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  1. 1. Use an indefinite article when you speak about A person anda definite article when you speak about THE person. Viorica Condrat ©
  2. 2. New Year Grammar Resolutions!!! Viorica Condrat ©
  3. 3. Objectives: define appropriately the term article; learn the types of articles; know their place in a sentence; understand how to choose the right article in a sentence; practice. Viorica Condrat ©
  4. 4. What is an article? is a type of a determiner; it comes at the beginning of a noun phrase; signal whether the information is new or familiar; can tell something about quantity.Use an indefinite article when you speak about A person and a definite article when you speak about THE person. Viorica Condrat ©
  5. 5. What do articles look like? indefinite article: a and an definite article: the zero article Viorica Condrat ©
  6. 6. Idioms and other fixed expressionsa bit of in a hurry make a start have a drinkon the coast in the pink off the record do a good turngo to the wall have the blues pay through the nose at[ ] seafeel[ ] blue on [ ] loan out of [ ] action in [ ] debtin very good be destroyed a slighthealth financially confused owing money amount of sth to move very to drink to do sth kind quickly something which helps sb on the land privatebegin doing pay too much being lent /something money for sth borrowed not working feel sad Viorica Condrat ©
  7. 7. How to choose?We can leave articles before plural nouns: [ ] Dreams often come true. uncountable nouns: Give me [ ] money.We can only leave an article out before a singular noun if we replace it with another determiner: possessive adjectives: her brother. demonstrative adjectives: that book. many quantifiers: any occasion, every day. Viorica Condrat ©
  8. 8. The kind of noun that follows affects our choice!!! Singular nouns Plural nouns Uncountable nouns a / an a book - -no article [ ] books [ ] rice - the the book the books the rice Viorica Condrat ©
  9. 9. A / an: introducing what is new used with singular nouns.Indicates something: new; unexpected; the listener / reader is unaware of.Once upon … sunny morning … man who sat in … a a abreakfast nook looked up from his scrambled eggs a ato see … white unicorn with … golden horn. Viorica Condrat ©
  10. 10. The: indicating “common ground” signals that the readers or listeners know or will soon know what the speaker or writer is referring to; context is very important in finding the “common ground”. Refers: The man went up to … … the  backwards; bedroom where his wife was  forwards; still asleep and woke her.  external reference (shared experience / He is the man who saw … … the general knowledge). unicorn. Viorica Condrat ©
  11. 11. No article – generalizations left out before plural and uncountable nouns when we are referring to something general I usually have [ ] sandwiches … for lunch. [ ] English parsley has curly … leaves. Viorica Condrat ©
  12. 12. Rules of thumb!!! They teach us that we use a / an: with there is: There’s an apple in my bag. the first time we mention sth: I bought a cake. The cake was mouldy. after have / have got: Have you got a car? in naming things: It’s a rhinoceros. with occupations: I’m a teacher. Viorica Condrat ©
  13. 13. Rules of thumb!!! They teach us that we use the: when we have already mentioned what we’re talking about: I bought a cake. The cake was mouldy. when there is only one of something: The Moon (i.e. the moon which revolves around the planet) Can you lay the table? (i.e. the table in the room we’re both in) with defining relative clauses: Speak to the person who wrote the book. in superlative expressions: She is the best teacher. in comparative expressions with the same: Give me the same as usual, please. with particular adjectives: the first, the next, the last. Viorica Condrat ©
  14. 14. “Sub-rules” which contradict the “basic rules”A / an with the sense of ‘every’ in expressions of time and quantity: forty times an hour / thirty pounds a kilo Viorica Condrat ©
  15. 15. The Leisure activities / forms of entertainment / travel: Entertainment: I went to the cinema. the pub. the shops. Transport: I arrived at the airport. the bus stop. the station. Musical instruments: I play the piano. the violin. the acoustic guitar. Viorica Condrat ©
  16. 16. The Proper nouns: Rivers: the Thames Mountain ranges: the Andes Oceans and seas: the Atlantic Deserts: the Sahara Group of islands: the Maldives Hotels: the Hilton Cinemas: the Odeon Political bodies: the Labour Party, the Government Countries: the United Kingdom, the Check Republic, the Philippines Newspapers: the Guardian Viorica Condrat ©
  17. 17. No article ‘Belonging’ to institutions: Is she still in [ ] hospital? (i.e. as a patient) He went to [ ] sea when he was fourteen. (i.e. as a sailor) Meals: She came to [ ] lunch. Time expressions: next [ ] week last [ ] year on [ ] Sunday at [ ] six o’clock Work, home, bed: She left [ ] work. I got [ ] home. She went to [ ] bed. She is at [ ] work / home. She is in [ ] bed. Viorica Condrat ©
  18. 18. No articleProper nouns: people:[ ] Mark [ ] Barak Obama places such as villages, towns, cities, parks, streets, woods, forests[ ] Knoxville [ ] Parsonage Lane [ ] Sherwood Forest Viorica Condrat ©
  19. 19. An exception! Viorica Condrat ©
  20. 20. BRIDGET: Is some peoples opinion of Kafka... but they couldnt be morewrong. This book is a searing vision... of the wounds our century hasinflicted on-- on traditional masculinity. Its positively Vonnegut-esque.Thank you for calling, Professor Leavis.DANIEL: Guest list for launch party.BRIDGET: Ah.DANIEL: Was that...F.R. Leavis?BRIDGET: Mm-hmm.DANIEL: Wow. Huh. The F.R. Leavis... who wrote "Mass Civilizationand Minority Culture"?BRIDGET: Mm-hmm.DANIEL: The F.R. Leavis who died in 1978? Amazing. Viorica Condrat ©
  21. 21. Common mistakes!!! In the struggle to communicate, some speakers ‘squeeze them out’: e.g. *Have you got pen? * I want new car. Miss out articles where they are missed out in their own language: e.g. *She is tax inspector. Use articles where they are not needed: e.g. *I didn’t have a lunch yesterday. *I watched the television. May use the in generalizations: e.g. *I like the sports. *The international tourism has benefited many countries. Viorica Condrat ©
  22. 22. Common mistakes!!! Do not realize that the noun is uncountable: e.g. *She plays the tennis. *She has a flu. *It was a good fun. Use an article before a possessive adjective: e.g. *Where is the my book? Use one instead of a / an: e.g. *I went to one party last night. Use a instead of an: e.g. *They reached a agreement. Viorica Condrat ©
  23. 23. Viorica Condrat ©