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cise-pi.ppt

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  • 1. Pervasive Pixels (Columbia University Dept. of Computer Science) Henning Schulzrinne (PI) Steven K. Feiner Gail Kaiser John Kender Kathleen McKeown
  • 2. Proposed Research
    • Goal: seamless mobile multimedia collaboration across distance
    • Integrate advances across fields
        • Collaborative work
        • Graphical and visual interfaces
        • Spoken language understanding and generation
        • Vision sensing and understanding
        • Networking and security
  • 3. Contributions
    • Contextual information management
        • use workflow to determine display content
        • multimedia summaries of past and present sessions
    • Harmonizing physical and virtual environments
        • map changing virtual information onto physical displays
        • map layout of physical environment onto virtual space
    • Network services
        • clear, flexible interface to common services
        • authentication and privacy support
        • infrastructure for persistent large displays
  • 4. Features of Research Infrastructure
    • Large numbers of instrumented multi-display workspaces
    • Networked mobile devices of various capabilities
    • Transparent and automatic adaptability to changes of place, platform or group
    • Support for a wide range of hardware and software, from commercial to novel
  • 5. Proposed Research Infrastructure
    • Outfit informal areas for collaboration
        • Public areas for walk-by interaction
        • Multiple touch displays, cameras, audio
        • Portable units
    • Stationary setups
        • Multiple displays, video cameras, audio
        • Seminar room, meeting rooms
        • 12 faculty offices
    • User-based personalization: user location
        • Triangulation on mobile devices
        • Visual tracking
        • Standard methods (e.g., active badge)
  • 6. Public areas – walk by stations
    • Multiple touch displays, video projectors and cameras, embedded computers, speakers and microphones
  • 7. IR/RF badge network PC proj. camera card reader loudspeaker ceiling electronic whiteboard microphone array Design for Walk-by Collaboration Station
  • 8. Public Areas – informal gatherings
  • 9. Meeting Room
    • Remote-controlled pan-tilt video cameras and projectors, Omnicam, conference table microphones, automatic audio mixer, ceiling speakers
  • 10. Faculty Office
    • Mimio electronic whiteboard, XGA video projector, Ethernet speaker phone, wall-mounted pan-tilt video camera, PocketPCs
  • 11. Seminar room
    • Omnicam omnidrectional audience camera, high-resolution DV video camera, 2 pan-tilt speaker cameras, ceiling mounted microphones, electronic whiteboard, XGA high-brightness video projectors
  • 12. Functionalities
    • Conferencing
        • Internet conferencing server to mix IP and PSTN audio streams
    • Interconnection with analog phone
        • Digital hybrid connects digital or analog sound to existing telephone system in classroom
        • Network voice-over-IP interface attached to Nortel Meridian PBX for 20 simultaneous conversations
    • Multi-processor servers and IA64 compute and database server
    • File storage
    • Face, speaker and fingerprint recognition
    • Backup facilities: 2 printers and tape library system
  • 13. Initial results
    • HCI: gesture-based user interface for public kiosk
      • mouse replacement for pointing and selecting
      • uses frontal and side camera
    • Security: disCFS and WebDAVA secure file systems
      • disCFS: NFS with credentials instead of authorization
      • WebDAVA: grant restricted access to resources using HTTP and Java applets
    • Web-based collaboration:
      • content on all kinds of devices
      • pass DOM through a series of filters and transformations  HTML
    • Ubiquitous multimedia communications infrastructure
      • being commercialized; I2 demonstration
      • input into standardization (IETF)
  • 14. Ubiquitous Computing
    • Traditionally, focus on closed environments
      • proprietary protocols
      • single (trusted) user class
      • single site (room, lab, home, …)
      • stand-alone components (“video conferencing”)
    • PP focuses on whole system and user experience
    • Pervasive Pixels networking component:
      • standard protocols:
        • SIP for media configuration, event notification, instant multimedia messaging
        • SLP for service discovery
      • integration of presence and user context
        • standardization in the IETF (RPID)
      • location-based services
        • user context
        • user authorization
        • service location
  • 15. Mobility in Pervasive Pixels
    • Terminal mobility
      • application-layer mobility complements L3 mobility
    • Session mobility
      • move active sessions to devices found in the environment
      •  service discovery
    • Service mobility
      • move configuration to new devices
    • Personal mobility
      • one user, many devices
  • 16. Location-based services
    • Traditionally, focus on geospatial location (e.g., GPS)
    • But other aspects as important:
      • civil location (often more intuitive)
      • type of place (home vs. office; outdoors vs. theatre)
      • behavioral: distraction, privacy, appropriateness
    • Experimenting with low-complexity location mechanisms:
      • IR/RF active badges with low installation cost (Ivistar)
      • BlueTooth location beacons
      • LAN backtracking and DHCP
      • swipe cards and i-buttons
    DHCP server 458/17  Rm. 815 458/18  Rm. 816 DHCP answer: sta=DC loc=Rm815 lat=38.89868 long=77.03723 8:0:20:ab:d5:d CDP + SNMP 8:0:20:ab:d5:d  458/17
  • 17. Some initial lessons learned
    • Usage: remote presence from UKy during sabbatical
      • research group meetings
      • departmental site visit
      • thesis proposals and defenses
    • Perception: “Multimedia collaboration is a mature field”
    • Reality: It doesn’t work much better than in 1992
      • still fails in hard-to-diagnose ways
      • quality better, but echo, feedback and level issues remain
    • Integration between synchronous and asynchronous collaboration
      • integrating documents, minutes, …
    • Transition from call-focused to presence-focused
      • much larger use of asynchronous collaboration (email, bulletin boards, …)
    • Working with start-up company: new IP-based departmental communication system to replace PBX
  • 18. Columbia SIP servers (CINEMA) Internal Telephone Extn: 7040 SIP/PSTN Gateway Department PBX Web based configuration Telephone switch SQL database sipd: Proxy, redirect, registrar server Extn: 7134 [email_address] NetMeeting H.323 rtspd: media server sipum: Unified messaging Quicktime RTSP clients RTSP Extn: 7136 713x Single machine SNMP (Network Management) sipconf: Conference server siph323: SIP-H.323 translator Local/long distance 1-212-5551212 Web server
  • 19. Larger lessons for multimedia systems research
    • Software tool support for multimedia communications lacking
      • most are applications, not building blocks
      • cross-platform research media tools are getting very old and creaky (vic, rat, etc.)
      • multi-party support very weak (multicast never happened)
    • Components designed to be operated by humans
      • IP phones only have HTTP/HTML interface
      • video projectors just proprietary configuration
    • Lots of components, but hard to evaluate in real use
      • still mostly barely demo quality: audio delay, echo, random failures
      • people will fall back to good ol’ PSTN quickly
  • 20. Conclusion
    • Pervasive Pixels = attempt to integrate multiple modalities into system, not just grouping of components
    • Evaluation in real usage, not just demos
    • Spread throughout the department, not just lab

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