B LU E 1 ST YEA R - 201 3
GREEN 1ST YEAR - 2013
Industrial Revolution
What’s in a name?
 The name “Industrial Revolution” is used to describe
one of the biggest changes in history.
 It descr...
WHY IN B RIT A IN ?
Why did the Industrial
Revolution happen?
The IR began in Great Britain for a
number of reasons.
The most dramatic
changes in industry
began in Great Britain in
abo...
Great Britain had the natural
resources needed for industry…
Great Britain had a good
supply of coal and iron
and it had t...
Sources of water
0 – 1.40
1. Navigable rivers
All the major rivers of
Great Britain were
navigable during the
Industrial Revolution.
The Severn was used for
the movement of goods
to the Midlands which
had been imported into
Bristol from abroad and
the exp...
Trows
Trows, small sailing
vessels, could navigate
the Bristol Channel to
the South Wales ports
and Somerset ports.
2. Natural harbours
Ships can move easily,
make trade easier
Raw materials and numerous
markets
3. Colonies supplied with abundant
raw material
Britain colonies supplied
raw materials to the
factories in London and
oth...
4. Colonies demanded goods from
the textile and iron industries
The Navigation Act of
1651 stated that all
colonial export...
COAL
5. Abundant deposits of coal which
are easily mined and transported.
Coal provides three times
more energy than wood.
Coal...
6. In Britain the mines were near the
sea, so ships could carry coal cheaply
to the most important market, London.
Scientific and technological new
ideas
7. The demand for coal became larger,
but the deeper the miners went the
more water there was underground, so
it was neces...
8. Initially people used horse-driven
pumps, but they needed a more
effective way to draw water from much
deeper.
9. In 1712 Thomas Newcomen
invented the atmospheric engine
The first commercially
successful steam engine
was the atmosphe...
10. James Watt developed (1763–75) an
improved version of Newcomen's
engine, with a separate condenser.
Boulton and Watt’s...
Textile Manufacturing before IR
3.25 – 4.52
The Textile Industry before the IR
 In the earliest days, British merchants imported
cloth from other lands. Because of t...
Textile manufacturing in factories
4.52 - 6.52
The textile industry during the IR
 In the 1700s some new machines were invented
which changed the textile industry. Spin...
11. Flying shuttle
Spinning
tool before
the IR
12. Spinning Jenny
The Spinning Jenny
was invented the first
machine to produce
yarn.
Created in the s. XVIII,
it represen...
13. The water frame
14. The mule
In 1779 Samuel
Crompton combined the
spinning jenny and the
water frame into one
machine. He called it the
“m...
Steam-powered loom
With so much thread
being produced, the
textile industry needed a
better loom. In 1785
Edmund Cartwrigh...
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Industrial revolution causes

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Industrial revolution causes

  1. 1. B LU E 1 ST YEA R - 201 3 GREEN 1ST YEAR - 2013 Industrial Revolution
  2. 2. What’s in a name?  The name “Industrial Revolution” is used to describe one of the biggest changes in history.  It describes the time when people went from making goods by hand to making them with machines.
  3. 3. WHY IN B RIT A IN ? Why did the Industrial Revolution happen?
  4. 4. The IR began in Great Britain for a number of reasons. The most dramatic changes in industry began in Great Britain in about 1750. Scientists had been inventing things during earlier years. But most of their work centered around theories and ideas. Now science and invention took a more practical turn. Inventors developed machines especially designed to increase production of goods and to help people make a profit.
  5. 5. Great Britain had the natural resources needed for industry… Great Britain had a good supply of coal and iron and it had the transportation that industry needed.
  6. 6. Sources of water 0 – 1.40
  7. 7. 1. Navigable rivers All the major rivers of Great Britain were navigable during the Industrial Revolution.
  8. 8. The Severn was used for the movement of goods to the Midlands which had been imported into Bristol from abroad and the export of goods from centres of production in the Black Country, e.g. iron goods from Coalbrookdale.
  9. 9. Trows Trows, small sailing vessels, could navigate the Bristol Channel to the South Wales ports and Somerset ports.
  10. 10. 2. Natural harbours Ships can move easily, make trade easier
  11. 11. Raw materials and numerous markets
  12. 12. 3. Colonies supplied with abundant raw material Britain colonies supplied raw materials to the factories in London and other cities. And the British government was eager to support growing industry. The colonies were regarded as a source of necessary raw materials for England and were granted monopolies for their products, such as tobacco and sugar, in the British market.
  13. 13. 4. Colonies demanded goods from the textile and iron industries The Navigation Act of 1651 stated that all colonial exports had to be shipped on English ships to the British market, and all colonial imports had to come by way of England. English factories converted raw goods to products which were then shipped back to the colonies. This provided the British with a profitable market, free from competition.
  14. 14. COAL
  15. 15. 5. Abundant deposits of coal which are easily mined and transported. Coal provides three times more energy than wood. Coal kick-started a revolution in XIII century Britain, a revolution which transformed not only the country but the world itself. Coal could produce the energy to keep the new steam engines running and coal was needed to produce iron. Iron could be used to improve machines and tools and it could be used to build railroad tracks, bridges and ships.
  16. 16. 6. In Britain the mines were near the sea, so ships could carry coal cheaply to the most important market, London.
  17. 17. Scientific and technological new ideas
  18. 18. 7. The demand for coal became larger, but the deeper the miners went the more water there was underground, so it was necessary to pump water out of the mine.
  19. 19. 8. Initially people used horse-driven pumps, but they needed a more effective way to draw water from much deeper.
  20. 20. 9. In 1712 Thomas Newcomen invented the atmospheric engine The first commercially successful steam engine was the atmospheric engine, invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712. The new engine did the work of 20 horses and pumped water from hundreds of feet below the ground - making deeper mines economically viable.
  21. 21. 10. James Watt developed (1763–75) an improved version of Newcomen's engine, with a separate condenser. Boulton and Watt’s early machines used less coal than Newcomen’s
  22. 22. Textile Manufacturing before IR 3.25 – 4.52
  23. 23. The Textile Industry before the IR  In the earliest days, British merchants imported cloth from other lands. Because of the costs of shipping finished goods, cloth was very expensive.  In the 1600s, Britain began importing raw cotton. The British spun their own threads and then wove their own cloth.  Farm families did the work. They set up spinning wheels and looms in their cottages. Both spinning wheel and loom were operated by hand: they were called the “cottage weavers”.
  24. 24. Textile manufacturing in factories 4.52 - 6.52
  25. 25. The textile industry during the IR  In the 1700s some new machines were invented which changed the textile industry. Spinners and weavers left their cottages and went to work in new factories.  The textile industry moved out of the English cottages. Mills and factores were built. Workers were no longer their own bosses. They became factory hands. They worked in large mills that often employed up to 600 people.
  26. 26. 11. Flying shuttle Spinning tool before the IR
  27. 27. 12. Spinning Jenny The Spinning Jenny was invented the first machine to produce yarn. Created in the s. XVIII, it represented one of the most important technical innovations in the textile industry and therefore can be considered one of the leaders of the industrial revolution.
  28. 28. 13. The water frame
  29. 29. 14. The mule In 1779 Samuel Crompton combined the spinning jenny and the water frame into one machine. He called it the “mule”. It could spin much finer threads very rapidly.
  30. 30. Steam-powered loom With so much thread being produced, the textile industry needed a better loom. In 1785 Edmund Cartwright invented a steam- powered loom.
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