e-Learning: Facilitating Learning through TechnologyPresentation Transcript
e-Learning: Facilitating Learning through Technology Bob Bostrom Terry College of Business University of Georgia [email_address] Tutorial Resources available at http://www.terry.uga.edu/people/rbostrom/ Click on “Agder University” and “e-Learning” under Resources
HOW LEARNING IS DELIVERED The evolution of training technologies 1800’s-1980’s
Mid 1980’s - mid 1990’s
Audio & Video Tapes
1996 to present
Web-based Technologies that support:
Ford Learning Network: e-Learning Example
Touches 125,000 employees, 30,000 on regular basis
One searchable portal; search capability critical (neural-net search system)
400,000 titles, including 1500 on-line courses, 800 classroom courses, and 1900 e-books, and internal resources
48,000 20-minute learning objects in various media designed as just-in-time solutions or refreshers
Much of material is mapped to job-role competencies; employees self-assess skills, determine gaps, find training
Designed, implemented and taught in UGA PwC/IBM MBA program (both design of curriculum and technical infrastructure) [see web site for paper or Bjorn Eric’s Book]
MIT’s OpenCourseWare Project http://ocw.mit.edu/ (virtually all of MIT’s course available free by 2007)
Michigan Virtual University http://www.mivu.org/ (MVU founded by state government; cooperative effort with higher education and industry; see IT training initiative)
New Jersey Institute of Technology http:// cpe.njit.edu / (a leader in e-Learning since 1978; degree and professional programs)
Sanford Center for Professional Development http://scpd.stanford.edu/
NYU Online: launched in 1998, closed it doors in late 2001 (Spent $25 million)
LEARNING IS MOVING ONLINE: Do for us?
Reaches more people (Access)
Universal access via the Web
Time & money savings are obvious
travel costs, delivery delays
increase ROI from training expenditures
Offers new possibilities
Anytime, anyplace training (smaller modules) [Key value proposition: time and/or place independent]
Bottom Line: Continuous/Lifelong Learning
“ The biggest growth in the Internet, and the area that will prove to be one of the biggest agents of change, will be in on-line training, or e-learning .” John Chambers, CEO, Cisco
e-Learning e-Learning refers to the technology supporting learning activities in any of the following environments. TIME SAME (Synchronous) DIFFERENT (Asynchronous) AnyTime AnyWhere AnyOne PLACE Same Different CLASS Face To Face Interaction Ongoing Coordination Virtual Classroom (Centra, Interwise) Instant Messaging Simultaneous interaction across distances E-Mail, LMS, LCS (Blackboard) Interaction across time and distance Distance/Distributed Learning: learning in which the learner and learning resources are separated by time and/or space.
Can Technology Facilitate Learning? YES NO MAYBE
What technology do you use now in your classes?
Static or Dynamic (interactivity)?
Course Management Systems
Listserv (Group Email)
Other (Groove, etc.)
Purpose: provide an overview of e-learning to encourage and facilitate IS professionals’ teaching and research efforts.
The ultimate question is: Can technology really facilitate learning? If “yes”, how do we use technology effectively to help activate and challenge our learners? To answer these questions, this tutorial:
Provides a technology map of e-learning technology that can be used to support learning in a classroom or from a distance;
Outlines key research issues in e-learning focusing on those where IS research can add value;
Shares best practices for implementing and using technology effectively in IS learning situations; and
Discuss how instructor roles and skills need to change to be effective in technology-supported environments, particularly in distance learning situations..
Relevance of e-Learning to IS Field
(How I find myself presenting this tutorial?)
IT/IS artifact/technology is a core object of the field (Learning Systems are an emerging and important technology)
Relevant IS Contexts where Learning Systems are Embedded
Academic Organizations (primarily Colleges)
Training and education in business knowledge and skills especially IS (my love for teaching and training)
IS Foundational Research Streams
Group Support Systems/Digital Collaboration
Computer Training (software, applications systems, end-users, etc.)
e-Learning/technology-mediated learning (my experience implementing an e-Learning MBA program)
Primary Reference Disciplines: Education, Computer Science, and Psychology
Information Systems Field/Community
Information System (IS) / Information Technology (IT) [IT Artifact]
System Development Process/Change Process
Context IT embedded: Organizational System (Process/Task, Roles/Structure, People, Outcomes)
Core Concept: Systems
OUTCOMES / INTENTIONS
Applied - “Added Value” (Technology Improves the System)
Contributions to Knowledge Domains
Technology Effects/Impacts on contexts embedded
Technology Adoption (Diffusion, Use)
Contributions to Other Fields
Benbasat and Zmud, “The Identity Crisis…” (MISQ, June 2003)
Nomological Net: IT Artifact, Usage, Impact, IT Capabilities and Practices
Too many research models include neither the IT artifact nor at least one elements of nomological net; need to focus on IT artifact and Net
We need to understand technology as well as individual and organizational uses
Too much focus on adoption & impacts, instead of focus on technology design
More than 2,000 SkillSoft courses are eligible for credit at Drexel University. To receive credit for a SkillSoft course, a student must obtain a grade of 70 percent or higher on the course test. Students receive one credit for every ten contact hours associated with a SkillSoft course. For instance, successful completion of SkillSoft’s Six Sigma course series, comprised of eight courses, would earn the learner a minimum of 3 college credits. For more information on how to obtain credit for SkillSoft courses and for a catalog of online programs offered by Drexel, go to www.drexel.com/skillsoft (taken from Skillsoft web site)
A CASE STUDY OF WEB-BASED LEARNING: THE MICHIGAN VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY IT TRAINING INITIATIVE James J. Cappel: Central Michigan University, Jonathan M. Ahlbrand: Michigan Virtual University (AMCIS 2002 Proceedings) http://aisel.isworld.org/
Hot area: Simulation and Gaming
Simulation is an interactive (difference from animation) model
Recreate or model specific work environment (gaming creates more artificial world)
Experience and learn through explorations (learn by doing)
Game-based learning: serious learning + interactive entertainment
(see book Digital Game-Based Learning & http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/default.asp )
Additional site: http://www.games2train.com/ Learn from Gaming Industry?
Many different types of Games/Simulations for different types of learning: Facts-game show competition, Skills-Role Playing (e.g., MUDs)
Many business simulations are role playing situations, e.g., Creating effective coaches (see http://www.cognitivearts.com and Schank book Designing World Class e-Learning… ) Many take blended approach: Simulation + Mentor
IS sample applications
Software training: “show me, try me” (form of most IT e-Learning, little research on effectiveness) Example: Steelcase SAP end-user training
Network simulations (Cisco certification exams)
Other: IS World Link (not much there)
Lots of success stories, research?
Generational and evolution of web experience? Under 40 “Games Generations”
Growth in area driven by the availability of good cheap development tools, e.g., RoboDemo (acad. price ~ $198 ) [see next slide]
Good Area for IS research and development (How to sell your textbook?)
RoboDemo Simulation Tool
Tool to create flash simulation learning objects
Fast Authoring and Easy editing
Supports branching to customize student learning
Supports multiple annotation formats (voice, text boxes etc)
Supports Quizzes and Assessment
Supports Pocket PC
Available in 13 languages
Capital University uses RoboDemo to assist students in using Blackboard, their online learning & classroom software system.
Mira Costa College shows faculty and staff how to request media from the media department.
Tracks user interactions to personalize learning and reporting
Add collaboration tools , in context of learning objects, that allow learners to collaborate with each other and experts/mentors
Capturing unstructured knowledge, primarily from interactions, around learning object; use to create new LOs or improve existing LOs
Examples: Generation 21, Electure
Integration of LMS and LCMS
Both access content (common content repository?)
Both access user information: LMS has rich user profile, used by LCMS to create personalized experience, LCMS passes performance information back to LMS
Tight integration needed! (same vendor or separate vendor?)
Where to Course Management Systems (WebCt, Blackboard) fit in all of this? What is the learning object? Is it an object? How will these academic-oriented systems link with commercial LMS and LCMS that are moving away from course-based systems?
Enterprise Learning System/Suite (ELS)
Learning Management System
Leaning Content Management System
Common Content Repository
Collaboration and Content Creation tools (besides those in LCMS)
Big Boys moving in: IBM, SAP, PeopleSoft, Oracle, Siebel, Sun
Major IS research issues: implementation/design of ELS/LMS/LCMS as a complex system; integration with knowledge management, ERP, etc.
Aspen Enterprise Architecture ( See http://home.click2learn.com/en/aspen/index.asp ) Threaded Diss, IM, KB of Expert Interactions, Community Support Common Content Repository Transaction Logging Job, Skill profiles and plans, etc.
Course level Student-Team level Program level Course-level: The resources and tools to teach/take a particular course. Issues: course design, assignments, discussions, grading, etc. On-line anytime (LCMS, Course Management, email) and live (virtual classroom, Instant messaging) Student-Team level: Tools necessary for student teams geographically spread out to meet, work on assignments and collaboratively learn together. On-line anytime and live (e-meeting, IM) Program-level coordination: The management and coordination of multiple courses and students taking those courses. Issues: integrated planning, scheduling and resource allocation, student and faculty bios, program discussions, etc. On-line anytime: LMS Personal and program news and file sharing Assignments, lectures, discussions Organizational or Interorganizational levels Learning Management tools, cross-program communication Organizational-level : The management of multiple programs and students (employees, suppliers, customers). Issues: programs integration and management, student registration and tracking, etc. On-line anytime: LMS Different Levels Involved in e-Learning
[Virtual] Learning Teams ( Cooperative/Collaborative Learning, Educational literature)
Last 100 years, over 550 experimental and 100 correlational studies; different subject areas & settings (including College)
Learning together better than competitive or individual learning
Environment to store documents and have discussions:
Lotus TeamRoom (Notes Based, comes as part of Notes 5)) http://www.lotus.com/products/qplace.nsf QuickPlace is the web implementation of Lotus TeamRoom.
Team Portals on web: a single doorway or entrance to services to support teams. Good example, Webspace: http://www.copernus.com/
Team Tech: Integrated
General: Future tools will integrate Database and Communication functions into one package
Seeing in Learning Content Management Systems
Other software; PeopleSoft integrating in products (IM, etc.)
Groove is a peer-to-peer digital collaboration tool that very useful for students and faculty. Go to http://www.groove.net/ and download the software. There is a free version! If you do not have at least 56k modem connection, this might be a little slow. Check it out!!
Some systems are more oriented to communities instead of focusing on teams, for example see http://www.communispace.com/
Groove Shared Spaces
A shared space is a private place where small groups of people (members) can talk, work, play and store things.
Has IM capabilities: audio, chat, messaging
Share space contains a set of tools for members to use (select individual tools or tool sets, e.g.., Project)
Key Tools: Files/Documents (Shared Application with Microsoft Word and Powerpoint), Discussion, Document Review, Outliner, Notepad, Calendar, Links/Browser, Meetings, Games and many more (see Groove and Groove Web site)
Work Seamlessly with MicroSoft Office, Outlook & SharePoint
Keep work spaces synchronized on multiple computers
New Project Version: Groove plus TeamDirection’s
Project: Plan projects and monitor execution status in a highly graphical environment. Interfaces with MicroSoft Project
Dashboard: Get "at-a-glance" views of your project and personal status across all your workspaces.
See http://www.groove.net/products/workspace/comparison.html for comparison of versions
IDC Recent Research http://www.groove.net/extras/beyondemail/idc/?home
Summary for both IT and Business Users (also true for student teams)
90-95 % day-to-day tasks done through email especially when external constituents
Key features of emails: ease of use, persistence of record, and ability to use externally
At same time, freely criticize email: insecure, inefficient, SPAM, and costly to maintain
What stops people from adopting new collaboration tools
Lack of education and awareness
Tools themselves: ease of use, reliable performance
Success of Instant Messaging (50 million business users)? Most IM expanding features or providing links to other tools
New tools solving?: Groove, Interwise (virtual meeting, classrooms, and broadcasts) [Need for research: preliminary evidence that Groove 10 times more productive]
Key Business Driver: Integration of business processes within the organization and supply/value chain to improve performance
Workflow-based learning (focus on performance support)
Learning to point of work in real time, on the job, in context of employee’s workflow
Systems integration: e-Learning with
Current integrated systems (ERP, CRM)
EAI and Web Services efforts: Learning object becomes web service?
Old IS research stream revived: Electronic Performance Support
Business/System Integration: e-Learning with
Business workflow/Performance support (convergence point?)
LCS capturing qualitative information around learning objects
Business Intelligence (quantitative information)
Common/shared knowledge repositories and collaboration technology platform
Key areas for IS research
WORK FLOW & PEOPLE: THE REALITY OF WORK DB DB DB Formal Meeting Form Information Transfer Phone/Conference/E-Mail Meeting Paper Flow Person-Role FILE CABINET
Workflow/Business Process Software vs. ERP Systems
Genomic Workflow Example Capture in Workflow Management Systems
Application/Web Services/Programs (Credit Scoring, Cust. Profile) Foundation Standards (WSDL, UDDI, XML) & Protocols (SOAP, HTTP, TCP/IP) Application Development Platform Programming Lang (Java, Visual Basic) Software Support Services SERVICE GRID: Service, Knowledge and Transport Management Register Business Process/Workflow: Model (assemble Web Services and other activities), Management, and Execution of business process/workflow Find, evaluate, subscribe to Web Services Future: Web Services Architecture
Web Service or Service Architecture
Granular/Small (no size specified) and self-contained (complete enough to perform common business activity)
Program & Platform Independent
Described, published, located and invoked over network
Location independent (installed anywhere)
Application/Web Services/Programs (Credit Scoring, Cust. Profile) Foundation Standards (WSDL, UDDI, XML) & Protocols (SOAP, HTTP, TCP/IP) Application Development Platform Programming Lang (Java, Visual Basic) Software Support Services Existing Programs Integration Software Platform (EAI, BPM, BPA): Focus is on integrating existing applications to support management and execution of business process/workflow Current State of Architecture
1 st course: application development platform (Programming language and support services)
2 nd course: Need more on application development? Integration software platform here?
Business Process modeling, management and execution (where?)
What should Telecom look like?: basic telecom and internet concepts, foundational standards and protocols, focus on Service architectures (Web Services), Business Portals, e-business, ?
SA&D: More on selecting and assembling (business process here?)
Decision Support (see next slide): collaboration technology & e-learning (focus on business process/performance)
Data and Control Flow Learning Objects ERPs WfMSs WfMS Intra-enterprise Integration A B C D N1 N2 F E Data and Control Flow Applications ERPs WfMSs WfMS Inter-enterprise Integration A B C D N1 N2 F E Web Service Web Service Web Service Web Service Organization A. Supply Chain Integration Organization B. Organization C.
The Knowledge Pyramid e-Learning Content/Knowledge Management Business Process/Performance Management Business Intelligence Knowledge objects repositories Collaboration Technology
IS General e-Learning Research
General Finding: IT-enable learning methods do better or as well as traditional methods
Method most studied collaborative learning: GSS student teams outperformed non-supported teams
Considerable variation: Sources/Moderators
Student characteristics: more conducive to highly motivated learners, academic ability, learning style
Question: How Does technology enhance learning?
Focus on interactions of technology, instructional methods, learner psychological processes, and environmental factors
Primary Reference: ALavi & Leidner, ISR, March 2001
Asynchronous Learning Networks
IS and Education Research
ALNs tend to be as effective or more effective than traditional modes of course delivery at the university levels
Increase importance of technology and use of Course Management Systems by Faculty (increase communications with students)
Longer to create, more time for interaction
More effective for well motivated student; challenge: create independent active learners
Interactivity Key: building learning community
Communication with instructor
Collaborative learning activities
Primary References: Hiltz & Turoff, CACM, April 2002; good sites: http://www.aln.org/ , http://www.alnresearch.org , http://www.uwex.edu/disted/
Research Issues Summary
Key research questions:
How does technology enhance learning in a given context (students, instructor/mentor, instructional method, environmental factors)?
For whom is it better? For what methods and instructors? Key Environmental factors?
Some Key Contexts: Business knowledge and skills especially IS/IT education and training, Customer Learning, Classrooms
e-Learning represents very different technologies
Development of good technology models and typologies
Research Specific technologies: virtual classrooms, workflow-based learning, simulations and gaming
Comparison of technologies to accomplish learning outcomes
Matching technology to learning outcomes and activities (task-technology fit view of the world)
Most e-Learning done in blends, e.g., face-to-face, online live, online anytime
Develop guidelines for creating blended e-Learning
Technology enhances the effectiveness of collaborative learning-continue research in this area: [virtual] learning teams, virtual classrooms [add GSS functionality], specific components, instructor/facilitator role, integrating collaboration into content software
Course level Student-Team level Program level Course-level: The resources and tools to teach/take a particular course. Issues: course design, assignments, discussions, grading, etc. On-line anytime (LCMS, Course Management, email) and live (virtual classroom, Instant messaging) Student-Team level: Tools necessary for student teams geographically spread out to meet, work on assignments and collaboratively learn together. On-line anytime and live (e-meeting, IM) Program-level coordination: The management and coordination of multiple courses and students taking those courses. Issues: integrated planning, scheduling and resource allocation, student and faculty bios, program discussions, etc. On-line anytime: LMS Personal and program news and file sharing Assignments, lectures, discussions Organizational or Interorganizational levels Learning Management tools, cross-program communication Organizational-level : The management of multiple programs and students (employees, suppliers, customers). Issues: programs integration and management, student registration and tracking, etc. On-line anytime: LMS Different Levels Involved in e-Learning Most Research at this level
Greater Breadth of Research
More focus on program and organizational levels
Many exciting initiatives, little research or sharing [Great area for research]
Good Starting points: Alavi & Gallupe, Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2:2, 2003 (5 successful cases); Bostrom et. al. and Jessup & Wheeler Case studies (see Web site references)
Some key findings (not all)
Programs implemented to support strategic vision
Culture that supports innovation is critical
Various technological models successful; key is blending technology to support vision
Focus on learning, not technology
High levels of on-going support is needed for both faculty and students, needs are often underestimated
Intellectual property important, not addressed adequately
Most assessments of programs are anecdotal
Other Research Issues
Implementation of Learning Systems (ELS, LMS, LCMS) as a complex system
How are technologies enabling emergent organizational learning structures? What managerial issues / opportunities do these create? Learning Strategies?
Business integration: e-Learning integration with content/knowledge management, Business Intelligence, and Business Process/Performance Management
Individual differences? How to develop an active/self-regulated learner (metacognition)? How can technology help?
All research projects would benefit from collaborative efforts with business and education colleagues, action-research projects, etc.
What is our vision and strategy for learning and how do we design an infrastructure to support it?
What exactly should the offerings of a university be?
What should a course be? Should there be courses at all?
How can we make education better?
Are we going to wait till we are seriously challenged in the free market?
Good article to make you think, Shank http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/schank/schank_index.html
I leave you with the following:
We have the opportunity to create some massive technology enabled changes in what it means to be involved in obtaining an education? What will your role be?
A Vision of Learning Transformed Any individual can participate in online education programs regardless of geographic location, age, physical limitation, or personal schedule. Everyone can access repositories of educational materials, easily recalling past lessons, updating skills, or selecting from among different teaching methods in order to discover the most effective ways of learning. Educational programs can be customized to each individual's needs, so that the information revolution reaches everyone and personal digital libraries provide a mechanism for managing one's accumulated knowledge resources. Learning involves all our senses, to help focus each student's attention and better communicate educational material. Information Technology Research: Investing in Our Future Report to the President, February 1999 President's Information Technology Advisory Committee
Recommendations from the 2001 PITAC Report
Overarching Recommendation Make the effective integration of information technology, with education and training a national priority.
Supporting Actions • Establish and coordinate a major research initiative focusing on:
Learning technologies and sciences – Information technologies for education and training
Requirements for learning and teaching information technology fluency
Establish partnerships involving government, university, industry, and foundations to support the pursuit of the research initiative and to collaborate in that research
Enable educators and related professionals to use information technology effectively
Work with industry and academia to develop standards for extendable
component-based technology and infrastructures that can be widely used in online education and training.
PITAC Report (2001). “Using Information Technology to Transform the Way We Learn.” Arlington, VA, President’s Information Technology /Advisory Committee, Panel on Transforming Learning. http:// www.itrd.gov/pitac / ; for commentary see http:// www.syllabus.com/article.asp?id =5664
Teaching Roles: New or Expanded
Focus on Instructional Goals & Learning Activities, not Technology
Finding, evaluating, and selecting content including simulated environments