Definition: The practise of enforced separation of different racial groups in a country, community, or establishment.
Why Segregation Began... For more than 200 years before the Civil War, slavery existed in the United States. But after the war things began to get worse for blacks. The Southern legislatures, former confederates, passed laws known as the black codes, after the war, which severely limited the rights of blacks and segregated them from whites. These were made so Whites were still relatively in control of them and top of the hierarchy structure.
Its typically associated in the „Jim Crow Era‟ - The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy, with, starting in 1890, a "separate but equal" status for African Americans. In the late 1800‟s a series of measures thought to prevent blacks from voting through pole taxes, literacy tests and residency requirements – virtually eliminating blacks to participate in public life.
Jim Crow Laws – “The Crows from Dumbo” In this 1941 classic, Dumbo the flying elephant runs into a band of jive- talking black crows who sing, “I‟d be done see‟n about everything/when I see an elephant fly!” The blackbirds acting in a manner stereotypically assigned for African- Americans was seen as racist and they even got a white actor to do his best „black voice‟. The lead character was named „Jim Crow‟ which were laws where state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. The crows are very specifically depicted as poor and uneducated. They‟re constantly smoking; they wear pimptastic hats; and they‟re experts on all things „fly‟ so its really a team effort contributing to the general minstrel-show feel to the whole number.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s35puUhqQJc
Racial segregation often existed in small activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a public toilet, attending school, going to the movies, applying for jobs or in the rental or purchase of a home. Signs made segregation more legitimate e.g.
In America in the late 19th and early 20th century saw the rise in the „Jim Crow Era‟ for the „de jure segregation‟ in the south and „de facto segregation‟ in the north. The difference between the two: De Jure Segregation – the separation of people on the basis of race as required by law. De Facto Segregation – being discriminated against in reality even if there is no official law against it.
De Facto Segregation In the north segregation was not mandated but still heavily practised because thats just the way it was. Because of this mind set there was an expectation by many white citizens that blacks sat at the back of buses or were subservient to whites. This was an example of De Facto Segregation.
It wasn‟t until 1948 that then president Harry Truman signed an executive order for the integration of the armed forces. Still it took the army 3 years, in 1951 to formally announce plans to de-segregate.
Many African Americans played pivotal roles the establishment of the civil rights act of 1964. Martin Luther King Jr led massive protest delivering nation stopping speeches and inspired generations with his civil rights activism. Rosa Parks refused to move from her seat on a public bus, famously being arrested for violating segregation laws.
An Experiment of Segregation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HUTaaza5 ebQ
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