Chapter 12 Reasoning!

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Chapter 12 Reasoning!

  1. 1. Reasoning
  2. 2.  “Reasoning is the process of creating or generating conclusions from evidence or premises.”
  3. 3. Types of ReasoningInductive Reasoning – “theprocess of reasoning from specificsto a general conclusion related tothose specifics.Types of Inductive Reasoning:1) Example Reasoning2) Casual Reasoning3) Sign Reasoning4) Comparison Reasoning a) Figurative b) Literal5) Reasoning from Authroity
  4. 4. Types of ReasoningCont.Deductive Reasoning – “theprocess of reasoning from generalstatements to a certain and logicalconclusion related to thatconclusion.”Three parts to DeductiveReasoning1) Major Premise2) Minor Premise3) ConclusionThese three parts form what iscalled a syllogism.
  5. 5.  What is a fallacy? “A fallacy is an error in reasoning.” “A fallacy is an argument in which the premises given for the conclusion do not provide the needed degree of support.”
  6. 6. Fallacy of the FalseDilemma“The False Dilemma fallacy occurswhen an argument offers a falserange of choices and requires thatyou pick one of them.”
  7. 7. Fallacy of Appeal toEmotion“This fallacy is committed whensomeone manipulates peoples’emotions in order to get them toaccept a clam as being true.”Perhaps the picture on the rightwould appeal to your emotions.
  8. 8. Fallacy of the SlipperySlope“This fallacy reduces an argumentto absurdity by extending it beyondits reasonable limits.”The photo on the right depicts aslippery slope very percisley.
  9. 9. Fallacy of HastyGeneralization“This fallacy occurs when anarguer bases a conclusion on toofew examples that are notnecessarily typical of theconclusion being made. “
  10. 10.  There are more fallacies discussed in our textbook, the following I did not discuss in this powerpoint: Fallacy of non-sequitur Fallacy of ad hominem Fallacy of circular reasoning Fallacy of Appeal to Ignorance Bandwagon Fallacy Post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy Fallacy of Appeal to Pity Straw-Man Fallacy

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