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Women i the economy of maharashtra 12 3-04 b & w

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Women in the Economy of Maharashtra …

Women in the Economy of Maharashtra
By
Vibhuti Patel 
Introduction
Maharashtra ranks the 4th in Human Development Index. Female economic activity rate of 35.97 % for Maharashtra is higher than the national average of 29%. Maharashtra has an outstanding record of establishing Women Development Corporation, way back in 1975. The state has 12 all women panchayats. Women constitute 11.60 % of membership in the cooperatives. In the rural Maharashtra, the work participation rate of women is 46.5 % out of which 89 % in the agrarian sector. Among the total agrarian workforce, 41 % constitutes cultivators and 48% constitutes agricultural labourers. In the Urban Maharashtra, the female work participation rate (Main Workers who get employment for 8 hours per day for 183 days in a year) is only 13 %. Out of total urban female work force 1 % is in the highly skilled jobs, 9.2 % is in the house-hold industry, 45.3 % is self- employed, 33.3 % is in the regular employment and 21.4 % is casual labour.

Women in the Work Force
Women’s studies scholars have argued that increase in work participation of women in rural Maharashtra is a sign of distress, an index of unequal terms and limited options, not prosperity. Feminisation of labour in the contemporary Maharashtra signifies feminisation of poverty. The question, often asked is- Are women working themselves to death to keep the home fire burning? The allocation of funds for women in the state budget is less than 1 % of the total. Gender audit of the state budget reveals that the amount allocated for promotive measures such as economic services is much less. The budgetary allocation is for protective measures, for distressed women.

Occupational Diversification of women is taking place in the economy of Maharashtra. Educated women are getting jobs in the information technology; soft wear industry, call centres and other tertiary sector occupations.

Withdrawal of state from the social sector manifested in decrease in budgetary allocation for PDS and public health has increased invisible work of housewives and poor women.
There is high rate of unemployment among urban women. Decline of textile industry and closure of small-scale industries have affected women workers adversely. The highest percentage of female work force is of women agricultural labourers who don’t own assets, get seasonal/ casual employment and get less paid. Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 is the most flouted law in the state. In agriculture, women get 60-70 % of male wages. In the public works programmes, women get Rs. 26. 85 per day while men get Rs. 49.38 per day.


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  • 1. Women in the Economy of Maharashtra Dr. Vibhuti Patel Reader Centre for Women’s Studies, Department of Economics, University of Mumbai
  • 2. Achievements of Maharashtra
    • 4 th in HDI
    • FEAR- 35.97 % (National Average 29%)
    • Establishment of Women Development Corporation in 1975
    • 12 All Women Panchayats
    • 12 % women members in the cooperatives
    • WPR of women in rural areas- 46.5 %
  • 3. Women in the Workforce
    • Increase in WPR- a sign of distress
    • Feminisation of labour in rural areas
    • Less than 1% of budgetary allocation for women, for protective measures
    • PDS, public Health
    • Retrenchment in SSIs, Unemployment
    • Occupational Diversification
    • ERA, 1976- The most flouted law
  • 4. JSR, WPR and FLR- Census 2001 55.38 44.01 33.51 898 Bhid 61.28 37.98 26.40 884 Aurangabad 66.38 39.54 28.61 859 Kolhapur 60.07 40.35 28.98 897 Sholapur 66.88 40.42 24.75 850 Sangli 68.71 43.20 28.33 884 Satara 64.88 42.32 32.84 890 Ahmednagar 64.95 38.91 25.71 867 Jalgaon 75 23.96 14.94 933 Thane 80.39 16.48 12.53 913 Mumbai FLR WPR-Marginal WPR- Main JSR District
  • 5. Statistical Profile of Maharashtra
    • Juvenile Sex Ratio (0-6 years) 917
    • WPR- Main Workers 23.95 %
    • WPR- Marginal Workers 35.97 %
    • Female Literacy Rates 67.51 %
    • In western Maharashtra and Bhid, though WPR is high, JSR is less than 900.
    • Gross violation of PNDT Act
    • Shortage of brides encouraging child marriage ??? Korean example
  • 6. Challenges Before SHGs
    • Lack of options-lack of voice & insufficient endowments
    • Promotion of Micro-enterprises
    • MAVIM- Vision 2020
    • Micro credit for micro-trade
    • Livelihood issues-agriculture, livestock
    • Dumping of foreign goods
    • Counter-productive competition
    • Political vested interests
    • Retaining quality while up scaling
  • 7. NEP (1992-2002)
    • Reduction in public investment
    • Budgetary provision for social sector
    • Cutting of food & fertilizer subsidy
    • Increase in bank rate, insurance charges, rail tariff
    • VRS
    • EPZ, FTZ, SEZ
    • Tele workers-Cyber coolies, Call centers
    • Professional women-more benefits
    • Hospitality industry, Tourism
  • 8. Women in Unorganized Sector
    • Flexible labour
    • Ancillarisation and fragmentation of industries- high urban unemp.
    • Induction of rural & tribal girls for work on a piece rate basis
    • Multitasking- 2 to 3 jobs- stress
    • Attacks on subsidies
    • Fisher-folk women
  • 9. Shift in Cropping Pattern
    • from rice, millet, wheat to
    • fruits, mushrooms, flowers, grapes
    • Competition posed by foreign goods
    • Women cultivators
    • Skills, know-how, handling market
    • Opening of Indian agrarian market for foreign goods after 2001
  • 10. Employment Profile in Public sector
    • Closing Doors in the Railways, insurance, Banks & Government Hospitals
    • Disinvestments- unemployment
    • Stoppage of new recruitments
    • Office automations
    • Hiring of contract labour
  • 11. Educational Facilities
    • Free education for girls
    • Problems w.r.to higher education
    • Privatisation in Education
    • . In higher education, women are segregated into traditional streams such as Humanities, Arts and Commerce.
    • Women constitute 43% of the total faculty enrolment in Arts and only 6% in Engineering.
    • Reduction in government expenditure on higher education and encouragement towards private colleges will reduce women's opportunities for higher education, as private education promotes only the more lucrative professional and technical courses.
  • 12. Poverty Alleviation Programmes
    • Poverty is not only income gap, but poverty among women signifies vulnerability to risks, lack of options, restricted freedom, insufficient endowments, lack of voice, unequal burdens/ responsibilities
    Poverty line for Maharashtra is Rs. 266.97 monthly per capita for the rural and Rs.419 monthly per capita for the urban population. Massive food-shortage in the tribal areas of Maharashtra, many development economists have raised voice
  • 13. Maharashtra Policy for Women
    •          Statutory provision for reserving 10 % of all income and land at the gram panchayat level under the control of women’s committee.
    •          Government allotments and primary memberships of societies to be made in the joint names of husband and wife.
    •          Amendments in the Hindu Law of Inheritance (1956) for ensuring equal share of the movable and immovable property of the husband.
    •          Reservation of 30% of government jobs for women.
    •          Women would constitute 25% of the police force in the state of Maharashtra.
  • 14. Human Development Perspective
    • Earning and employment - minimum necessary condition for women’s empowerment.
    • Education, skills, freedom, opportunities are important for human development as they enlarge women’s choices.
    • Critical areas- long and healthy life and overall well-being that flows from property rights, land rights, right to live, equitable share in family resources- education, nurturance and all decision making fora.
  • 15. Population Policy- Vision 2010
    • Health Infrastucture
    • Child Marriage
    • Repeated pregnancy
    • Declining Sex Ratio
    • Violence Against Women
    • Health care workers
    • Female Burden of Gynecological morbidity
    • Health profile- anemia, morbidity, nutrition, child survival, occupational health issues
  • 16. Budgetary Provision of DWCD Source: Centre for Budget Studies, Samarthan, Mumbai, 2003. Year Budget Estimates Revised Estimates Plan Expenditure Non-plan Expenditure (AE)Actual Expenditure A.E. against price-rise 1999-00 228.82 178.33 59.16 40.75 99.92 65.57 2000-01 248.83 191.96 197.98 91.55 289.53 187.13 2001-02 277.70 250.89 229.25 195.67 424.93 258.45 2002-03 343.20 278.96 57.42 221.54     2003-04 358.21   57.03 301.18    
  • 17. Gender Audit of Budgets
      • Major funds of the department are spent on the administration.
      • Budget estimates for Welfare Schemes for Women (WSW) for 1999-00, 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03 and 2003-04 were Rs. 7.62 crores, Rs. 7.71 crores, Rs. 6.81 crores, Rs. 4.67 crores and Rs. 33.27 crores respectively.
      • Actual expenditure on WSW for 1999-00, 2000-01 and 2001-02 was Rs. 4.60 crore, Rs. 5.27 crore and Rs. 1.34 crore respectively.
      • Actual expenditure on Welfare schemes for women was less than 1/5 of the estimated expenditure during Women Empowerment Year, 2001.
  • 18. 4 Types of Schemes   1 . Women specific schemes where 100 % of the allocation is required to be spent on women. 2.Pro-women schemes where at least 30% of allocation and benefits flow to women. 3.Gender-neutral schemes meant for the benefit of community as a whole where both men and women avail these benefits. 4. The residual state specific programmes having profound effect on women’s position/ condition.
  • 19. Current Concerns
    • Expansion of irrigation drinking water facilities
    • Creation of water-shed, egalitarian methods
    • Flexible rules for SHGs
    • Woman friendly banking operations
    • Crèches- 30 men &/ or women workers
    • Joint Titles- right to residence
    • Commitment to social sector & sustainable development
    • Women’s division in each ministry-planning, budgeting, implementing and monitoring
  • 20. Conclusion
    • Proactive state policy
    • Role of MAVIM to fulfill practical gender needs to some extent
    • Impact of Macro policies damaging women’s livelihood
    • Feminisation of poverty
    • During the 10 th Five Year Plan period (2002-2007), to ensure higher rank in GEM for Maharashtra, that includes indicators- employment, education, health, juvenile sex ratio, PQLI (per capita quality of life index) and political empowerment; GOs, private enterprises and NGOs in the state will have to join hands.
  • 21. Thank You