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Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
Dr. Jolly Holden
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Dr. Jolly Holden

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  • 1. Dr. Jolly Holden Graduate Adjunct Faculty School of Education American InterContinental University The Road to Enlightened Blended Learning : Instructional Design Considerations ASTD 2009 International Conference & Expo Session: W206
  • 2. Introduction Blended learning is more than just combining an online component to the traditional classroom…it is a systematic process of selecting the most appropriate media for a specific learning intervention based upon the learning objectives. With that said, given the plethora of instructional media available to the instructional designer today, combined with the emergence of web-based collaborative tools, there is a renewed focus on integrating web 2.0/e-Learning 2.0 tools and other instructional media in meeting today’s learning challenges. “ Blended learning represents a [fundamental] shift in instructional strategy” North American Council for Online Learning, Blended Learning: The Convergence of Online and Face-to-Face Education , 2008
  • 3. Why Blended Learning: The Challenge Driven by the demand to increase learning opportunities and reduce costs without impacting instructional integrity, educators and trainers are continually challenged in searching for the for right mix of instructional media. Taking into consideration all of the instructional technologies available today, selecting the right mix of live, virtual, and constructive courseware delivery methods in meeting the needs of our learners can be a challenging and daunting task. Consequently, this presentation address these two basic questions: Q1: What is the most appropriate mix of instructional media, and… Q2: What are the variables to consider when selecting the most appropriate media?
  • 4. Blended learning allows the instructional designer the opportunity to leverage the strengths of instructional media with the efficacy of the instructional components to ensure the instructional goal is attained. For a blended learning solution to be successful , it is imperative a thorough media analysis and needs assessment is conducted while addressing the fundamental components of the instructional systems design process. Rules of Engagement for Blended Learning “ Migrating to blended learning formats requires instructional design analysis that integrates with the technologies that will be utilized to deliver it. ” The e-Learning Developers Journal (2005)
  • 5. <ul><li>Delivery media does not affect the content, but affects how you design the content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous media is not adaptive to dynamic content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous media can accommodate dynamic content </li></ul></ul>Basic Blended Learning Concepts
  • 6. <ul><li>Delivery media does not affect the content, but affects how you design the content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous media is not adaptive to dynamic content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous media can accommodate dynamic content </li></ul></ul>Basic Blended Learning Concepts <ul><li>Blended learning integrates multiple media with the appropriate instructional strategies, and can also include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative tools used to facilitate the transfer of learning (wikis, discussion boards) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive tools used for dynamic content/increased interaction (blogs) </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>Delivery media does not affect the content, but affects how you design the content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous media is not adaptive to dynamic content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous media can accommodate dynamic content </li></ul></ul>Basic Blended Learning Concepts <ul><li>Media attributes are important in that they may affect your choice of instructional strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Blended learning integrates multiple media with the appropriate instructional strategies, and can also include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative tools used to facilitate the transfer of learning (wikis, discussion boards) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive tools used for dynamic content/increased interaction (blogs) </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. This presentation will provide some background on blended learning and instructional media, as well as introducing variables to consider when developing a blended learning strategy. Additionally, this presentation will introduce the concepts of synchronicity (integration of learning environments) and elasticity (integration of instructional media with instructional strategies) to ensure the right mix is attained. The Blended Learning Journey <ul><li>Presentation objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Define Blended Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Review the Evolution &amp; Genealogy of Instructional Media </li></ul><ul><li>Define Learning Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Instructional Media Selection Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Identify &amp; Evaluate Instructional &amp; Pedagogical Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Define Elasticity and Synchronicity </li></ul>
  • 9. Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications The Blended Learning Road Map Navigation Bar Click on any link for direct access to that topic Click for Glossary Blended Learning Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments ( synchronous &amp; asynchronous) Elasticity Implications (trends from the industry) Learning Model Learning Environment Component Instructional Component Media Component
  • 10. <ul><li>Although the application of blended learning has been around for decades, there is no universally accepted definition. While it appears the term first appeared in the literature circa 1999 , the following pages articulate several definitions that represent different perspectives in an attempt to define the term, but they all have one essential component in common...an integration of instructional media. The definitions offered in this presentation reflect 5 different perspectives concerning blended learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Point of View </li></ul></ul>Blended Learning Definitions A rose by any other name is still a rose More definitions of blended learning available at: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/elearning/blended.html Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications
  • 11. <ul><li>A Holistic Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>The delivery of instruction using multiple media* </li></ul><ul><li>Includes the integration of instructional media into a traditional classroom or into a distance learning environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach </li></ul></ul>Blended Learning Definitions Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Note: This definition represents a general construct in that it is applicable to any learning environment that combines more than one media to deliver content.
  • 12. An Educational Perspective* Courses that integrate online with traditional face-to- face class activities in a planned pedagogically valuable manner; and…where a portion (institutionally defined) of face-to-face time is replaced by online activity. <ul><li>Source: Laster, S., G. Otte, A. G. Picciano and S. Sorg. Redefining blended learning. Presented at the 2005 Sloan-C Workshop on Blended Learning, Chicago, IL, April 18, 2005. </li></ul>Consequently, from an educational perspective, blended learning is primarily focused on integrating two separate paradigms…the traditional classroom [synchronous] environment and the asynchronous online environment. Blended Learning Definitions Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Note: Hybrid learning, vis-à-vis blended learning, is often used in higher education when the student has a choice between an online class and the traditional class…not necessarily the integration of the two. Blended Learning Traditional Classroom Online
  • 13. A Pragmatic Perspective Courses that are taught both in the classroom (face-to-face) and at a distance and that use a mix of different pedagogic strategies (Source: edutechwiki, 2006, Available at http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Blended_learning ) Blended Learning Definitions Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications <ul><ul><li>More specifically… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To combine or mix modes of web-based technology (e.g., live virtual classroom, self-paced instruction, collaborative learning, streaming video, audio, and text) to accomplish an educational goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To combine various pedagogical approaches (e.g., constructivism, behaviorism, cognitivism) to produce an optimal learning outcome with or with out instructional technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To combine any form of instructional technology (e.g., videotape, CD-ROM, web-based training, film) with face-to-face instructor-led training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To mix or combine instructional technology with actual job tasks in order to create a harmonious effect of learning and working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Margaret Driscoll, n.d, retrieved Jan 5, 2007 from: http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Blended_learning </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. A Corporate Training Perspective The use of multiple instructional delivery media to deliver one course or curriculum, such as a sales training course with pre-reading, asynchronous online product knowledge training, and synchronous lectures and role play practices. Source: e-Learning Guild’s Research Report , Synchronous Learning Systems , June 2008 Blended Learning Definitions Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Synchronous and asynchronous media. For clarification, blended learning is also applied to a mix of online and face-to-face training, and more generally to approaches to course design and delivery that combine different modalities (e.g., self-paced Web-based training, followed by classroom instruction, accompanied by printed job aids, and supplemented by virtual classroom follow-up sessions). Source: e-Learning Guild Handbook on Synchronous e-Learning (2007)
  • 15. Blended Learning Definitions A Chief Learning Officer Perspective “ Executing a learning strategy that integrates multiple delivery modalities (both synchronous and asynchronous) and, in doing so, creating the best possible learning solution for your target audience.” Source: Chief Learning Officer Magazine ( www.clomedia.com ), Executing Blended Learning , Jan., 2009 Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications “ Collaborative online learning is now recognized as a component of a mature blended-learning strategy.” Bersin &amp; Associates, Technology Update: Open Source e-Learning Systems, June 2007
  • 16. Although this quote sounds as if it were referring to a new technological break- through, in reality, this profound statement was uttered by the Reverend Joseph H. Odell, D. D. (1910) in his address titled &amp;quot;The New Era in Education: A Study of the Psychology of Correspondence Methods of Instruction&amp;quot; delivered in 1910 at the dedication of the instruction building of the International Correspondence Schools in Scranton, Pennsylvania. “ I do not know any innovation upon existing methods more radical and revolutionary than this” Evolution of Instructional Media: When it all Began… Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications
  • 17. What does it mean to the future of education and training? As instructional media continues to evolve, propelled by advances in technology and fueled by the need to increase learning opportunities, the evolution and advancements of instructional media will continue to accelerate as well. As a result, blended learning will become an integral component in developing a comprehensive learning strategy. Consequently, When developing a learning strategy for the future, it is sometimes prudent to study the past in order to develop a plan for tomorrow… Evolution of Instructional Media: The Emergence of Blended Learning Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications “ The term blended learning has been redefined, from a combination of instructor and Web-based training to a blend of many types of interactive content” Josh Bersin , “Today’s High-Impact Learning Organization”, Chief Learning Officer Magazine, Aug, 2008
  • 18. The Family Tree of Instructional Media Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Electronic-assisted Learning (circa 1990-present) T echnology-enabled (circa 1950s-1990s <ul><li>TV (satellite &amp; cable) </li></ul><ul><li>audio tape </li></ul><ul><li>audio graphics </li></ul><ul><li>audio conferencing </li></ul>e-learning (circa 1995-present) Satellite e-learning/ITV Video Conferencing Video tape/DVD/ ipods Electronic whiteboards Correspondence (1883-present) In the beginning, there was only correspondence courses, and the concept of “blending” wasn’t born yet. As the country grew and evolved from an agrarian society to an industrialized nation, the demand for education increased significantly. With the ensuing emergence of radio and TV, the education community quickly realized the potential of these new media and adopted them to distribute education programs to a geographically dispersed workforce. Then, as the technology evolved, more delivery tools emerged to where the instructional designer now has a plethora of choices that can be used singularly or integrated to create a blended learning solution.
  • 19. Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Computer-mediated Learning (circa 1970-present) Computer-based Training (CBT) Web-based Training Online Learning With the introduction of the computer, learning communities quickly realized the potential of this powerful new technology and adopted it as another delivery tool. As the computer continued to evolve, a new generation of the computer-mediated instruction arrived, and with the emergence of the internet, new collaborative tools and delivery media also appeared. Note: In the early 90’s, a migration began from a mainframe-centric environment to a more of a stand-alone “distributed” computer environment that allowed for more local hosting of computer-based training (CBT).
  • 20. Extending the Family Tree of Instructional Media to Tomorrow Change is inevitable, and tomorrow will bring newer and better technologies, accompanied by a new set of challenges, but the goal is the same: Optimize the technology without sacrificing instructional quality. In the end, incorporating sound instructional design principles will provide for a solid foundation to ensure learning outcomes are attained. “ In this global, networked world, several technologies including search engines, blogs, podcasts, Web 2.0 applications and virtual worlds such as Second Life will be used for learning.” Ed Hoff, CLO IBM , Learning in the 21 st Century : A Brave New World , CLO Magazine, April, 2008 “ Distance learning will evolve from basic enrollment in computer and web-based courses to virtual learning environments that support online collaboration and classes taught by both live and virtual instructors.” Air Force White Paper,. On Learning: The Future of Air Force Education and Training (2008) Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications
  • 21. The Learning Environment: Two Dimensions <ul><li>Same time/same place </li></ul><ul><li>(traditional instructor-led classroom) </li></ul><ul><li>Same time/different place </li></ul><ul><li>(virtual instructor-led classroom) </li></ul><ul><li>Different time/different place </li></ul>Synchronous Asynchronous Click here for note on Web 3.0 &amp; Virtual Worlds The Basics Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Courses will combine live, virtual and constructive formats even while being distributed to increase training effectiveness and as well as shift to more cost-effective methods.” Air Force White Paper,. On Learning: The Future of Air Force Education and Training (2008)
  • 22. Although synchronicity is dichotomous, per se, either synchronous or asynchronous, it does not mean they are mutually exclusive when considering a blended learning solution . If viewed as being on opposite ends of a continuum, the degree to which these two dichotomous environments can be integrated would result in a blending of synchronicity. Therefore, to attain the most optimum blend, one must consider the vehicle(s) that deliver the content, the [learning environment] in which the learning occurs, and the instructional objective(s) [which drive the development of the content and instructional strategies]. Consequently, blended learning can include any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media. Blended Learning Synchronous Asynchronous Integration of Both Dimensions: The Concept of Synchronicity Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications
  • 23. Blended Learning Model Concept Map Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Collaborative Tools Synchronicity Asynchronous Instructional Media Synchronous Instructional Media Symmetry Asymmetrical Media Symmetrical Media Learning Environment Component Media Component Instructional Component Depicted in this concept map is the blended learning model three main components and subcomponents. The degree of integration of each of the subcomponents is based upon evaluating specific attributes of each component, resulting in the most appropriate blend to ensure attainment of the instructional goal. Note: This model is based upon a set of related components, although evaluated separately, are viewed holistically , per se, each component’s specific contribution must be viewed as it relates to the sum total of all the parts… which results in a comprehensive blended learning solution. Complexity Instructional Strategies Instructional Objectives Content Rapidity of Change Multimedia (aural/visual) Interactivity Didactic Collaboration (P2P) Asynchronous Dialectic Collaboration (P2P) Synchronous Distance Learning Asynchronous Synchronous Traditional Classroom
  • 24. Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Derived from the blended learning concept map is the tri-dimensional blended learning module. A model can be a description of a system or phenomenon that accounts for its known or inferred properties and used for further study of its characteristics. Therefore, a blended learning model can be used as a guide in evaluating and integrating separate components that would result in an instructionally sound learning situation. Media Component Learning Environment Component Instructional Component Blended Learning Model Components Media component: Used to evaluate the most appropriate media to delivery the content Learning environment component: Evaluates the learning environment (synchronous/asynchronous) that supports the instructional objectives Instructional component: Used to select the most appropriate instructional strategies that support the learning objectives Click on any of the model component links for detailed information for that specific component. Click here for a summary of each component.
  • 25. Media Learning Environment The power of blended learning is in its elasticity Instructional Concept of Elasticity in Blended Learning Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Depending upon the [cognitive] level of the learning objectives and the learning environment (synchronous vis-a-vis asynchronous), different combinations of instructional media and instructional strategies can support various levels of interactivity to attain the most appropriate &amp;quot;blend&amp;quot;. As the blend changes, the model becomes &amp;quot;elastic&amp;quot;, allowing the instructional designer to modify the blend to meet specific learning outcomes.
  • 26. What is the right mix? There may be several “blended” solutions that can meet the instructional objectives, so consider the qualitative merits of all instructional media. The ultimate goal is to increase performance through the systematic evaluation of intra-dependent variables that would result in the most appropriate integration of media. Elasticity in Blended Learning Click here for another view of the blend Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Media Learning Environment Instructional With that said, any combination of instructional delivery medium, including the traditional classroom, can result in a blended learning solution, but the instructional efficacy of the solution is most dependent upon the instructional and learning environment components.
  • 27. <ul><li>Survey from the Chief Learning Officer magazine Business Intelligence Board* </li></ul>The traditional classroom is still the primary delivery media (56%) but synchronous &amp; asynchronous e-learning is increasing (24%), along with the use of m-learning (6%) * Source: Chief Learning Officer Magazine. (July, 2007). Blended Learning: Mixing Modalities . Available at: http://www.clomedia.com Survey of Chief Learning Officers (CLOs) Use of Blended Learning Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications
  • 28. The greatest change in the delivery mix will continue to come via the increased adoption of e-learning and the increased use of portable technologies. IBM’s perspective on blended learning and workforce mobility Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning (con’t) Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Did you know that… click here
  • 29. “ [There is] an important link between content type and delivery method and that student-instructor interaction receives strong consideration in determining which delivery methods get employed within an organization...” and “ The value of student-to-instructor interaction remains a primary driver for both classroom-based ILT and synchronous e-learning….as well as student-to-student interaction.” CLO Magazine., July, 2007, pg. 48-49 Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning (con’t) Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications
  • 30. * Source: Kyong-Jee Kim and Curtis J. Bonk, The Future of Online Teaching and Learning in Higher Education , EDUCAUSE Quarterly, Number 4, 2006. Available at: http://connect.educause.edu/Library/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/TheFutureofOnlineTeaching/40000 Survey indicated that more emphasis is expected on blended learning—instruction that combines face-to-face with online offerings—than on fully online courses. Those surveyed predicted a distinct shift from about one quarter of classes being blended today to perhaps the vast majority of courses having some Web component by the end of the decade.* Growth of Blended Learning in Higher Education Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications
  • 31. &amp;quot;It is likely not the ‘blendedness’ that makes the difference, but rather the fundamental re-consideration of the content in light of new instructional and media choices.” Richard Voos, Blended Learning-What is it and where might it take us? Sloan-C View, Volume 2, Issue 1 – Feb, 2003. Available at: http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/view/v2n1/coverv2n1.htm <ul><ul><ul><li>“ The best current evidence is that media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in nutrition… only the content of the vehicle can influence achievement.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Richard.Clark, “Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media”. Review of Educational Research, Winter, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1983, pp. 445-459 </li></ul></ul></ul>So…What Does it Mean? Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications “ There’s an important point that is easy to miss in the frenzy of change. Web 2.0 is not about technology, and neither is e-Learning 2.0. The human element is what makes the new Web work. Without user-generated content, the new Web would be an empty shell of fancy technologies.” e-Learning Guild, What is e-Learning 2.0? , Aug, 2008
  • 32. It’s not just about technology…it’s about people <ul><li>Training/education is the process </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is the outcome </li></ul><ul><li>The technology is the means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on learning outcomes…the end result: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving human performance </li></ul></ul>Final Note: The Learning Mantra Definitions Media Evolution Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Collaboration + Teamwork = Success Receiver (Learner) Sender (Instructor) Delivery System
  • 33. End of Presentation Click to go back to Presentation Map Click to go back to prior slide “ One only needs two tools in life: WD-40 to make things go, and duct tape to make them stop.” G. M. Weilacher, American humorist
  • 34. <ul><li>Intentionally Left Blank </li></ul>Click to go back
  • 35. Learning Environment Component Distance Learning Traditional Classroom Synchronous Asynchronous Back to Main Page Learning Environment Page Synchronous Asynchronous A learning environment can either be synchronous or asynchronous, per se, the learning is either occurring real-time with an instructor (synchronous), or it is occurring without the presence of an instructor (asynchronous). Regardless, each learning environment has their distinct advantages and disadvantages, and the goal of developing a blended learning strategy is to leverage those specific attributes of each environment to ensure the most optimum use of resources to attain the instructional goal.
  • 36. The Synchronous Learning Environment <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for a dialectic learning environment with a high level of interactivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages spontaneity of oral responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate reinforcement of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supports activation learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>such as idea generation (brainstorming) </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for peer support (social </li></ul><ul><li>learning theory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for peer-to-peer interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structured learning environment </li></ul>Back to Main Page Learning Environment Page Synchronous Asynchronous <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to same time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required dedicated instructor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not provide for self-pacing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May be limited to same place </li></ul><ul><li>(albeit at a distance) </li></ul><ul><li>High cognitive load </li></ul>Synchronous Asynchronous
  • 37. The Asynchronous Learning Environment Different Time Different/Same Place <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for more opportunity of reflective thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not constrained by time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delayed reinforcement of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for flexibility in delivery of content </li></ul><ul><li>Less structured learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for flexibility in location (home, office, etc.) </li></ul>Back to Main Page Learning Environment Page Synchronous Asynchronous <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>No live interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer completion times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Just-in-time” = “do-it-on-your </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>own-time” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher non-completion rates— </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pacing not optimized </li></ul></ul>
  • 38. <ul><li>Intentionally Left Blank </li></ul>Click to go back
  • 39. Media Component Some instructional media may be more appropriate than others in supporting either a synchronous or asynchronous learning environment, but no single medium is inherently better or worse than another. Although the delivery medium does not affect the content, the selection of certain media may affect how you design the content based on the attributes of that specific medium. Regardless, when the “most appropriate” media are selected based on the ISD process, then learning outcomes will not be affected. Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy Portability Synchronicity Asynchronous Instructional Media Synchronous Instructional Media Portability Wikis, blogs, discussion boards Media are vehicles that simply deliver their contents. When developing a blended learning solution, the selection of the most appropriate media is not based solely on the attributes of the media, but the potential impact it may have on the design of the instructional components and corresponding physical learning environment. Click here for more on media mapped to the distance learning environment.
  • 40. Taxonomy of Media for Blended Learning The taxonomy is focused primarily on a dichotomous learning environment * <ul><ul><li>* Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach </li></ul></ul>Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy Portability Click here for note on use of Wikis &amp; Blogs as collaborative tools
  • 41. Integrating Media: A Blended Learning Approach Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy Portability Integrating any combination of synchronous/ asynchronous media with the traditional classroom results in a blended learning solution. Synchronous Media <ul><li>Satellite e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Web Conferencing/SLS </li></ul><ul><li>Webinars </li></ul>Asynchronous Media <ul><li>Online (Web-Based Training) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-based Training </li></ul><ul><li>Video Tape/DVD </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Tape </li></ul><ul><li>Podcast/vodcast </li></ul>Traditional Classroom
  • 42. Synchronous Instructional Media Internet-based and delivered over the Web that enable synchronous audio and/or text chat, video, document and application sharing, whiteboards, presentations, etc. Can support synchronous oral interaction between the instructor and remote students at multiple locations as well as supporting Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE) or webinars. Due to bandwidth limitations (basically, low-bandwidth applications), high-resolution images and video may be limited. Note: The application of web conferencing in a learning environment is also known as synchronous learning systems (SLS). Synchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI)/Web Conferencing (Synchronous Learning Systems) ITV is defined as a one-way, full motion video and audio transmission of classroom instruction through a telecommunications channel such as satellite, cable TV, or Instructional TV Fixed Service (ITFS), a dedicated 2.5GHz spectrum managed by the FCC and limited to educational programming only, usually transmitted via microwave Instructional Television (ITV) Audiographics combines audio conferencing with personal computer text and graphics, allowing both voice and data to be transmitted to remote sites. Typically, a site consists of audio conference equipment, plus a large screen that serves as an electronic whiteboard. This system allows for two-way data exchange (limited to high-resolution still images only) and a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor and students at multiple sites. Audiographics An audio-only environment in which students in different locations use telephones or audio conferencing equipment to communicate with each other in real time. Supports a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor, remote students, and multiple sites but does not support visual images and graphics, and often supplemented by electronic or printed handouts. Can be integrated with other delivery systems to provide synchronous audio. Audio Conferencing Description Technology Delivery
  • 43. Synchronous Instructional Media towers. This specific application would not be available to instructional programming programming received via commercial cable TV). Due to the bandwidth available via satellite or ITFS, this delivery medium can emulate the live, traditional classroom environment but at a distance. ITV is sometimes referred to as Business Television (BTV), Interactive Video Teletraining, or Interactive TV, and can be transmitted via analog or digital systems. Instructional Television (ITV)- con’t Satellite e-learning represents the next generation of distributed media. Utilizing IP (Internet Protocol) as the network layer and distribution technology, it also incorporates the latest MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) video standard or latest version of Widows Media. Similar in application to ITV, it allows for the live traditional classroom to be transmitted to a remote site while synchronous oral interactivity is supported by audio teleconferencing or student response systems integrating audio and keypad technology (data interaction). Additionally, since satellite e-learning uses IP, video streaming can be utilized at extremely high bandwidths (~3.0Mbps). The IP-based video can be distributed directly to the user’s end-point and then distributed via the LAN to either a classroom or desktop computer, or both. Also, satellite e-learning can easily transmit large multimedia/web-based training modules (known as data casting) without being constrained by bandwidth, as is common with a terrestrial network. This capability allows the data to bypass the WAN by transmitting directly to the user’s end-point and then distributed locally via the LAN, thereby effectively bypassing the terrestrial infrastructure and the Internet. Satellite e-learning is also referred to as BTV/IP (Business Television/Internet Protocol). Satellite e-learning Description Technology Delivery
  • 44. Synchronous Instructional Media Technology Delivery Description Video Teleconferencing (VTC) VTC systems are two-way communication systems that offer both audio and video from local and remote sites and provide for synchronous interaction between the instructor and remote students at multiple locations. It allows for the instructor to observe the students at the far end (remote location), allowing the student to demonstrate an event. These systems can be terrestrial, satellite-based, or microwave-based Instructional TV Fixed Service (ITFS). Generally VTCs transmit and receive between 384Kbps – 1.5Mbps, with the next generation coders/decoders (codecs) IP enabled.
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  • 46. Back to Taxonomy When evaluating media components, wikis, blogs, and discussion boards are primarily collaborative tools and not considered stand-alone instructional media delivery options. However, they can be integrated into a course/learning module in developing a social learning structure that supports active learning and knowledge construction through peer-to-peer interaction. In a research study investigating the interplay of synchronous and asynchronous communication used in online courses, students seemed more satisfied with face-to-face courses that used asynchronous discussion boards as alternative communication media than courses that were entirely asynchronous based. Significant data were found to indicate the effect of synchronous media in a mostly asynchronous discussion forum. The ability of synchronous media to foster social presence is not shown or disproved by the research Source: A Field Study of Use of Synchronous Chat in Online Courses (2002), Retrieved from: http://www.hicss.hawaii.edu/HICSS36/HICSSpapers/CLTSL03.pdf
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  • 48. Asynchronous Instructional Media Technology Delivery Description Asynchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI) On-demand, online-based instruction stored on a server and accessed across a distributed electronic network. It can be delivered over the Internet or private local area network (LANs) or Wide Area Networks (WANs) where the content is displayed utilizing a web browser. Student access is asynchronous, self-paced, and does not provide for synchronous interaction between the instructor and the remote student. High-resolution images and video may be limited due to available bandwidth. Computer Based Instruction (CBI) Interactive instructional experience between a computer and the learner where the computer provides the majority of the stimulus and the student responds. T he computer is the storage and delivery device with all content resident on the student’s computer. It provides the primary display and storage capability and can support high-resolution images and video. Correspondence (print) Entirely print-based, asynchronous and self-paced. Can be augmented through the use of multimedia CD-ROM. Instructor feedback can be facilitated through the use of e-mail. Used extensively to support other media Recorded Audio (Tape and digital broadcast) Recorded audio content—on tape or transmitted electronically—which can be used as a stand-alone delivery tool or part of a blended learning approach. Can be used as the sole means of content or as part of a blended approach. Recorded Video (Tape and digital broadcast) A method of capturing learning content on tape or as a digital file for viewing on-demand. Can be used as the sole means of content or as part of a blended approach. Often used to capture a real time event and is an effective distribution medium that supports high-resolution images and video but does not support a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor and the remote student.
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  • 50. <ul><li>Refers to how portable (mobile) a specific media may be, e.g., cell phones, ipods/Blackberry’s, personal DVD players, other similar wireless devices. </li></ul><ul><li>When evaluating portability, consider symmetry, per se, the amount of information [digital bits] that flows to/from the sender and receiver in either direction. For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical interaction is when the flow of information is predominantly in a single direction such as in a didactic lecture or asynchronous learning module with no interaction between the student and instructor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversely, in a conferencing or collaborative learning environment, the information flow is symmetrical, per se, the information flow is evenly distributed between learners and instructors and equal amounts of digital information is flowing both directions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A close relationship exists between symmetry and interactivity. The more the student-instructor interaction, the greater the need for a symmetrical delivery system. </li></ul>Portability Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy Portability
  • 51. Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical Learning Environments Low High High Symmetry Interactivity When articulating a blended learning strategy, considering symmetry of the learning environment is almost as important as considering its synchronicity. If not taken into account, it may lead the course designer to make less than optimal choices in instructional media selection. Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy Portability Click on the icon of how Merrill Lynch use of mobile learning <ul><li>Video Conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Web conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-recorded audio/ video (Tape/DVD) </li></ul><ul><li>ipods/vpods/personal communication devices </li></ul><ul><li>CBT/WBT </li></ul>
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  • 53. Instructional Component: Variables to Consider Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Complexity Rapidity of Change Multimedia (aural/visual) Interactivity (strategies supporting specific media) Collaboration (P2P) Synchronous Asynchronous Didactic # Collaboration (P2P) Dialectic* * Instructor-student-instructor # Instructor-student Content Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Click for information on learning styles When developing a blended learning solution, maintaining instructional quality is paramount. Consequently, learning objectives are never compromised when developing a blended learning solution. Instructional strategies are the products of learning objectives and serve to ensure the learning objectives and facilitate the transfer of learning. Learning Styles
  • 54. <ul><li>The most significant factors in student learning are quality and effectiveness of instruction , and the most important single factor in developing a blended learning solution is the instructional objective . The level of cognitive objectives is a critical variable to consider when selecting the most appropriate media for blended learning, and generally speaking: </li></ul>Note on Learning Objectives <ul><li>Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels where knowledge and comprehension and repetition/drill &amp; practice are the primary focus, and </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels (synthesis/analysis/evaluation) where a synchronous learning environment is required to support a high level of interaction (dialog). </li></ul>Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies
  • 55. <ul><li>A learning objective (aka behavioral objective, instructional objective, enabling objective, or performance objective) is a succinct statement that describes a specific learning activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit in order to evaluate competency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed in terms of the student and formulated in terms of observable behavior and the special conditions in which the behavior is manifested. </li></ul></ul>What is a Learning Objective? Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies
  • 56. <ul><li>The purpose of creating learning objectives is to provide a means of clarifying the instructional goal and ensure the training/education is successful. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes the criteria for student performance used to assess learning </li></ul><ul><li>Used to develop instructional strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for media selection </li></ul>Why Developing Learning Objectives? Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies
  • 57. Types of Objectives <ul><li>Instructional objectives are developed from a taxonomy known as the domain of learning objectives and includes three overlapping domains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychomotor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrated by knowledge recall and the intellectual skills: comprehending information, organizing ideas, analyzing and synthesizing data, applying knowledge, choosing among alternatives in problem solving, and evaluating ideas or actions </li></ul></ul></ul>Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies
  • 58. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives A metaphor depicting the taxonomy of learning objectives can be thought as assembling blocks in building a pyramid. The knowledge and comprehension levels create the foundation from which one develops higher order thinking skills commensurate with the higher cognitive levels (analysis, synthesis,&amp; evaluation). Lower Higher Knowing Doing Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Knowledge The first level of learning is knowledge. Knowledge can be characterized as awareness of specifics and of the ways and means of dealing with specifics. The knowledge level focuses on memory or recall where the learner recognizes information, ideas, principles in the approximate form in which they were learned. Comprehension Comprehension is the next level of learning and encompasses understanding. Has the knowledge been internalized or understood? The student should be able to translate, comprehend, or interpret information based on the knowledge. Application Application is the use of knowledge. Can the student use the knowledge in a new situation? It can also be the application of theory to solve a real world problem. The student selects, transfers, and uses data and principles to complete a problem or task. Analysis Analysis involves taking apart a piece of knowledge, and investigates parts of a concept. It can only occur if the student has obtained knowledge of and comprehends a concept. The student examines, classifies, hypothesizes, collects data, and draws conclusions. Synthesis Synthesis is the creative act. It’s the taking of knowledge and the creation of something new. It is an inductive process—one of building rather than one of breaking down. The student originates, integrates, and combines ideas into something new to him/her. Evaluation Evaluation is judgment or decision-making where the student appraises, assesses or criticizes on a basis of specific standards/criteria.
  • 59. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Instruction is designed to transfer knowledge from the instructor to the learner to the real-world environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The transfer of learning is facilitated by the development of instructional strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain synchronous instructional technologies may be best suited for instructional strategies that require a live and dialectic learning environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversely, there are asynchronous instructional technologies that are best integrated with strategies that require asynchronous learning environment. </li></ul></ul>The dissemination of content through the use of instructional media is only as effective as the design of the instruction Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Click here for an explanation of the difference between instructional strategies and cognitive learning strategies.
  • 60. Table of Instructional Strategies Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies Description Narration/Lecture Allows for transfer of learning through mere declaration and explication of knowledge. When interaction is available, it allows for reinforcement of behavior, spontaneous questioning, dialogue, and social interaction with immediate feedback. Note: Lecture is a very efficient strategy to transfer large amounts of content but has a high cognitive load. Demonstration Skill transfer through the depiction of procedural tasks, events, processes, etc. Role Playing Involves recreating a situation relating to a real-world problem in which participants act out various roles. Promotes an understanding of other people’s positions and their attitudes as well as the procedures that may be used for diagnosing and solving problems. Learners may assume the role of a particular character, organization, professional occupation, etc. Guided Discussion Supports a synchronous, dialectic learning environment through the spontaneous and free-flowing exchange of information. Encourages active, participatory learning that supports knowledge transfer through dialogue. Students may discuss material more in-depth, share insights and experiences, and answer questions. Simulation Replicates or mimics a real event and allows for continual observation. A simulation creates a realistic model of an actual situation or environment. Illustration Depicts abstract concepts with evocative, palpable real-world examples.
  • 61. Table of Instructional Strategies Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies Description Imagery Imagery is the mental visualization of objects, events, and arrays. It enables internalized visual images that relate to information to be learned. Imagery helps to create or recreate an experience in the learner’s mind. Imagery involves all the senses: visual, kinesthetic, auditory, and tactile. Modeling A contrived, simplified version of an object or concept that encapsulates its salient features. Brainstorming Brainstorming is a valid and effective problem-solving method in which criticism is delayed and imaginative ways of understanding a situation are welcomed, where quantity is wanted and combination and improvement are sought. Brainstorming can occur with individuals or in a group setting, and involves generating a vast number of ideas in order to find an effective method for solving a problem. Case Studies A problem-solving strategy similar to simulation that works by presenting a realistic situation that requires learners to respond and explore possible solutions. Drill &amp; Practice Repetition of a task or behavior until the desired learning outcome is achieved. Allows for transfer of knowledge from working memory to long-term memory.
  • 62. Instructional Strategies Supporting Asynchronous Media Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Media Appropriate Instructional Strategy Asynchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI) - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Tutorials - Demonstrations - Case Studies - Simulations - Modeling - Illustrations - Role Playing - Drill and Practice Computer Based Instruction (CBI) - Narration/Description - Illustrations - Case Studies - Simulation - Role Playing - Drill and Practice - Demonstration - Tutorials Correspondence (print) - Narration/Description - Drill and Practice - Case Studies - Narration Recorded Audio (Tape and digital broadcast/RSS) - Narration/Description (Lecture) Recorded Video (Tape and digital broadcast) - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Case Studies - Illustrations
  • 63. Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies Supporting Synchronous Media Media Appropriate Instructional Strategy Audio Conferencing - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Guided Discussion - Brainstorming Audiographics - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Guided Discussion - Brainstorming - Illustrations Synchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI)/Web Conferencing <ul><li>- Narration/Description (Lecture) - Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>- Discussion - Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation - Illustrations </li></ul>Video Teleconferencing (VTC) <ul><li>- Narration/Description (Lecture) - Panel Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>- Guided Discussion - Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>- Brainstorming - Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>- Case Studies - Drill and Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul>Instructional Television (ITV)/ Satellite e-learning <ul><li>- Narration/Description (Lecture - Panel Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>- Guided Discussion - Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>- Brainstorming - Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>- Case Studies - Drill and Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul>
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  • 65. Summarizing: The Media Component <ul><ul><li>Click here for more on distance learning environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click here for e-learning 2.0 technologies &amp; definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click here for an introduction to Media Synchronicity Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>While media does not affect the content, it can affect how you design the content for a specific medium </li></ul><ul><li>Variables to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media richness (motion handling, visual clarity/pixel resolution) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion of workforce/distribution of content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to update content quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital &amp; recurring costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware end points </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplex (one-way) data vis-a-vis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>duplex (2-way data) </li></ul></ul>Learning Environment Component Media Component Instructional Component Synchronicity Symmetry Asynchronous Instructional Media Synchronous Instructional Media Symmetrical Media Portability Asymmetrical Media
  • 66. Summarizing: The Learning Environment Component Learning Environment Component Media Component Instructional Component <ul><li>Synchronicity: Is the learning environment primarily synchronous or asynchronous or a combination of both? </li></ul><ul><li>Variables to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time &amp; space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pacing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility in content delivery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timeliness of completion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement of ideas (immediate vs. delayed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection of ideas </li></ul></ul></ul>Distance Learning Traditional Classroom Synchronous Asynchronous
  • 67. Summarizing: The Instructional Component Learning Environment Component Media Component Instructional Component <ul><li>Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels whereas synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Variables to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spontaneity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor-student (didactic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor-student-instructor (dialectic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive load </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement of ideas/thoughts (immediate/delayed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapidity of content change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity of content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of cognitive objectives ( click here for a brief over of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about learning styles ( click here )? </li></ul></ul>Instructional Strategies Instructional Objectives Content Rapidity of Change Complexity Multimedia (aural/visual) Collaboration (P2P) Interactivity Dialectic Collaboration (P2P) Synchronous Asynchronous Didactic
  • 68. Synchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies Instructional TV/Satellite e-Learning Video Teleconferencing Web Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics <ul><li>Narration (Lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Idea Generation (Brainstorming) </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Narration (Lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion/ Group Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Idea Generation (Brainstorming) </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul><ul><li>Narration (Lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Idea Generation (Brainstorming) </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Narration (Lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Idea Generation (Brainstorming) </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Narration (Lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Idea Generation (Brainstorming) </li></ul>
  • 69. Asynchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies Pre-recorded audio (podcast, cassette, CD) Correspondence Pre-recorded video (CD/DVD, vodcast, tape) <ul><li>Narration (Lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Narration (Lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Drill &amp; Practice </li></ul>Computer-based Instruction <ul><li>Narration (Lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul><ul><li>Drill &amp; Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Narration (Lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Drill &amp; Practice </li></ul>Webinars <ul><li>Narration (Lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Discussion/ Panel Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul>
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  • 71. Portability: An IBM Workforce Mobility Perspective* Blended learning allows companies to mix scheduled and unscheduled training modules and structured and unstructured learning experiences, as well as provide self-paced material to keep today’s learners engaged. * Source: On demand learning: blended learning for today’s evolving workforce, IBM Learning Solutions, September 2005, Available at: http://www-935.ibm.com/services/us/imc/pdf/gw510-6396-on-demand-learning.pdf Return to previous page
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  • 73. Mobile Learning: Merrill Lynch Compliance Training Delivered via BlackBerry’s* * Source: Chief Learning Officer magazine, Merrill Lynch: Bullish on Mobile Learning, April, 2008. <ul><li>Background. With a population of 60,000 employees, Merrill Lynch has more than 21,000 BlackBerry devices in use globally, with 500 new devices being added monthly. One of the primary advantages of using BlackBerries to delivery m-learning is that the devices are integrated within the corporate network. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals. Enable learning outside the office during naturally occurring downtime; leverage existing BlackBerry usage habits; allow employees to complete learning in small bursts, regardless of time and place with no need for network coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>Results. Offered 3 compliance training courses via BlackBerry for a 2 month period and achieved: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase of 1.21% in average competency score to the control groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attained a 12% higher completion rate at the 45-day milestone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attained an average of 45% less time in training, with some completing the training in &lt;80% with no loss of comprehension </li></ul></ul>Return to previous page
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  • 75. What Might Go in the Blend* * Source: Allison Rossett and Rebecca Vaughan Frazee, Blended Learning Opportunities , American Management Association Special Report, 2006 Return to previous page
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  • 77. Delivery Media Mapped to the Distance Learning Environment <ul><li>Distance Learning Classroom </li></ul><ul><li>group centric (classroom environment) </li></ul><ul><li>primarily synchronous </li></ul><ul><li>dialectic &amp; collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>constrained by time &amp; place </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Media </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Classroom </li></ul><ul><li>individual centric (office environment) </li></ul><ul><li>synchronous &amp; asynchronous capability </li></ul><ul><li>mostly didactic but can support interaction </li></ul><ul><li>constrained by time not place </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Media </li></ul><ul><li>Web conferencing tools </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Individual centric (portable to any location) </li></ul><ul><li>primarily asynchronous </li></ul><ul><li>primarily didactic with little/no interaction </li></ul><ul><li>not constrained by time &amp; place </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Media </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile devices </li></ul>Return to previous page Since media are vehicles that simply deliver their contents, the selection of the most appropriate media is not based solely on the attributes of the media, but the potential impact it may have on the design of the instructional components and corresponding physical learning environment. For example, the group centric distance learning classroom is best supported by media that can provide for a dialectic and collaborative environment, but is limited by time and place, whereas portable media best supports the individual learner anytime/anyplace but with limited peer support and interaction.
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  • 79. Delivery Media Mapped to the Distance Learning Environment <ul><li>Distance Learning Classroom </li></ul><ul><li>group centric (classroom environment) </li></ul><ul><li>primarily synchronous </li></ul><ul><li>dialectic &amp; collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>constrained by time &amp; place </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Media </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Classroom </li></ul><ul><li>individual centric (office environment) </li></ul><ul><li>synchronous &amp; asynchronous capability </li></ul><ul><li>mostly didactic but can support interaction </li></ul><ul><li>constrained by time not place </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Media </li></ul><ul><li>Web conferencing tools </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Individual centric (portable to any location) </li></ul><ul><li>primarily asynchronous </li></ul><ul><li>primarily didactic with little/no interaction </li></ul><ul><li>not constrained by time &amp; place </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Media </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile devices </li></ul>Return to previous page In a group centric distance learning classroom, the most appropriate media are those that can provide for a dialectic and collaborative environment but maybe constrained by time and place. However, portable media best supports the individual learner anytime/anyplace but with limited peer support and interaction.
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  • 81. Teaching with Instructional Television (ITV)--Did you Know… Return to previous page There is a tendency to regard the future of distance learning as belonging solely to online or web classes. However, some researchers have found that courses offered in ITV were sometimes preferred by students even when the same course was offered online. Also, the visual and interactive nature of instructional television benefited students and that student satisfaction with ITV has been generally confirmed. Teaching with ITV (Jan, 2008). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning: http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Jan_08/index.htm
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  • 83. Media synchronicity theory is primarily focused on groups and proposes that a set of media capabilities are important to group work, and that all tasks are composed of two fundamental communication processes (conveyance and convergence). Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes (i.e., tasks) as proposed by media richness theory. The theory postulates it is possible for one medium to possess different levels of a communication capability depending upon how it is configured and used. Media possess many capabilities, each of which may be more or less important in a given situation. The &amp;quot;richest&amp;quot; medium is that which best provides the set of capabilities needed by the situation: the individuals, task, and social context within which they interact (Note: richness applies to the message/content, not the richness of the visual media). Thus, concluding that face-to-face communication is the &amp;quot;richest&amp;quot; media is inappropriate. “ Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes as tested in examinations of media richness theory.” Click for Glossary Media Synchronicity Theory* * Source: Alan R. Dennis, Alan R., Valacich, Joseph S., (1999), Rethinking Media Richness: Towards a Theory of Media Synchronicity, Retrieved from: http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/1999/0001/01/00011017.PDF Return to Summarizing the Media Component
  • 84. Media Synchronicity Theory: Dimensions of Task Functions, Communication Processes, and Media Characteristics “ Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes as tested in examinations of media richness theory.” * Source: Alan R. Dennis, Alan R., Valacich, Joseph S., (1999), Rethinking Media Richness: Towards a Theory of Media Synchronicity, Return to Summarizing the Media Component
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  • 86. Return to previous page <ul><li>e-Learning 2.0 Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Vodcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Immersive learning environments, e.g., multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Wikis &amp; blogs are primarily collaborative tools and not instructional media used to deliver content </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions* </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 : The stage of the WWW where the Internet has become a platform for users to create, upload, and share content with others, versus simply downloading and consuming content.” </li></ul><ul><li>e-Learning 2.0: “The idea of learning through digital connections and peer collaboration enhanced by technologies driving Web 2.0. Users/learners are empowered to search, create, and collaborate in order to fulfill intrinsic needs to learn new information.” </li></ul><ul><li>*Source: e-Learning Guild Research Report on e-Learning 2.0—Learning in a Web 2.0 World, Sep 2008 </li></ul>
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  • 88. Return to previous page For information on virtual worlds used in the Federal Government: Federal Consortium on Virtual Worlds. Hosted by National Defense University (NDU), Information Resources Management College (IRMC): http://www.ndu.edu/IRMC/fedconsortium.html Virtual worlds are online, computer-generated simulations of simulated environments where users guide their &amp;quot;avatar,&amp;quot; or digital representation of their physical selves, to accomplish various goals. Typical virtual world activities include meeting and socializing with other avatars, buying and selling virtual items, playing games, etc. Virtual worlds combine both synchronous capabilities (audio, text chat, whiteboards), as well as asynchronous capabilities (static text, embedded learning modules, learning objects, etc.). Within the context of the evolution of the Internet from Web 1.0 to Web 3.0, Virtual worlds--especially the 3D kinds--are classified under the Web 3.0 category because of their profound ability to integrate multiple types of content, information sources, and feeds into one highly engaging and interactive format.
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  • 90. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives A metaphor depicting the taxonomy of learning objectives can be thought as assembling blocks in building a pyramid. The knowledge and comprehension levels create the foundation from which one develops higher order thinking skills commensurate with the higher cognitive levels (analysis, synthesis,&amp; evaluation). Knowing Doing Continuum of Cognitive Domain Objectives Lower Higher Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Return to prior page Knowledge The first level of learning is knowledge. Knowledge can be characterized as awareness of specifics and of the ways and means of dealing with specifics. The knowledge level focuses on memory or recall where the learner recognizes information, ideas, principles in the approximate form in which they were learned. Comprehension Comprehension is the next level of learning and encompasses understanding. Has the knowledge been internalized or understood? The student should be able to translate, comprehend, or interpret information based on the knowledge. Application Application is the use of knowledge. Can the student use the knowledge in a new situation? It can also be the application of theory to solve a real world problem. The student selects, transfers, and uses data and principles to complete a problem or task. Analysis Analysis involves taking apart a piece of knowledge, and investigates parts of a concept. It can only occur if the student has obtained knowledge of and comprehends a concept. The student examines, classifies, hypothesizes, collects data, and draws conclusions. Synthesis Synthesis is the creative act. It’s the taking of knowledge and the creation of something new. It is an inductive process—one of building rather than one of breaking down. The student originates, integrates, and combines ideas into something new to him/her. Evaluation Evaluation is judgment or decision-making where the student appraises, assesses or criticizes on a basis of specific standards/criteria.
  • 91. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives Mapped to Instructional Media* Return to prior page * Adapted from John Lasseter’s media selection table Learning Environment Instructional Media Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Synchronous Web Conferencing Audiographics Satellite e-Learning Audio/video teleconferencing Creating (Evaluation) Evaluating (Synthesis) Analyzing (Analysis) Applying (Application) Understanding (Comprehension) Remembering (Knowledge) Complex Simple Asynchronous Web-based Training (WBT) CBT Instructional TV (ITV) Pre-recorded audio/video (CDs/DVDs, video/audio tapes/iPods) Correspondence
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  • 93. <ul><ul><ul><li>What are Learning Styles/Cognitive Styles? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive style is viewed as a bipolar dimension representing a person&apos;s typical or habitual mode of problem solving, thinking, perceiving and remembering; considered stable over time, and related to theoretical or academic research. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning style entails many elements, are related to practical applications, and usually not “either-or” extremes. Learning styles are characterized by how information is preferentially perceived (sensory or intuitive), organized (inductive or deductive), and processed (active or reflective), and modality is preference (visual, aural, or kinesthetic). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What cognitive science has revealed is learners differ in their abilities with different modalities, but teaching to a learner’s best modality doesn&apos;t affect his/her educational achievement. What does matter is whether the learner is taught in the content&apos;s best modality. All students learn more when content drives the choice of modality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of research does not support a significant statistical relationship between learning/cognitive styles and learning outcomes , and postulates learning/cognitive styles have &lt;5% affect on the variability in learning (Note: Prior knowledge and motivation account for ~70% of the variability in learning). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Willingham, Daniel. Do Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learners Need Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Instruction? American Educator, Summer 2005. Available at: http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_educator/issues/summer2005/cogsci.htm </li></ul></ul>Return to Prior Page
  • 94. Return to Prior Page <ul><ul><li>Different Learning/Cognitive Styles* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research has identified over 71 different types of learning styles , e.g., Field Dependence-Independence (Witkin, 1962); Holist-Analytic &amp; Verbal-Imagery ( Riding, 1991); Impulsivity-Reflectivity (Kagan, 1965); Leveler-Sharpener (Holzman &amp; Klein, 1954); Simultaneous-Successive (Des, 1988); Diverging-Converging (Hudson, 1966); Tolerant-Intolerant and Flexible control vs. Restructuring (Gardner, 1959); Sensory modality preferences (Bartlett, 1932), sensory (visual, aural, kinesthetic), etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thirteen major learning styles models have been categorized : Allinson &amp; Hayes’ Cognitive Styles Index (CSI); Apter’s Motivational Style Profile (MSP); Dunn &amp; Dunn VAK instruments of learning styles; Entwistle’s Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST); Gregorc’s Mind Styles Model and Style Delineator (GSD); Herrmann’s Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI); Honey and Mumford’s Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ); Jackson’s Learning Styles Profiler (LSP); Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (LSI); Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); Riding’s Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA); Sternberg’s Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI); and Vermunt’s Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low validity and reliability scores of the instruments used to identify specific learning styles raise serious doubts about their psychometric properties. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. The Learning and Skills Research Centre, Learning and Skills Council, Department for Education and Skills, UK (2004). Available at http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1543.pdf ; </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Styles and Distance Education, Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume II, Number III, Fall1999. Available at: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/liu23.html </li></ul>
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  • 96. <ul><ul><ul><li>What are Learning Styles/Cognitive Styles? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive style is viewed as a bipolar dimension representing a person&apos;s typical or habitual mode of problem solving, thinking, perceiving and remembering; considered stable over time, and related to theoretical or academic research. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning style entails many elements, are related to practical applications, and usually not “either-or” extremes. Learning styles are characterized by how information is preferentially perceived (sensory or intuitive), organized (inductive or deductive), and processed (active or reflective), and modality is preference (visual, aural, or kinesthetic). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What cognitive science has revealed is learners differ in their abilities with different modalities, but teaching to a learner’s best modality doesn&apos;t affect his/her educational achievement. What does matter is whether the learner is taught in the content&apos;s best modality. All students learn more when content drives the choice of modality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of research does not support a significant statistical relationship between learning/cognitive styles and learning outcomes , and postulates learning/cognitive styles have &lt;5% affect on the variability in learning (Note: Prior knowledge and motivation account for ~70% of the variability in learning). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Willingham, Daniel. Do Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learners Need Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Instruction? American Educator, Summer 2005. Available at: http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_educator/issues/summer2005/cogsci.htm </li></ul></ul>Return to Prior Page
  • 97. Return to Prior Page <ul><ul><li>Different Learning/Cognitive Styles* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research has identified over 71 different types of learning styles , e.g., Field Dependence-Independence (Witkin, 1962); Holist-Analytic &amp; Verbal-Imagery ( Riding, 1991); Impulsivity-Reflectivity (Kagan, 1965); Leveler-Sharpener (Holzman &amp; Klein, 1954); Simultaneous-Successive (Des, 1988); Diverging-Converging (Hudson, 1966); Tolerant-Intolerant and Flexible control vs. Restructuring (Gardner, 1959); Sensory modality preferences (Bartlett, 1932), sensory (visual, aural, kinesthetic), etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thirteen major learning styles models have been categorized : Allinson &amp; Hayes’ Cognitive Styles Index (CSI); Apter’s Motivational Style Profile (MSP); Dunn &amp; Dunn VAK instruments of learning styles; Entwistle’s Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST); Gregorc’s Mind Styles Model and Style Delineator (GSD); Herrmann’s Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI); Honey and Mumford’s Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ); Jackson’s Learning Styles Profiler (LSP); Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (LSI); Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); Riding’s Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA); Sternberg’s Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI); and Vermunt’s Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low validity and reliability scores of the instruments used to identify specific learning styles raise serious doubts about their psychometric properties. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. The Learning and Skills Research Centre, Learning and Skills Council, Department for Education and Skills, UK (2004). Available at http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1543.pdf ; </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Styles and Distance Education, Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume II, Number III, Fall1999. Available at: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/liu23.html </li></ul>
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  • 99. <ul><ul><li>Difference Between Instructional Strategies and Cognitive Learning Strategies </li></ul></ul>Return to Prior Page <ul><li>Instructional strategies </li></ul><ul><li>focus on the delivery of knowledge, while cognitive strategies focus on how the learner processes the knowledge; </li></ul><ul><li>are developed in support of the instructional goal and specific learning (instructional) objectives; </li></ul><ul><li>is a product that can be used to develop instructional materials, student/group exercises/activities, and media selection. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>are methods used to help learners link new information to prior knowledge in facilitating the transfer of learning and focuses on how the learner processes the knowledge; </li></ul><ul><li>are mental strategies which occur in the minds of people and employed by the instructional designer to facilitate the activation and retention of prior knowledge; </li></ul><ul><li>can be represented based on the information presented, and are used as tools to construct knowledge in new concepts. </li></ul>
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  • 101. Dialectic . Discussion and reasoning by dialogue as a method of intellectual investigation; in a learning environment, the inquiry method by which the instructor and student engage in question and answering. Didactic. Intended to convey instruction and information. In a learning environment, the transfer of information is primarily one-way from the instructor to the student as in a lecture. Distance Learning. The acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated information and instruction; also, structured learning that takes place without the physical presence of the instructor. Distance Education . Institutionally based formal education where the learning group is separated and where interactive communications systems are used to connect instructors, learners, and resources. Distributed Learning: Structured learning mediated with technology that does not require the physical presence of the instructor. Distributed learning models can be used in combination with other forms of instruction or it can be used to create wholly virtual classrooms (source: DODI 1322.26, June 16, 2006). e-Learning. The delivery of content via the Internet, intranet-extranet, audio and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, and CD-ROM; also, the educational content, learning services, and delivery solutions that support and enable network-based learning that is either asynchronous or synchronous; instructional content or learning experiences delivered or enabled by electronic technology. Instructional media includes all means of delivering instruction via various delivery mediums including printed material (correspondence courses) and electronic devices such as computers, cable TV, satellite, electronic whiteboards, audio/video tapes, audio and videoconferencing systems, ipods, PDAs, cell phones, etc., using either wireless or wireline technologies. Instructional learning strategies. fFcus on the delivery of knowledge and support the instructional goal and specific learning (instructional) objectives. Instructional technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. Educational Technology a more broader term but used synonymously with IT. Pedagogy. The activities of educating or instructing or teaching; activities that impart knowledge or skill. Synchronous learning environment supports live (real time), two-way oral and/or visual communications between the instructor and the student. Synchronous media is any type of delivery medium that supports real time communication both ways between the sender and receive. Asynchronous learning environment is when communication between the instructor and the student is not real-time. Asynchronous media is a type of delivery medium that only supports communication between the sender and receive one-way, and does not occur in real time. Behavorialism (behavioral learning theory) is mostly concerned with observable output and does not place any emphasis on the social context of learning. In a behavioral model of instruction the mind is viewed as a “black box” in the sense that response to stimuli can be observed and anything that exists, exists in a certain quantity and can be measured and where conditioning refers to the strengthening of [desired] behavior which results from reinforcement. Through the use of reinforcement in a predominantly individualized system of instruction, behaviorists seek to increase the number or strength of correct student responses. Under most circumstances, behaviorism is an excellent approach for assessing a learners knowledge and comprehension of a particular subject. Cognitive Levels. In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. The six levels are: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Cognitivism (cognitive learning theory) comes from the perspective that students actively process information and that learning takes place through the efforts of the student as they organize, store, and then find relationships between information, linking old to new knowledge. Cognitive theorists believe that much learning occurs with associations through contiguity and repetition and acknowledges the importance of reinforcement. Cognitive theorists believe that human beings need to acquire and reorganize information into cognitive structures that are understandable. Note: Circa 1960, psychologists began to realize there were many aspects of learning that behavioral theorists could not account for in explaining some of the inconsistencies in learning, so cognitive theory was thrust into the forefront. However, the beginning of cognitive theory can be traced as far back as the 1920’s. Cognitive learning strategies. Methods (mental strategies) focusing on how the learner processes knowledge; used as tools to construct knowledge in new concepts by linking new information to prior knowledge; used to activate/retain prior knowledge. Constructivism is a view that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information. Constructivist approaches to learning assume that subjectivity is critical because learners take in information and process it in unique ways that reflect their needs, dispositions, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings. The basic idea of constructivism is that knowledge must be constructed by the learner, it cannot be supplied by the teacher. Return to Road Map page Glossary
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