficient and incremental deployable infrastructure for continuous media distribution.
    • Streaming servers – VCR like control, Storage mechanisms, scalability, fault tolerance.
    • Media synchronization – Synchronization in multicast video while supporting VCR-like interactive functions.
    • Protocols – Caching, support for pause/resume operation in caches, security in protocols.