Digital Video
Areas of interest <ul><li>Desktop DV output technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Software and hardware codecs </li></ul><ul><li>...
Desktop DV output technologies <ul><li>Apple’s Quicktime is available on Macintosh, PC and other platforms </li></ul><ul><...
Desktop DV output technologies <ul><li>Microsoft’s Video for Windows is available on the Windows platform </li></ul><ul><l...
Desktop DV output technologies <ul><li>MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group) format, available on the Macintosh, PC and many...
Desktop DV output technologies <ul><li>MJPEG (Motion JPEG) is a format widely used as an intermediate editable format </li...
Desktop DV output technologies <ul><li>Streaming Web-style (often extremely low bandwidth) media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rea...
Software and hardware codecs <ul><li>Software codecs are common, often as plug-in library components </li></ul><ul><li>For...
Hardware codecs <ul><li>Hardware to decode MPEG streams (in real time) is incorporated into DVD players </li></ul><ul><li>...
DVD output <ul><li>The acronym DVD has two parallel meanings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Video Disc if the context is v...
Video editing software systems <ul><li>Popular editing software packages include: Adobe Premiere, Ulead Media Studio, IMSI...
Video editing software systems <ul><li>Video editing software has a common look: </li></ul>
Video editing software systems <ul><li>This is a snapshot from DigitalOrigin’s EditDV package </li></ul>
Simple DV capture <ul><li>A minimal set-up requires an ordinary analogue video camera, a PC, a video digitiser card, some ...
Semi-professional DV capture <ul><li>The DV data rate (TV format) is approximately 3.6MB per second which consumes about 2...
Semi-professional DV capture <ul><li>Current products (early 2000) combine hardware capture interfaces, based on 1394 Fire...
Typical semi-professional DVE <ul><li>Provides nonlinear editing for digital video post production </li></ul><ul><li>integ...
Typical semi-professional DVE <ul><li>Assembles source clips into a sequential movie </li></ul><ul><li>Adds transitions be...
Typical semi-professional DVE <ul><li>Digital video captures cleanly through a digital interface, no transcoding required ...
Web links <ul><li>Includes material from: </li></ul><ul><li>www.digitalorigin.co.uk </li></ul><ul><li>www.digitalproducer....
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Digital Video

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  • Materials captured from: www.digitalorigin.co.uk - good glossary of NLE/DVE terminology www.digitalproducer.com Other links www.digitalvideo.com
  • Note that MP3 is not MPEG3!! This is a common question from students and worth mentioning. MP3 is “MPEG2 Audio Layer 3”, i.e. MPEG2 compressed audio
  • Codec = encoder / decoder
  • From: www.canopuscorp.com plus http://www.canopuscorp.com/video2/products.htm Canopus Previews High-Quality MPEG2 Technology at NAB &apos;99 Real-time MPEG2 encoding priced under $2,000 San Jose, Calif., - At next month&apos;s National Association of Broadcasters Convention in Las Vegas, Canopus Corporation will unveil Amber, the company&apos;s new highly cost-effective, real-time MPEG2 encoding system. Amber, targeted at professional and semi-professional videographers, is based on the new MN85560 MPEG2 encoder chip from Panasonic combined with Canopus&apos; MPEG audio encoding technology to deliver the high-quality video and audio input/output required for archiving and mastering. Priced at under $2,000, Amber is an inexpensive solution for creating high-quality MPEG2 video. Amber will be available Q2 1999. An OEM/SI configuration will also be available with full SDK for vertical applications. Canopus will demonstrate Amber along with the company&apos;s DVRex and DVRaptor non-linear editing systems in booth L13602 during NAB.
  • Video conferencing cameras: see www.europe.creative.com for the “WebCam Go” product, PCW March 2000 page 78. This camera can run at 352*288 at 30fps or 640*480 at 15fps through a USB connection.
  • From EditDV user’s manual (www.digitalorigin.com) and Personal Computer World, March 2000, p83 The 3.6MB/sec is due to 5:1 compression of DV data coming from the camera, if the data was raw you would expect over 18MB/sec (720*480 * 2 bytes per pixel at 30fps --&gt; 19.75MB/sec)
  • From EditDV user’s manual (www.digitalorigin.com) See http://www.erwincomputers.com/erwincomputers/pinsys.html for a list of Pinnacle’s offerings Pinnacle Systems home: http://www.pinnaclesys.de/uk/index.htm http://www.matrox.com/videoweb/enduser/rt2000.htm
  • Digital Video

    1. 1. Digital Video
    2. 2. Areas of interest <ul><li>Desktop DV output technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Software and hardware codecs </li></ul><ul><li>DVD output </li></ul><ul><li>Video editing software systems </li></ul><ul><li>Simple DV capture </li></ul><ul><li>Professional non-linear editing (NLE) and DV capture </li></ul>
    3. 3. Desktop DV output technologies <ul><li>Apple’s Quicktime is available on Macintosh, PC and other platforms </li></ul><ul><li>This video player is known for good frame rates, reasonably good video quality and good file size </li></ul><ul><li>Quicktime movies are “.mov” files </li></ul><ul><li>QuickTime movie files can contain video images, animation and sound </li></ul>
    4. 4. Desktop DV output technologies <ul><li>Microsoft’s Video for Windows is available on the Windows platform </li></ul><ul><li>VfW files are in “.AVI” or “audio-video interleaved” format </li></ul><ul><li>File size is moderate, quality is variable </li></ul><ul><li>There are many different compressors available, causing compatibility problems </li></ul><ul><li>AVI’s have a 2GB file size limit </li></ul>
    5. 5. Desktop DV output technologies <ul><li>MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group) format, available on the Macintosh, PC and many others </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG movies are known for excellent compression with some blurring and blocky artefacts when over-compressed </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG movies are usually “.mpg” or “.mpeg” files </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG1 is for desktop video </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG2 is for broadcast-quality video and very low bit-rate video streams </li></ul>
    6. 6. Desktop DV output technologies <ul><li>MJPEG (Motion JPEG) is a format widely used as an intermediate editable format </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG is quite lossy and gets great compression by interpolating frames, so it can be very hard to edit </li></ul><ul><li>MJPEG individually compresses each frame with no reference to previous or following frames </li></ul><ul><li>MJPEG compression is not so good, but it’s easy to edit any frame at any position within the movie </li></ul><ul><li>Most MJPEG movies are converted to another format (often MPEG) for publishing </li></ul>
    7. 7. Desktop DV output technologies <ul><li>Streaming Web-style (often extremely low bandwidth) media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real Player, Real Video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vivo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Streaming data formats require noise immunity and drop-out tolerance, so they are often quite different to desktop video formats </li></ul>
    8. 8. Software and hardware codecs <ul><li>Software codecs are common, often as plug-in library components </li></ul><ul><li>For example, Video for Windows may use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Indeo compression (versions 2, 3, 4 and 5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Video 1 format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radius Cinepak (Mac-derived) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RLE (run-length encoded) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Hardware codecs <ul><li>Hardware to decode MPEG streams (in real time) is incorporated into DVD players </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG decoder cards for PC’s are relatively inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG encoder cards are more expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time MPEG2 encoders are relatively expensive (at around $2000 or £1300) </li></ul><ul><li>Software codecs are many times slower than their hardware counterparts, but are correspondingly cheaper </li></ul>
    10. 10. DVD output <ul><li>The acronym DVD has two parallel meanings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Video Disc if the context is video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otherwise it stands for Digital Versatile Disc (general mass storage, ROM or RAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DVD can store about 5GB of movie data, allowing high quality video plus multiple soundtracks, text overlays and surround-sound information </li></ul><ul><li>DVD requires some hardware acceleration for decoding and viewing </li></ul>
    11. 11. Video editing software systems <ul><li>Popular editing software packages include: Adobe Premiere, Ulead Media Studio, IMSI Lumiere Video Studio </li></ul>
    12. 12. Video editing software systems <ul><li>Video editing software has a common look: </li></ul>
    13. 13. Video editing software systems <ul><li>This is a snapshot from DigitalOrigin’s EditDV package </li></ul>
    14. 14. Simple DV capture <ul><li>A minimal set-up requires an ordinary analogue video camera, a PC, a video digitiser card, some mass storage, plenty of RAM and lots of time </li></ul><ul><li>Raw data capture is feasible at low resolutions only – real-time compression is too expensive for most users </li></ul><ul><li>Low data transfer rate from video-capture hardware to disc storage prohibits high resolution capture </li></ul><ul><li>Video capture in video-conferencing resolutions is common with inexpensive digitisers </li></ul><ul><li>352 by 288 pixels in 24-bit colour may be a sensible limit to work with (ITU standard res for VC) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Semi-professional DV capture <ul><li>The DV data rate (TV format) is approximately 3.6MB per second which consumes about 216MB of disk space per minute or about 13GB per hour </li></ul><ul><li>Finished rendered movies take additional space beyond what your source clips consume </li></ul><ul><li>Normal 20GB+ drives are readily available, but AV drives (with >4MB/sec sustained throughput) can be expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-range TV-quality DVE is affordable for small companies and individual producers </li></ul>
    16. 16. Semi-professional DV capture <ul><li>Current products (early 2000) combine hardware capture interfaces, based on 1394 FireWire, and software. They include: </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Origin – EditDV (about $1000, £600) </li></ul><ul><li>Pinnacle – miroDV200, DV300 ($600), DV500 ($900) </li></ul><ul><li>Pinnacle – StudioDV (about $270, £170) </li></ul><ul><li>Canopus – DVRex, DVRaptor </li></ul><ul><li>Matrox – RT2000 </li></ul>
    17. 17. Typical semi-professional DVE <ul><li>Provides nonlinear editing for digital video post production </li></ul><ul><li>integrates compositing and keyframe animation </li></ul><ul><li>multi-track video and audio editing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transitions (wipe, blend, cross-fade, iris etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chroma-keying, luma-keying for overlays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>titling and character generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fast previews and interaction with the DV device </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Captures source clips from DV tape </li></ul><ul><li>Trims source clips for use in a movie </li></ul>
    18. 18. Typical semi-professional DVE <ul><li>Assembles source clips into a sequential movie </li></ul><ul><li>Adds transitions between clips </li></ul><ul><li>Applies filters to add special effects </li></ul><ul><li>Layers multiple tracks of video for complex compositing effects </li></ul><ul><li>Has titling capabilities to create titles, credits and keys </li></ul><ul><li>Animates objects with keyframing capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Renders effects at draft quality for rapid review </li></ul><ul><li>“ Prints” movies to DV tape to create digital masters </li></ul><ul><li>Exports digital movies in compressed computer format </li></ul>
    19. 19. Typical semi-professional DVE <ul><li>Digital video captures cleanly through a digital interface, no transcoding required </li></ul><ul><li>Analog video capture can impose many restrictions on the quality of the source data </li></ul><ul><li>Less data manipulation means less image degradation </li></ul>Images © Matrox Electronic Systems Ltd
    20. 20. Web links <ul><li>Includes material from: </li></ul><ul><li>www.digitalorigin.co.uk </li></ul><ul><li>www.digitalproducer.com </li></ul><ul><li>Other links </li></ul><ul><li>www.digitalvideo.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.dvdcreation.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.digitalpostproduction.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.canopuscorp.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.pinnaclesys.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.matrox.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.adaptec.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.ti.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.intel.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.microsoft.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.apple.com </li></ul>

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