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Social security by Vibhuti Patel
 

Social security by Vibhuti Patel

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Social Security and Social Protection for Women...

Social Security and Social Protection for Women
by
Dr. Vibhuti Patel, DIRECTOR, P.G.S. R.
Prof. & HOD, University Department of Economics,
SNDT Women’s University, Smt. Nathibai Thakersey Road,Chuchgate, Mumbai-400020
Phone-26770227®, 22031879 Ext. 243(O) Mobile-9321040048
E mail: vibhuti.np@gmail.com
(Presented at Refresher Course on Women’s Studies organized by
Academic Staff College of University of Gauhati, Guwahati, Assam on 1-7-06)


What is Social Security (SS)?
“The protection which society provides for its members, through a series of public measures, against the economic and social distress that otherwise would be caused by the stoppage or substantial reduction in earnings resulting from sickness, maternity, employment injury, unemployment, invalidity, old age and death, the provision of medical care and provision of subsidies for families with children.” ILO, 1989
The nation-states are supposed to make policy choices and prescriptions on the basis of this definition.

This definition is found inadequate for developing country as it assumes that most persons are generally in a state of employment from which they can earn enough to meet their basic needs. For example, omission of food security.

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    Social security by Vibhuti Patel Social security by Vibhuti Patel Presentation Transcript

    • Social Security and Social Protection for Women A presentation By Dr. Vibhuti Patel Director, PGSR Professor and Head P.G. Department of Economics, S.N. D. T. Women’s University, Mumbai E mail: Vibhuti.np@ gmail.com, [email_address] Mobile- 9321040048 Phone-91-022-27770227
    • What is Social Security (SS)?
      • “ The protection which society provides for its members, through a series of public measures, against the economic and social distress that otherwise would be caused by the stoppage or substantial reduction in earnings resulting from sickness, maternity, employment injury, unemployment, invalidity, old age and death, the provision of medical care and provision of subsidies for families with children.” ILO, 1989
    • Alternate Definitions :
      • ILO Definition was found inadequate for developing country as it assumes that most persons are generally in a state of employment from which they can earn enough to meet their basic needs.
      • Social Security represents a guarantee, by the whole community to all its members, of the maintenance of their standard of living or at least of tolerable living conditions by means of redistribution of income based on national solidarity.
      • Social Security means the support provided to the individual by the society to enable him/her to attain a reasonable standard of living, and to protect the same from falling due to the occurrence of any contingency.
      • Any kind of collective measures or activities designed to ensure that members of society meet their basic needs (such as adequate nutrition, shelter, health care and clean water supply), as well as being protected from contingencies (such as illness, disability, death, unemployment and old age), to enable them to maintain a standard of living consistent with social norms.
    • Social Security of Women
      • Social security for women has three major aspects. The first is ‘Protective’ aspect of preventing decline in living standards. Second is ‘Promotive’ aspects of enhancing normal living conditions and the third one is requirements of ‘ income maintenance’ & ‘income support’. Social security measures are implemented through affirmative action by the state, the community/ NGOs/ SHGs and employers.
    • Constitutional Guarantees
      • Article 38-state to promote Social Security thro’ all institutes of national life
      • Article 41- Effective provision for securing right to work, education & public assistance in case of unemployment, old age, sickness & disablement + other cases of undeserved wants
      • Article 42- just & humane condition of work, maternity relief
      • Article 47- raising the level of nutrition & standard of living, improvement in public health
    • Entitlements, Ensuring Economic Independence and Risk Coverage
      • Three important components of concept of Social Security for women are:
      • promotional component that aims at improving endowments, exchange entitlements, real incomes and social consumption
      • Preventive component that seeks to avert deprivation in more specific ways
      • Protective component that ensures relief against deprivation
    • Women Empowerment Policy, 2001 of GoI
      • Education
      • Health
      • Nutrition
      • Drinking Water & Sanitation
      • Housing & Shelter
      • Environment
      • Science and Technology
      • Women in Difficult Circumstances
    • SAP-Structural Adjustment Programme
      • After the post 1991 period marked by economic reforms, the state and employers payments for social security benefits have reduced drastically as you can see in the figures below. Privatisation of social security has created a situation where 77% of social security schemes are financed by people themselves.
      • Financing of Social security schemes, 1995
      • Govt. Expenditure on Health- 20 %
      • Insurance & employer payments- 3 %
      • Payment by people themselves- 77 %
    • Role of Voluntary Organisations and SHGs in Providing Social Security:
      • The Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) was founded in 1972 as a trade union representing self-employed women vegetable vendors, home-based garment workers, and service providers (such as rag-pickers) in the western Indian state of Gujarat. It has since taken on the additional roles of bank, co-operative marketing agency, service provider, educator, and advocate for changes in government policy. "
    • Legislations for women’s Entitlements
      • Strict enforcement of all relevant legal provisions and speedy redressal of grievances must be ensured, with a special focus on violence and gender related atrocities.
      • Measures to prevent and punish sexual harassment at the place of work, protection for women workers in the organized/ unorganized sector and strict enforcement of relevant laws such as Equal Remuneration Act and Minimum Wages Act must be undertaken.
    • International Labour Organisation
      • comprehensive laws regarding
      • Standardisation of work hours
      • Child labour prevention
      • Occupational health and Safety
      • Compensation for displaced population
      • Human rights of ethnic minorities- wages & safety
      • Economic activities for women refugees
      • Visibility of Women in Statistics and Indicators
      • Maternity Benefits
    • Thank You