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Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
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Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms

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  • 1. Introduction Three Different MBAC Algorithms Practical Implementations of CAC Conclusions Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms Bob Callaway Joni Finlon Susan Stewart North Carolina State University CSC/ECE 776 - Performance Evaluation of Computer Networks Student Research Presentation April 27, 2004 Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 2. Introduction Three Different MBAC Algorithms Practical Implementations of CAC Conclusions Presentation Outline 1 Introduction Goals of Connection Admission Control Types of CAC Algorithms Effective Bandwidth Overview of Measurement-Based Admission Control 2 Three Different MBAC Algorithms CLR Upperbound Formula Decision-Theoretic Approach MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics 3 Practical Implementations of CAC Voice Over IP (VoIP) Video Conferencing Multimedia Resource Control 4 Conclusions Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 3. Introduction Goals of Connection Admission Control Three Different MBAC Algorithms Types of CAC Algorithms Practical Implementations of CAC Effective Bandwidth Conclusions Overview of Measurement-Based Admission Control Section Outline 1 Introduction Goals of Connection Admission Control Types of CAC Algorithms Effective Bandwidth Overview of Measurement-Based Admission Control 2 Three Different MBAC Algorithms CLR Upperbound Formula Decision-Theoretic Approach MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics 3 Practical Implementations of CAC Voice Over IP (VoIP) Video Conferencing Multimedia Resource Control 4 Conclusions Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 4. Introduction Goals of Connection Admission Control Three Different MBAC Algorithms Types of CAC Algorithms Practical Implementations of CAC Effective Bandwidth Conclusions Overview of Measurement-Based Admission Control Congestion Control The Role of Congestion Control −→ To protect the network and the user in order to achieve network performance objectives and optimize the usage of network resources Congestion control can be either preventive or reactive Connection admission control is a preventive congestion control method Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 5. Introduction Goals of Connection Admission Control Three Different MBAC Algorithms Types of CAC Algorithms Practical Implementations of CAC Effective Bandwidth Conclusions Overview of Measurement-Based Admission Control Goals of Connection Admission Control Three Main Goals of Connection Admission Control Protect the network by preventing congestion Meet QoS requirements of all connections Obtain maximum statistical multiplexing gain Uses an algorithm to decide whether to accept or reject a request for a new connection to the network Connection acceptance is based on two questions: Does the new connection affect the QoS currently being carried by the switch? Can the switch provide the QoS requested by the new connection? Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 6. Introduction Goals of Connection Admission Control Three Different MBAC Algorithms Types of CAC Algorithms Practical Implementations of CAC Effective Bandwidth Conclusions Overview of Measurement-Based Admission Control Nonstatistical Connection Admission Control Also called deterministic allocation or peak bandwidth allocation Requires that the peak rate of the connection be reserved for a particular source Advantages Disadvantages It is easy to make a The network will be decision about whether underutilized most of the to accept or reject a new time (unless users are connection transmitting CBR traffic) Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 7. Introduction Goals of Connection Admission Control Three Different MBAC Algorithms Types of CAC Algorithms Practical Implementations of CAC Effective Bandwidth Conclusions Overview of Measurement-Based Admission Control Statistical Connection Admission Control Allocated bandwidth is less than the peak rate of a source Advantages Disadvantages Network resources will be More difficult to implement better utilized Can be CPU intensive x 10 Plot of Traffic Trace vs. Estimated Effective Bandwidths − Meter Implementation: 1 Stream 5 5 Actual Traffic Gaussian Method 4.5 Courcoubetis Method Norros Method 4 3.5 Throughput (bytes/sec) 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Time (sec) Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 8. Introduction Goals of Connection Admission Control Three Different MBAC Algorithms Types of CAC Algorithms Practical Implementations of CAC Effective Bandwidth Conclusions Overview of Measurement-Based Admission Control Motivation of Effective Bandwidth How do we determine the number of connections to admit to the network to maximize efficiency by using statistical multiplexing? Effective Bandwidth! Effective bandwidth estimates the amount of bandwidth that should be allocated to a class of network traffic in order to meet a QoS requirement, such as a delay or loss constraint 1 C= log E e θX [0,t] θt Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 9. Introduction Goals of Connection Admission Control Three Different MBAC Algorithms Types of CAC Algorithms Practical Implementations of CAC Effective Bandwidth Conclusions Overview of Measurement-Based Admission Control Measurement-Based Admission Control: An Overview Why use a measurement-based scheme? Non-measurement-based methods use the worst case bounds and result in low utilization of the network Zero (or a very small number of) a priori assumptions must be made about the arrival process of the traffic, since measurements are used to describe the traffic Useful for services that do not require tight guarantees, rather more relaxed service commitments Results in high network utilization and an acceptable level of service Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 10. Introduction CLR Upperbound Formula Three Different MBAC Algorithms Decision-Theoretic Approach Practical Implementations of CAC MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Conclusions Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics Section Outline 1 Introduction Goals of Connection Admission Control Types of CAC Algorithms Effective Bandwidth Overview of Measurement-Based Admission Control 2 Three Different MBAC Algorithms CLR Upperbound Formula Decision-Theoretic Approach MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics 3 Practical Implementations of CAC Voice Over IP (VoIP) Video Conferencing Multimedia Resource Control 4 Conclusions Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 11. Introduction CLR Upperbound Formula Three Different MBAC Algorithms Decision-Theoretic Approach Practical Implementations of CAC MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Conclusions Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics Rate Envelope Multiplexing vs. Rate Sharing Multiplexing Rate Envelope Multiplexing (REM) Buffering effect is not taken into account when evaluating cell-level performance Queueing process at the output port buffer is not considered Provides for faster computations Rate Sharing Multiplexing (RSM) Requires model for queueing process at output port buffer Can achieve higher efficiency than REM methods Computationally complex; also dependent on input traffic model Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 12. Introduction CLR Upperbound Formula Three Different MBAC Algorithms Decision-Theoretic Approach Practical Implementations of CAC MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Conclusions Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics Dynamic CAC in ATM Networks ∞ + k − Cs L p (·; t) θn+1 (k) ˆ L ˆ k=0 B= ˆ(t) + san+1 a Algorithm Overview Independent of the classification of calls and does not use a model for the arrival process Makes admission decision by comparing measured upper bound of loss probability against QoS standard Uses measurements to estimate the pdf of the number of arriving cells per call in a renewal period Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 13. Introduction CLR Upperbound Formula Three Different MBAC Algorithms Decision-Theoretic Approach Practical Implementations of CAC MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Conclusions Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics Dynamic CAC in ATM Networks (continued) Algorithm Details Uses exponential weighting to increase/decrease importance of measurements/signalled parameters If a new call request is received within the renewal period, the pdf is shifted by convolution to take the new worst-case cell arrival distribution into consideration Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 14. Introduction CLR Upperbound Formula Three Different MBAC Algorithms Decision-Theoretic Approach Practical Implementations of CAC MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Conclusions Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics A Decision-Theoretic Approach to CAC in ATM Networks Algorithm Overview Key aspect of algorithm is time scale decomposition Bayesian decision-theoretic framework parameterizes the tradeoff between the costs and benefits of accepting an additional call into the network Uses a measure of burstiness (peak to mean ratio) in calculations Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 15. Introduction CLR Upperbound Formula Three Different MBAC Algorithms Decision-Theoretic Approach Practical Implementations of CAC MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Conclusions Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics A Decision-Theoretic Approach to CAC in ATM Networks Algorithm Details Makes the admission control decision by comparing the instantaneous load to a given threshold Uses the control parameter y to represent the tradeoff between utilization and cell loss Cell loss ratio is effected by rate of change of the parameter p. s= [U(p, λ) − (y − 1)M(p, λ)] f (p, λ)dpdλ Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 16. Introduction CLR Upperbound Formula Three Different MBAC Algorithms Decision-Theoretic Approach Practical Implementations of CAC MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Conclusions Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Algorithm Overview Measures the maximal rate envelope of the aggregate traffic, since the extreme values of the aggregate flow are likely to lead to losses Takes measurements in slotted time, and computes statistics of the envelope over M time scales s 1 1 Rk = max au Can make admission decision with kτ t−T +k≤s≤t u=s−k+1 regards to a specified loss rate and/or a given delay bound Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 17. Introduction CLR Upperbound Formula Three Different MBAC Algorithms Decision-Theoretic Approach Practical Implementations of CAC MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Conclusions Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Algorithm Details A confidence level is derived such that for a given α, the traffic will not exceed the maximal envelope The admission control decision is made by testing the new aggregate envelope against the delay/loss criterion In the worst case, this algorithm bounds the loss probability or the maximum delay; in the best case, significant statistical multiplexing gains can be realized max ¯ kτ (Rk + rk + ασk − C ) ≤ Cd k=1,2,...,T ¯ RT + rT + ασT ≤ C Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 18. Introduction CLR Upperbound Formula Three Different MBAC Algorithms Decision-Theoretic Approach Practical Implementations of CAC MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Conclusions Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics Method Measurement Decision Memory Model Assumed SS91 O(M) O(M) O(M) None GKK95 O(1) O(1) O(N) Poisson/Exponential QK01 O(T) O(1) O(T) None M = Number of Bins in Distribution N = Number of Connections T = Number of Time Slots Comparisons REM models are less dependent on a priori traffic assumptions SS91 does not make any traffic assumptions, but it has the highest computational costs QK01 has been shown to be practically implementable in testbed experiments using RSVP Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 19. Introduction Voice Over IP (VoIP) Three Different MBAC Algorithms Video Conferencing Practical Implementations of CAC Multimedia Resource Control Conclusions Section Outline 1 Introduction Goals of Connection Admission Control Types of CAC Algorithms Effective Bandwidth Overview of Measurement-Based Admission Control 2 Three Different MBAC Algorithms CLR Upperbound Formula Decision-Theoretic Approach MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics 3 Practical Implementations of CAC Voice Over IP (VoIP) Video Conferencing Multimedia Resource Control 4 Conclusions Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 20. Introduction Voice Over IP (VoIP) Three Different MBAC Algorithms Video Conferencing Practical Implementations of CAC Multimedia Resource Control Conclusions Example of CAC: Voice Over IP (VoIP) Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 21. Introduction Voice Over IP (VoIP) Three Different MBAC Algorithms Video Conferencing Practical Implementations of CAC Multimedia Resource Control Conclusions Example of MBAC: Voice Over IP (VoIP) VoIP Examples Cisco IOS Software Gateways Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 22. Introduction Voice Over IP (VoIP) Three Different MBAC Algorithms Video Conferencing Practical Implementations of CAC Multimedia Resource Control Conclusions Example of CAC: Voice Over IP (VoIP) Cisco Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 23. Introduction Voice Over IP (VoIP) Three Different MBAC Algorithms Video Conferencing Practical Implementations of CAC Multimedia Resource Control Conclusions Example of CAC: Voice Over IP (VoIP) VoIP Examples NexTone Multiprotocol Session Controller (MSC) Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 24. Introduction Voice Over IP (VoIP) Three Different MBAC Algorithms Video Conferencing Practical Implementations of CAC Multimedia Resource Control Conclusions Example of CAC: Video Conferencing Video Conferencing Examples Polycom PathNavigator TM Premier Call Processing Server Solution Cisco Multimedia Conference Manager H.323 Gatekeeper Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 25. Introduction Voice Over IP (VoIP) Three Different MBAC Algorithms Video Conferencing Practical Implementations of CAC Multimedia Resource Control Conclusions Example of CAC: Multimedia Resource Control Alcatel 5430 Session Resource Broker Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 26. Introduction Three Different MBAC Algorithms References Practical Implementations of CAC Conclusions Section Outline 1 Introduction Goals of Connection Admission Control Types of CAC Algorithms Effective Bandwidth Overview of Measurement-Based Admission Control 2 Three Different MBAC Algorithms CLR Upperbound Formula Decision-Theoretic Approach MBAC with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes Comparison of Algorithm Characteristics 3 Practical Implementations of CAC Voice Over IP (VoIP) Video Conferencing Multimedia Resource Control 4 Conclusions Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 27. Introduction Three Different MBAC Algorithms References Practical Implementations of CAC Conclusions Conclusions Connection Admission Control Some type of CAC is needed to ensure the QoS of existing connections and to control additional connections to the network Measurement-based Admission Control Algorithms How well does it ensure that the service commitments are upheld? How high can network utilization reach while still upholding QoS commitments? Do the benefits of statistical multiplexing outweigh the cost of online measurements and other statistical computations? Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 28. Introduction Three Different MBAC Algorithms References Practical Implementations of CAC Conclusions H. Saito, K. Shiomoto. Dynamic Call Admission Control in ATM Networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 1991. R. Gibbens, F. Kelly, P. Key. A Decision-Theoretic Approach to Call Admission Control in ATM Networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 1995. J. Qiu, E. Knightly. Measurement-Based Admission Control with Aggregate Traffic Envelopes. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, April 2001. H. Perros, K. Elsayed Call Admission Control Schemes: A Review. IEEE Communications Magazine, November 1996. Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms
  • 29. Introduction Three Different MBAC Algorithms References Practical Implementations of CAC Conclusions K. Shiomoto, N. Yamanaka, T. Takahashi. Overview of Measurement-Based Connection Admission Control Methods in ATM Networks. IEEE Communication Surveys, First Quarter 1999. E. Knightly, N. Shroff. Admission Control for Statistical QoS: Theory and Practice. IEEE Network, March/April 1999. S. Jamin, P.B. Danzig, S.J. Shenker, L. Zhang A Measurement-based Admission Control Algorithm for Integrated Services Packet Networks (Extended Version) IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, February 1997 S. Jamin, P.B. Danzig, S.J. Shenker Comparison of Measurement-based Admission Control Algorithms for Controlled-Load Service IEEE INFOCOM, 1997 Bob Callaway, Joni Finlon, Susan Stewart Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms

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