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    Slides Slides Presentation Transcript

    • Streaming Video over the Internet: Approaches and Directions Dapeng Wu, Yiwei Thomas Hou et al. Presented by: Abhishek Gupta {agupta@cs.ubc.ca}
    • Introduction
      • Issues in Video Streaming.
        • Transmission of Real Time Video typically has bandwidth and delay requirements.
        • Current Internet does not offer any QoS guarantees to streaming video.
        • For multicast it is difficult to achieve both efficiency and flexibility.
    • Overview
      • Key areas in streaming video.
        • Video Compression – Scalable and Nonscalable coding.
        • Application-layer QoS control.
        • Continuous media distribution services.
        • Streaming servers.
        • Media synchronization mechanisms.
        • Protocols for streaming media.
    • Architecture For Streaming Video
    • Video Compression
      • Nonscalable Video Coding.
      Nonscalable video Encoder Nonscalable video Encoder
    • Video Compression(contd.)
      • Scalable Video Encoding.
      Scalable video encoder Scalable video decoder
    • Application Requirements from Encoder and Decoder
      • Bandwidth – Rate control.
      • Delay - Buffering.
      • Loss – Multiple description coding.
      • Video Cassette recorder like functions.
      • Decoding Complexity.
    • Application Layer QoS Control
      • Congestion Control
        • Rate Control
          • Source Based – Probe based, Model based (“TCP friendly”)
          • Receiver Based – Channel based, Model based.
          • Hybrid Rate Control – Destination set grouping and layered multicast scheme.
        • Rate Shaping – Match the rate of a pre-compressed bitstream to a target rate by use of filters.
    • Application Layer QoS Control (contd.)
      • Error Control
        • Forward Error Correction (FEC) – Channel coding, Source coding, Joint channel/source coding.
        • Delay-Constrained Retransmission.
        • Error-resilient coding – Multiple description coding.
        • Error concealment – Spatial and Temporal Interpolation.
    • Continuous Media Distribution Services
      • Network filtering.
        • Improved video quality.
        • Bandwidth efficiency.
      • Application level multicast.
        • Media bridges-Interconnection of media multicast networks enabled through application level peering relationships.
      • Content replication.
        • Caching
        • Mirroring
    • Streaming Servers
      • Components.
        • Communicator – Application layer and transport protocols.
        • Operating System – Real time support for streaming applications.
        • Storage System – Support for continuous media storage and retrieval.
    • Streaming Servers (contd.)
      • Real Time Operating Systems
        • Process management – EDF and rate- monotonic scheduling.
        • Resource Management - Admission Control, Resource Allocation.
        • File Management
    • Streaming Servers (contd.)
      • Storage System
        • Increase throughput with data stripping.
        • Increase capacity with tertiary and hierarchical storage.
        • Use SAN, NAS.
        • Fault tolerance.
    • Media Synchronization
      • Intra-stream synchronization – Within a time dependent data stream.
      • Inter-stream synchronization – Between different time dependent data streams.
      • Inter-object synchronization – Between time dependent and time independent data.
    • Protocols for Streaming Video
      • Network layer protocols – IP.
      • Transport protocols – TCP, UDP, RTP, RTCP.
      • Session control protocols – RTSP, SIP.
    • Protocols for Streaming Video (contd.) Protocol Stacks for Media Streaming
    • Protocols for Streaming Video (contd.)
      • Transport Protocols – RTP and RTCP.
        • RTP
          • Time Stamping
          • Sequence numbering
          • Payload type identification
          • Source identification
        • RTCP
          • QoS Feedback
          • Participant information
          • Control packets scaling
          • Inter-media synchronization
          • Minimal session control information.
    • Protocols for Streaming Video (contd.)
      • Session control protocols – RTSP and SIP
        • RTSP
          • Support VCR like options
          • Provide means for choosing delivery channels and delivery mechanisms based upon RTP.
          • Media retrieval
          • Adding media to existing session.
        • SIP – Similar to RTSP but supports user mobility.
    • Future Directions
      • Video Compression – How about using a combination of encoding schemes?
      • Application Level QoS – The effectiveness of TCP like rate control.
      • Continuous media distribution services – A scalable, cost-effective, efficient and incremental deployable infrastructure for continuous media distribution.
      • Streaming servers – VCR like control, Storage mechanisms, scalability, fault tolerance.
      • Media synchronization – Synchronization in multicast video while supporting VCR-like interactive functions.
      • Protocols – Caching, support for pause/resume operation in caches, security in protocols.