Planning in india & health policy 26 3-07
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Planning in india & health policy 26 3-07



It is important to understand historical evolution of gender-concerns in the planning process in the independent India. ...

It is important to understand historical evolution of gender-concerns in the planning process in the independent India.

The First Five Year Plan (1951-1956) set up Central Social Welfare Board in 1953 to promote welfare work through voluntary organisations, charitable trusts and philanthropic agencies. India was the first country to introduce family planning programmes during the first five-year plan. Jawaharlal Nehru, the then prime minister of India who had only one daughter was a role model and men were encouraged to take lead in birth control practices. The most popular method of birth control during this period was male sterilisation.

The Second Five Year Plan (1956-1960) supported development of women’s councils for grass roots work among women. It also introduced barrier methods of contraception for both women and men. Diaphragms and vaginal jellies were introduced and were distributed free of charge. But the Indian women’s socialisation does not permit them to touch vagina. Hence the barrier methods of contraception for women failed.

The Third, Fourth and Interim Plans (1961-74) made provision for women’s education, pre-natal and child health services, supplementary feeding for children, nursing and expectant mothers. In this plan, women’s health needs were merged with their children’s needs. Invasive methods of contraception and reversible (IUDs) and irreversible (sterilization for men and women) methods were promoted.

The Fifth Plan (1974-1978) marked a major shift in the approach towards women, from ‘welfare’ to ‘development’. It acknowledged the fact of marginalisation of women from the economy and also accepted the need for special employment generation programmes for women in the poverty groups. In terms of population policy, this period proved to be disastrous because forcible vasectomy of men during emergency rule of 18 months generated permanent erosion of faith in the top down and bureaucratically managed population policy.



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Planning in india & health policy 26 3-07 Planning in india & health policy 26 3-07 Presentation Transcript

  • Planning in India & Health Policy Dr. Vibhuti Patel, Director, PGSR Professor & Head, Post Graduate Department of Economics, SNDT Women’s University, Churchgate, Mumbai-400020. E-mail- Phone-91-022-26770227®, 22052970 (O) Mobile-9321040048
  • Welfare State
    • Mixed Economic Model adopted in 1950
    • Role of government
    • Drug Policy
    • Bulk Drug production by Public Sector
    • Public Health concerns
    • Legal Framework
    • Accent on allopathy
    • Medical Education-Priority Area
  • Health Policy, 1984 & 2002
    • Health for all by 2000 A.D.
    • Community Health Approach
    • Influence of China’s health care system
    • Killer diseases- water born, mosquito ridden
    • Vaccination-small pox
    • Polio & leprosy
    • Contagious diseases
    • T.B.
    • STDs
    • National Health Policy
  • India was the first developing nation to adopt family planning policy  in 1950.
    • I FYP (1951-56) – Men targeted
    • II FYP- barrier methods
    • III & IV FYPs & interim plans(1961-74)- IUD & male sterilisation, MCH
    • V FYP (1974-78)- Women targeted
    • VI FYP(1980-85)- EP drugs, camp approach
    • VII FYP(1986-1991)- Depo Provera, Net-o-En
    • VIII FYP(1992-97)- Norplant, A.P.Vaccine
    • IX FYP (1997-2002)- Cafeteria approach
  • X Five Year Plan (2002-2009)
    • Each state to decide its own population policy
    • Maharashtra - 2 child norm- Amendment in Local Self government Act- disqualification provision for an elected representative- having a third child Panchayat members axed
    • Tamilnadu- Public Sector Employees penalised
    • Rajasthan- use of hormone-based contraceptives
    • Erosion of public health facilities
    • Charging of user fees
    • Privatisation of insurance & health services
  • National Conferences of Women’s Liberation Movement in India & Health Concerns
    • 1980-Mumbai Perspective/ critique
    • 1985- Mumbai SD & SP Tests
    • 1988- Patna WDP of Rajasthan ‘Target’
    • 1990-Calicut Women and Health
    • 1993- Tirupati RCH, Coersion
    • 1996- Ranchi Reproductive Rights
    • Influence of Cairo Declaration (1994)
    • SAHELI- Delhi, Masum- Pune, FWH- Mumbai
  • Occupational Health & Safety
    • Bhopal Gas Carnage, 1984
    • Shramshakti Report & NPPW 1988
    • Women in FTZ, FTZ & SEZ
    • DPAP, Food for Work programme
    • Energy Expenditure- collection of fuel, fodder, water
    • Labour processes & labour relations
    • Corporate Responsibility
    • Tobacco Workers- SEWA
    • Forest women-Tendu, lac, frogs, snakes, rats
  • Mental Health Issues
    • Bhargavi Davar-Bapu Trust for Research on Mind and discourse
    • Critique of bio-medical Approach
    • Culture specific counselling
    • Patriarchal biases in psychiatry-victim blaming
    • Sexual violence, Domestic violence
    • Mental health of adolescent girls
    • Substance abuse
    • Media
    • Demand for Half way homes
    • Community based approach
    • Signature campaign against ECT
  • Environment & Health
    • Chipko-Fuel, fodder, water
    • Appiko-Karnataka
    • Junagarh
    • Environment- Medha Patkar & Vandana Shiva
    • Three Dimensions
    • Displacement
    • Worker’s Rights
    • Environmental Damage
  • 11 th Five Year Plan
    • Right to health to be ensured
    • Life cycle approach to be implemented
    • Millennium Development Goals-IV, V, VI
    • Increase government spending from 0.9% to 3% GDP with matching funds from the State
  • People’s Health Assembly
    • Ensure People friendly free, comprehensive Primary Health Care that is accessible (to marginalized populations- migrants, sex workers, hijras etc. and disable friendly), affordable with full preventive and curative care at the PHC level.
  • Upgradation of SCs and PHCs
    • Upgrade at least 50-60% SCs and PHCs as 24x7 round the clock and make the phase wise information of the Plan available to all women in the community .
    • Engender medical education with a holistic perspective on women’s health (moving beyond reproductive health) and mainstream women’s health concerns in the education system-primary to higher- in the formal, informal and non-formal sector.
    • Empower men and women to ensure their sexual health
    • Improve provision of home based care services
    • Increase knowledge and awareness levels
    • Increase livelihood opportunities for men and women affected by HIV/AIDS
    • Gender sensitive services are necessary in STI clinics especially for treatment, counseling and care.
  • Public Private Partnership
    • Concessions to private sector in Health care
    • Highest FDI in Health sector
    • Hike in Drug Prices
    • Permission to pharmaceutical industry for human trials
    • Commercialisation of vaccines
    • Weakening of public health concerns
    • Casualisation of services, contract labour in health and sanitation
  • Hospital as Firm
    • Neo-liberal Model
    • Profit Maximisation
    • Privatisation of Insurance
    • Introduction of ‘User Fee’
    • Cost effectiveness
    • Over madicalisation
    • Medical Technologies-Over use and Misuse
  • Thank You