Conversation is any interactive spoken exchange between two or more people and can be:
face – to – face exchanges
non – face – to – face exchanges
Conversation consists of
holding a turn
passing a turn
ADJACENCY PAIR Question - A nswer Invitation - A cceptance Request for favor - G ranting Apology - A cceptance Complaint - D enial Complaint- A pology B lame- D enial Response: Preferred - Dispreferred
SPEECH ACT An utterance defined in terms of intention and / or effect Loccution Illicution Perlocution Direct Indirect
assertives = speech acts that commit a speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition
directives = speech acts that are to cause the hearer to take a particular action, e.g. requests, commands and advice
commissives = speech acts that commit a speaker to some future action, e.g. promises and oaths
expressives = speech acts that expresses on the speaker's attitudes and emotions towards the proposition, e.g. congratulations, excuses and thanks
declarations = speech acts that change the reality in accord with the proposition of the declaration, e.g. baptisms, pronouncing someone guilty or pronouncing someone husband and wife
Illocutunary Speech Acts
Would you open the window? Open it yourself. Request for favor - Rejecting
I am sorry to disturb you. That’s all right what can I do for you? Apology - A cceptance
Where the book I bought this morning? On the table. Question - A nswer
Y ou left the light on. It was not me. Complaint- A pology
D egreeting -> D egreeting See you! Yeah, see you later!
It's awfully cold in here Oh, sorry, I'll close the window C omplaint -> E xcuse/ R emedy
Would you like to visit the museum with me this evening? I'd love to! O ffer -> A cceptance/ R ejection
Hi! Hello! G reeting -> Gr eeting
Let’s try to apply the above information on the following conversation
Yoy wanted to see me?
Did you finish your errands? Because I need you to head to the diner and take care of the night shift.
Tonight’s my night off and it’s the Halloween dance at school ,so …
I know, but you need to stop being so self-centered, Sam, and start thinking of others. Others need you to go to the diner and mop the floors tonight.
But I really need to go to this dance tonight, Fiona. I have to.
Come on, Sam. You need to earn your tuition money for college. You gotta bus a lot of tables.
Fiona, I’m a straight – A student. I work seven days a week and I’m taking extra AP classes. I never asked you for anything. Please let me go to this dance.
Sweetheart, now that you’re old enough… there’s something I’ve always wanted to tell you, and I think you’re ready to hear it. You’re not very pretty, and you’re not very bright. I’m so glad we had that talk.