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  1. 1. Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund Chapter 7:Exploratory Research and Qualitative Analysis
  2. 2. Qualitative versus Quantitative Research• Purpose – Exploratory versus descriptive and conclusive• Small versus large samples• Broad range of questioning versus structured questions• Subjective interpretation versus statistical analysis
  3. 3. Defining Problem Results in Clear Cut Research ObjectivesSymptom Detection Analysis of the Situation Exploratory Research (Optional)Problem Definition Statement ofResearch Objectives
  4. 4. Exploratory research• Secondary data• Experience survey• Pilot studies
  5. 5. Exploratory Research• Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem• Does not provide conclusive evidence• Subsequent research expected
  6. 6. What is Exploratory Research?QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE DATA DATA
  7. 7. Why Conduct Exploratory Research? Diagnose a situation Screening of alternatives Discover new ideas
  8. 8. Concept Testing• Exploratory research procedure that tests some sort of stimulus as a proxy for an idea about a new, revised, or repositioned product
  9. 9. Categories of Exploratory Research• Experience surveys• Secondary data analysis• Case studies• Pilot studies
  10. 10. Experience Surveys• Ask knowledgeable individuals about a particular research problem – most are quite willing
  11. 11. “If you wish to know the road up themountain, you must ask the man whogoes back and forth on it.” - Zenrinkusi
  12. 12. Secondary Data Analysis• Data collected for a purpose other than the project at hand• Economical• Quick source for background information
  13. 13. Case Study Method• Intensely investigates one or a few situations similar to the problem• Investigate in depth• Careful study• May require cooperation
  14. 14. Pilot Study• A collective term• Any small scale exploratory study that uses sampling• But does not apply rigorous standards
  15. 15. Pilot Studies• Focus Group Interviews• Projective Techniques• In-Depth Interviews
  16. 16. Projective Techniques• Word association tests• Sentence completion method• Third-person technique• Role playing• T.A.T.• Picture frustration version of T.A.T.
  17. 17. “A man is least himself when he talksin his own person; when given a maskhe will tell the truth.” --Oscar Wilde
  18. 18. Word Association• Subject is presented with a list of words• Asked to respond with first word that comes to mind
  19. 19. Word Association Examples• GREEN • Money • Lawn • Eggs and Ham
  20. 20. Word Association Examples• CHEESE • Kraft • Cheddar • Goat
  21. 21. Sentence CompletionPeople who drink beer are ______________________A man who drinks light beer is ___________________Imported beer is most liked by ___________________A woman will drink beer when____________________
  22. 22. Thematic Apperception Test T.A.T.
  23. 23. Focus Group Interviews • Unstructured • Free flowing • Group interview • Start with broad topic and focus in on specific issues
  24. 24. Group Composition• 6 to 10 people• Relatively homogeneous• Similar lifestyles and experiences
  25. 25. Outline for a Focus Group• Establish a rapport• Begin with broad topic• Focus in on specific topic• Generate discussion and interaction
  26. 26. The Moderator• Develops rapport - helps people relax• Interacts• Listens to what people have to say• Everyone gets a chance to speak
  27. 27. The Focus Group Moderator• Maintains loose control and focuses discussion• Stimulates spontaneous responses
  28. 28. Advantages of Online Focus Groups• Fast• Inexpensive• Bring together many participants from wide-spread geographical areas• Respondent anonymity• Transcript automatically recorded
  29. 29. Disadvantages of Online Focus Groups• Less group interaction• Absence of tactile stimulation• Absence of facial expression and body language• Moderator’s job is different
  30. 30. Streaming Media