On the Structure of Dialogue Viorica Condrat lecturer at Alecu Russo State University APLE Conference Up-to-date Techniques and Strategies in Teaching English April 9 th , 2011
WHAT IS DIALOGUE? Dialogue is above all interaction. It implies a communicative occurance between two people, where one incites and the other reacts. It is intentionally structured to arouse a reaction, to get feedback. The power roles can differ: the two participants might have equal speaking powers or one might dominate the other. Yet, it is an intrecate process of communication whose structure is governed by the concrete communicative needs of the interactants whose turns are oriented, as a rule, towards the answer’s direction.
Interaction is above all collaboaration. It is based on it. If the participants are not collaborative then their dialogue fails to fulfill its communicative goals, and at least one of the participant will not get the desired feedback. Roman Jakobson's Communicative Situation CONTEXT MESSAGE CONTACT CODE ADRESSER ADRESSEE
The basic unit of dialogue is the move , which encodes the sender’s information (e.g. is it an offer, request, invitation, etc.) and which is materialized in an utterance. When the utterences are joined together in a whole semantic unit they form a turn . The turn may be defined as a speaker’s change in the dialogue, every time a speaker changes, a new turn is uttered. There are two types of turns: intervention and continuing turns. The intervation turn is informative, it adds information to the discussed topic. Such intervention turns make the primary system of conversation. The interactants use them to ensure the smoothe progress of the discussed topic, by exchanging information about it. The interventions may be initiative (when the speaker initiates a proposal, offer, question) and reactive (when the listener reacts to what has been said). Besides thsese two types of interventions, there are also mixed intervention which is a response to what has been said and initiates another piece of information.