GENDER AUDITS OF BUDGETS WITH RESPECT TO WOMENS HEALTH IN INDIA                                              by           ...
beneficiaries of the crumbs thrown at them by the system but we perceive women as activeparticipants in the development pr...
Gender Audit of the Five Year Plans of the Government of India has been done bywomen’s studies scholars to identify concep...
Anti-pregnancy vaccines, E-P combinations, Depo-provera, Net-O-en were introduced with blessingof USAID and WHO in the for...
There is a need for provisions in the composite programmes under education, health and ruraldevelopment sectors to target ...
Pathologisation of women by using diagnostic labels is a major cause of stigmatisation and ostracismof women. Women’s grou...
Demand          Demand Name                Budget     Revised    Budget     %      changeNumber                           ...
48                ICDS                      935.00   935.00      1,198.00   28Women       andChild             WB assisted...
This Section is based on the study of full text of budget document of 2000- 2001. In terms of itsapproach, it suggests maj...
65:       Rural Swarnajayanti     Gram             900.00       370.00       450.00        -50Development     Swarozgar Yo...
In a National Population Policy (point 24) a clear-cut mandate should be given that the governmentresources should not be ...
Demand number 52, Department of Women & Child Development* Scheme “Swadhar”- shelter, food, clothing & care to the margina...
Condensed      Course    for  Women’s       2.00 Crores                    1.80 CroresEducationBalika Samridhi Yojana     ...
Items                                       A Allocation-2003-4     Cuts compared to 2002-3Working Women’s Hostels        ...
ICDS                                          1947.44        1934.40     3315.25Day Care centres                          ...
•   to replicate all over the country the success that some southern and other states have        had in family planning. ...
The current budget has enlarged the statement on gender budgeting that covers 24 demandsfor grants in 18 ministries/Depart...
development sectors flow to women. The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2009) has suggested specificstrategies, policies and pro...
ConclusionIncreasingly the realisation has come that without engendering, development is endangered.Gender audit of decent...
action for improvement of gender relations through reduction of gender gap in thedevelopment process. It can help to reduc...
i Strategic gender needs Strategic Gender Needs are different in different economic contexts and aredetermined by statutor...
[17] Sau, S. Decentralised financial and physical planning: a study across gram panchayats (village councils)and blocks in...
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Gender budgetting w.r. to health 12 1-07

  1. 1. GENDER AUDITS OF BUDGETS WITH RESPECT TO WOMENS HEALTH IN INDIA by Dr. Vibhuti Patel, Director, P.G. S. R. Professor and Head, Post Graduate Department of Economics, SNDT Women’s University, Smt. Nathibai Thakersey Road, Churchgate, Mumbai-400020 Tel91) (22) 26770227, Mobile-9321040048 E mail-vibhuti.np@gmail.com ABSTRACTSBudgets garner resources through the taxation policies and allocate resources to differentsections of the economy. The Budget is an important tool in the hands of state for affirmativeaction for improvement of gender relations through reduction of gender gap in thedevelopment process. It can help to reduce economic inequalities, between men and womenas well as between the rich and the poor. Hence, the budgetary policies need to keep intoconsiderations the gender dynamics operating in the economy, the health care deliverysystem and in the civil society. There is a need to highlight participatory approaches to pro-poor budgeting, social sector budgeting, bottom up budget, child budget, SC budget, STbudget, green budgeting, local and global implications of pro-poor and pro-womenbudgeting, alternative macro scenarios emerging out of alternative budgets and inter-linkages between gender-sensitive budgeting and improved health status of women. Seriousexamining of budgets calls for greater transparency at the level of international healtheconomics and health policy making to local processes of empowerment.Gender Commitments must be translated into Budgetary Commitment. By using our Right toInformation (2005), transparency /accountability for revenue generation & public expenditurecan be ensured. For Reprioritisation in public spending in the direction of women’s healthneeds, we must prepare our ‘bottom up budgets’ and lobby for its realisation in collaborationwith the elected representatives. Gender economists must lift the veil of statistical invisibilityof the unpaid ‘care economy’ managed by poor women and highlight equity, equality &efficiency dimension and transform macro-policies so that they don’t target poor women for‘population’ control, but address themselves to women’s overall health needs from womb totomb.IntroductionThe concept of gender audit has gained tremendous popularity among the development economists,social scientists, policy makers and practitioners in the new millennium. It is perceived as crucial,from the point of view of equity and efficiency. Increasingly the scholars and the decision-makers inthe government as well non-government organisations are accepting that gender-bias is not onlyharmful and costly for women, but it is equally harmful to the children and the households. If womenwere given equal opportunities, equal health-care and nurturance, equal treatment and equalremuneration/ equal share in property, it would be possible for the country to have more output, moredevelopment of capacities, more well-being and better health status of women and more leisure due tocombined contribution of men and women. When we do gender audit, we do not see women as 1
  2. 2. beneficiaries of the crumbs thrown at them by the system but we perceive women as activeparticipants in the development process and as citizens. For healthy governance,“We need a vision of mankind not as patients whose interests have to be looked after, but as agentswho can do effective things- both individually and jointly. We also have to go beyond the role ofhuman beings specifically as ‘consumers’ or as ‘people with need’, and consider, more broadly,their general role as agents of change who can- given opportunity- think, assess, evaluate, resolve,inspire, agitate, and through these means, reshape the world.” [1]The Historical Development of the Issue Gender audit of budgets provides policy framework, methodology and set of tools to assistgovernments to integrate a gender perspective into the budget as the main national plan ofpublic expenditure. It also aims to facilitate attention to gender analysis in review ofmacroeconomic performance, ministerial budget preparations, parliamentary debate, andmainstream media coverage. It does not mean separate budgets for women but all budgets(union, state and PRI) analysed and constructed from a gender perspective, analysis ofrevenue and government expenditure on women and girls as compared to men and boys.Gender audit of budgets help governments to decide how policies need to be adjusted andreprioritised for protecting and promoting women’s rights.Understanding the relationship between macro economic policies and the Union Budget, state budgetsand the local self government bodies in the context of India’s economic reforms and globalisation is aMUST as it has influenced women’s lives in several ways. It is good economic sense to make nationalbudgets gender-sensitive, as this will enable more effective targeting of government expenditure towomen specific activities and reduce inequitable consequences of previous fiscal policies. The GenderBudget Initiative is a policy framework, methodology and set of tools to assist governments tointegrate a gender perspective into the budget as the main national plan of public expenditure. It alsoaims to facilitate attention to gender analysis in review of macroeconomic performance, ministerialbudget preparations, parliamentary debate, and mainstream media coverage. Budget impacts women’slives in several ways. It directly promotes women’s development through allocation of budgetaryfunds for women’s programmes and reduces opportunities for empowerment of women throughbudgetary cuts. So far the process of gender budgeting has been a post-facto effort to dissect/ analyseand thus offset any undesirable gender-specific consequences of the previous budget.South Africa, Australia and Mexico have made pioneering contributions in this direction. TheEuropean Women’s Lobby, a network of women parliamentarians of European Union workswith International Feminist Economists to sensitize the nation states to ensure gender audit ofbudgets so that women can get due of the cake of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).For more than one decade, the gender economists in India have been doing gender audits of union,state and local self government budgets due to requests of women elected representatives who areactive in the village and district councils since 1992. National Commission of Women and statecommissions of women have also initiated the capacity building efforts for the administration toensure financial allocation, efficient utilisation and effective implementation of women’s programmesand schemes.The National Policy for Empowerment of Women, 2001 declared gender audit of budgets asa crucial task force for the union and state governments. 2
  3. 3. Gender Audit of the Five Year Plans of the Government of India has been done bywomen’s studies scholars to identify conceptual and operational biases in the approach,design and implications.1. Women specific schemes where 100 % of the allocation is required to be spent on women.2. Pro-women schemes where at least 30% of allocation and benefits flow to women.3. Gender-neutral schemes meant for the benefit of community as a whole where both men andwomen avail these benefits.4. The residual state specific programmes having profound effect on women’s position/ condition.It is important to understand historical evolution of gender-concerns in the planning process in theindependent India.The First Five Year Plan (1951-1956) set up Central Social Welfare Board in 1953 to promotewelfare work through voluntary organisations, charitable trusts and philanthropic agencies. India wasthe first country to introduce family planning programmes during the first five-year plan. JawaharlalNehru, the then prime minister of India who had only one daughter was a role model and men wereencouraged to take lead in birth control practices. The most popular method of birth control duringthis period was male sterilisation.The Second Five Year Plan (1956-1960) supported development of women’s councils for grassroots work among women. It also introduced barrier methods of contraception for both women andmen. Diaphragms and vaginal jellies were introduced and were distributed free of charge. But theIndian women’s socialisation does not permit them to touch vagina. Hence the barrier methods ofcontraception for women failed.The Third, Fourth and Interim Plans (1961-74) made provision for women’s education, pre-nataland child health services, supplementary feeding for children, nursing and expectant mothers. In thisplan, women’s health needs were merged with their children’s needs. Invasive methods ofcontraception and reversible (IUDs) and irreversible (sterilization for men and women) methods werepromoted.The Fifth Plan (1974-1978) marked a major shift in the approach towards women, from ‘welfare’ to‘development’. It acknowledged the fact of marginalisation of women from the economy and alsoaccepted the need for special employment generation programmes for women in the poverty groups.In terms of population policy, this period proved to be disastrous because forcible vasectomy of menduring emergency rule of 18 months generated permanent erosion of faith in the top down andbureaucratically managed population policy. The Sixth Plan (1980-85) accepted women’s development as a separate economic agenda. It allotteda separate chapter to focus on women’s concerns in the economic development. The Multidisciplinaryapproach with three- pronged thrust on health, education and employment. It introduced familywelfare policy that targeted women for birth control. Promotion of male methods of contraceptionwas found politically harmful by the ruling party. It also netted unpaid family work of women thataugmented family resources due to women’s efforts of collection of fuel, fodder, water, kitchengardening, live stock rearing and work in the household enterprise.The Seventh Plan (1985-1990) declared as its objective to bring women into the mainstream ofnational development. On the front of population control, clinical trials of long acting and hormonebased oral and injectable contraceptives were targeted to women from the marginalized communities.The Eighth Plan (1992-1997) projected paradigm shift, from development to empowerment andpromised to ensure flow of benefits to women in the core sectors of education, health andemployment. Outlay for women rose from 4 crores in the 1st Plan to Rs. 2000 crores in the 8 th Plan. 3
  4. 4. Anti-pregnancy vaccines, E-P combinations, Depo-provera, Net-O-en were introduced with blessingof USAID and WHO in the form of ‘Cafeteria Approach’ o birth control. The Ninth Plan (1997-2002) stated that Empowerment of women was its strategic objective. Itaccepted the concept of Women’s Component Plan to assure at least 30% of funds/benefits from alldevelopment sectors flow to women. Gender audit of the budget during the 9th Plan period hasrevealed that the budgetary allocation for women specific schemes has increased only in the area offamily planning. The family planning schemes got additional 700 crores in the budget.The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2009) has suggested specific Strategies, policies and programmesfor Empowerment of women. They are as follows:Measurement of development has to go beyond achievement of GDP growth to indicators ofdistributive justice and their monitoring.Women headed households have to be specifically targeted, identifying added disadvantages in therural and urban locations with reference to different parameters of deprivation.Formulation of Gender Development Indicators to measure Human Development and their use as atool for monitoring development needs to be hastened.To effectively attain population stabilisation policies and plans need to empower women, promotetheir reproductive rights and involve men in reproductive decision-making and householdresponsibilities. Particular attention should be given to improve women’s access to qualityreproductive health services, including adolescent girls to counseling on reproductive health andsexuality issues.The Component Plan approach, which did not address compartmentalisation of governmentfunctioning should be replaced with a mandated approach of convergence of services at all levels ofgovernance, through inter-sectoral committees of all Ministries/Departments at the Centre and theStates with specific responsibility given to the Panchayats (councils) and Municipalities to administerat the grassroots level.” [2]The United Nations India has suggested that, “To protect the gains of the past and ensure steadyprogress on indicators of social development and gender equality, and in order to give a fresh impetusto the process of womens empowerment, the Tenth Plan needs to take some bold policy initiatives.Earmarking of funds for women under all major poverty alleviation programmes and maintenance ofgender disaggregated records of implementation of all poverty alleviation programmes.Mandatory registration of all assets provided under government programmes (land, house, animals,production units) in the joint names of husband and wife.Intensified focus on rights education and capacity-building interventions for women in all strategicsectors, including health and reproductive health, agriculture, natural resource management,technology (including information technology) and legal awareness.Gender audits of budgetary allocations.Demands of the Women’s Movement:Women’s groups have demanded allocations for women-specific programmes of strategic nature toarrive at the desired goals in a shorter time span. They should target women of different age groups interms of strategic interventions to take specific notice of adolescent girls, older women and women indifficult circumstances. Strategic gender tools like gender audits, gender impact assessments, genderanalysis and gender budgeting to monitor implementation and impacts must be developed. Genderaudit of plans, policies and programmes of various Ministries with pro-women allocations has to be apart and parcel of the monitoring process. 4
  5. 5. There is a need for provisions in the composite programmes under education, health and ruraldevelopment sectors to target them specifically at girls/women as the principal beneficiaries anddisaggregated within the total allocation. It may also be necessary to place restrictions on their re-appropriation for other purposes.The five Year Plans in the pre-1975 treated women as supplementary earners, while in the post 1975period women have been treated as active economic agents.Gender Audit of Macro Policies as the macro-economic policies impact women’s livingstandards and their prospects for economic empowerment.In 1991, at the behest of World Bank and International Monitory Fund, India adopted New EconomicPolicy, NEP that has intensified the processes pursued in the last decade and a half (mainly in thepost-emergency period), as a result of a new international division of labour between the advancedcapitalist economies and the post-colonial economies of Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the late1970s, trans-national and multinational corporations in the USA and Europe realized that the best wayto reduce the wage-bill and to enhance the rates of profit was to move industrial plants to poorercountries like India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, etc. The cheap labour of docile, nimble fingered andflexible Asian women was found to be most attractive step to enhance profit margins. This policywas given the appealing title of Integration of Women in Development. In 1993, systematic critiqueof this policy was made by IAWS and women economists who prevailed upon the architect of NEP,Prof. Man Mohan Singh to make a provision of safety net for women and children. [4]. The same neo-liberal economists are now vigorously promoting ‘two-child norm per family’ to attain total fertilityrate of 2.1 in India by 2010.National Health policy, 2001To address the problems concerning women’s health, a holistic life span approach is needed. Womenas growing human beings, homemakers, workers, mothers and elderly citizens face different types ofhealth related issues. Women’s health is determined by the material reality generated by socio-economic, cultural forces as well as gender relations based on subordination of women. It is importantto make men aware about women specific health needs. Improvement in women’s health is aprecondition for development of her family. How to engender medical education? This questionneeds to be addressed. There is also, a need for gender sensitive books for the health practitioners.The budgetary allocation for women’s overall health needs is marginal. The main thrust of thefinancial allocation of the ministry of health is to create support system for privatisation of healthcare. And when it comes to women, the central focus is on the reproductive and child health (RCH);women in the age group of 15-45 are specially targeted as ‘their fertility must be controlled’.Budgetary allocation for prevention of anaemia, nutritional deficiency is scanty as compared to thebudgetary provision for RCH.Mental Health PolicyA fire in Moideen Badusha Mental Home in Erwadi, Tamilnadu, on August, 6, 2001 which killed 28inmates who were chained to their position, hence could not run away, has once again invitedattention of all concerned citizens to the condition of women in the mental homes. Surviving womenpatients of the tragedy were transferred to the Institute of Mental Health in Chennai. Now, they are nolonger in chains but their condition is not different from their earlier home. [6] Due to paucity offunds, they don’t get quality care. 5
  6. 6. Pathologisation of women by using diagnostic labels is a major cause of stigmatisation and ostracismof women. Women’s groups are demanding that pigeon-holing of people into set slots must stop.Interaction with the mental health professionals is used by the family members and the community; todeclare the concerned woman “an unfit” to live in the family or to be a parent or to function as anautonomous individual or to take up a job. Husband’s family uses the episode of “mental disorder” todispose her off or debar her from property right or right to live in a matrimonial or parental home.“Madness certificate” of the mental health professionals are used by husbands/ in-laws to divorce,desert or throw out wives from their matrimonial homes. Women are admitted in the mental asylumas per the directives of the Mental Health Act, 1987and Lunacy Act, 1912.Biomedical approach emphasised by the Mental Health Policy has resulted into marginalisation ofbudgetary provision of community based mental health care. Funds are diverted for purchase of drugs.Aggressive marketing strategies of the multinational pharmaceutical industries have marginalised thefinancial allocation for training of counsellors and community-based care.Gender Audit of Budgets from 2001-2005Due to consistent lobbying by the gender economists and women’s groups, for the first time, this year,the Ministry of Finance gave a mandate to all ministries to establish a Gender Budgeting Cell byJanuary, 2005 and 18 ministries and departments were asked to submit annual reports andperformance budgets highlighting budgetary allocations for women. [5] But when the budget wasplaced before the parliament along with detailed demand for grants for 2005-06 only 2 pagesconcerning schemes and programmes for women were included in which the large chunk wasallocated for the Reproductive and Child Health to enforce “Two child per family” policy adopted bythe state and mentioned in the much touted Common Minimum Programme (CMP). India’s economic reforms- Structural adjustment programmes and globalisation policies have directlyincreased women’s unpaid work burden, thereby increased women- provided subsidy in the economy[6]. Devaluation of income for the majority of masses as a result of new economic policy coupledwith price rise, erosion of public distribution system and reduction of services offered by the publichealth system have made women bear disproportionate share of burden, because in the patriarchalfamilies women have to shoulder responsibility of providing meals and looking after the sick familymembers. Hence women have high stakes in preventing an increase in the proportion of indirect taxeson essential commodities and in budgetary provisions to guarantee food security and health care.Hence, careful study of the working of PDS and local taxonomy on food security and impact onnutrition, health and health services of budgetary allocations is a must.Gender Audit of Union Budgets:We have to examine budgetary provision for women during 2001-2002, 2002-2003, 2003-4, 2004-5,2005-6 within the matrices provided by the above mentioned policy documents. Womens status andwomens bargaining power in the economy have a major bearing in the budgetary policy. “GenderBudgeting consists of empirical exercises that focus on public policies and aim to bring out theirgender specific implications.” [7]Yearly analysis of the budget from the point of view of women is a must to enhance womenseconomic interest and socio-political standing in the economy. Analysis of the budget of Departmentof women and Child Development is most important as the funds are 100% targeted to women.Tab1e: 1 Union Budget 2001-2002 – Allocations to Programmes for Women (Rs. In Crore, Rs. 1crore= Rs. 10 millions) 6
  7. 7. Demand Demand Name Budget Revised Budget % changeNumber 2000-200 2001-200 2001-200 over 1 2 2 2000-2001 Allocation Mahila Samakhya 10.00 9.00 11.00 1046 Education Assistance for boarding/ 5.00 2.50 4.30 -14 hostel facilities for girl students of secondary school National Programme for 160.0 10.00 10.00 -94 Women’s Education47 Lady Harding Medical 44.88 42.05 43.74 -3Health and College Welfare andFamily Sucheta KriplaniWelfare Hospital Reproductive and 951.00 801.00 1126.95 19 Child Health Project Maternal Benefit 111.00 111.00 135.00 22 Scheme and Post Partum Programme Sterilisation Beds 1.70 1.70 1.35 -21 7
  8. 8. 48 ICDS 935.00 935.00 1,198.00 28Women andChild WB assisted ICDS 180.0 140.00 220.00 22Development projects Training Programme 35.00 20.00 40.00 14 under ICDS Day care Centres 18.50 18.30 21.95 19 Balwadi Nutrition 2.00 1.64 1.51 -25 Programme ECCE grants to NGO’s 2.30 1.90 1.51 -34 Other schemes 3.21 2.97 7.54 135 Condensed Courses for 1.50 1.50 2.00 women Balika Samridhi Yojana 27.00 21.00 25.00 -7 Hostels for working 7.02 7.02 9.00 28 women Support to technology 13.00 13.00 18.00 38 Entrepreneurship programme Mahila Samridhi Yojana 15.00 15.00 8.00 -47 Socio-economic 25.00 24.70 27.00 8 programmes, CSWB Training-cum 13.00 11.00 18.00 38 production Short-stay homes 14.51 9.77 12.84 -12 Awareness generation 1.80 1.80 4.00 122 programme NCW 3.50 3.50 5.00 43 Swashakti Project 15.00 8.00 15.00 0 RMK 3.00 1.51 1.00 -67 IMY 18.00 2.21 19.50 8 Other programmes 6.11 3.61 19.89 226 Nutrition awareness 9.05 8.47 10.15 12 programmes85 Social Girls Hostels 8.40 9.10 19.00 126Justice andEmpowerment53 Labour & Special education 2.00 0.70 0.01 -100Employment programme for girls from SC and low literacy level groups79 Tribal affairs Girls hostels 12.00 7.00 10.50 -13 Total 2,691.68 2,282.75 3,186.94 18.40Source: Expenditure Budget 2001-2002, Ministry of Finance, GOI 8
  9. 9. This Section is based on the study of full text of budget document of 2000- 2001. In terms of itsapproach, it suggests major departure from the earlier budget documents. It also proves that if theeconomists interested in womens issues work seriously on the subject, it is possible to change thefocus of our budget in favour of women.Women’s movement has been demanding for past one decade that women’s organizations should beconsulted before the budget is finalized. Intervention of women’s organization in the pre-budgetsessions has led to the fund allocation policy for “the Women’s component”, in general schemesinvolving various ministries.But, it is a matter of deep regret that even in 2001 that was declared as Women Empowerment Year;for day-care centers and nutrition programmes, only Rs. 18.30 and 1.64 crores were allocated and forSterilisation Beds and Balika Samruddhi Yojana (Girls’ Prosperity Plan) there was reduction in thefinancial allocation by 21 % and 7 % respectively. While for RCH targeted to women in the age-group of 15-45, the allocation was increased to Rs. 1126.95 crores, an increase by 19 % within a year.Table 2: Union Budget 2001-2002 – Allocations to Programmes with Indirect BenefitsFor Women (Rs Crore, Rs. 1 crore= Rs. 10 millions)Demand Demand Name Budget Revised Budget % Change overNumber 2000-01 2000-01 2001-02 2000-01 Allocation1: Agriculture National Watershed 55.50 114.85 - -100 Programme for development 20.00 20.00 1.50 -93 of rain fed agriculture, Alkali land reclamation and development programme21: Fuel wood and fodder 31.00 18.80 22.00 -29Environment projectand Forests25: Finance NABARD 28.76 28.76 29.00 138: Health Development of nursing 17.30 16.00 21.50 24 services Assistance towards 6.00 3.50 4.00 -33 hospitalization of the poor40: Family Free distribution of 108.71 95.71 117.00 8Welfare conventional contraceptives Health guide scheme 4.75 4.75 4.50 -553: Labour Beedi workers welfare fund 0.30 0.30 0.35 17 Compensation to families of drivers Of heavy duty Interstate vehicles59: Non- Biogas programme 66.50 62.50 54.95 -17Conventional Integrated rural energy 8.00 5.00 6.65 -17Energy programme Biomass programme 37.70 18.50 18.80 -50 Improved chullahs 19.00 16.05 16.05 -16 9
  10. 10. 65: Rural Swarnajayanti Gram 900.00 370.00 450.00 -50Development Swarozgar Yojna Employment 1,170.00 1,453.00 1,440.00 23 Assurance Scheme Gram Samridhi Yojana 1485.00 1,345.00 1,485.00 0 Jawahar66: Land Integrated wastelands 398.80 365.12 351.00 -12Resources development project scheme67: Drinking Accelerated Rural water 1764.07 1764.07 1809.08 3water supply Supply 126.00 126.00 135.00 7 Rural sanitation80: Urban Special Scheme For 2.00 0.02 0.02 -99Development Water Supply83:Urban Swarna Jayanti Shahari 168.00 95.03 168.00 0Employment and Rozgar Yojanapoverty alleviation Total 6,417.39 5,923.94 6,134.55 -4Source: Expenditure Budget 2001-2002, Ministry of Finance, GOITable 1 given the details of financial allocations to programmes that directly benefit women andTable 2 shows the financial allocations to programmes with indirect benefits for women.Here, we must highlight the missing points, which are crucial, for womens day-to-day survivalneeds.A case study of Budget 2001 reveals that in the section on QUALITY OF LIFE (point 17), specificneeds of women vis-à-vis health, education, drinking water, housing and roads should be taken careof. They are as follows:Health (Demand number 48 in Table 1) - Special budgetary provisions for women patients (separatefrom family planning budget) in the Primary health centers and public hospitals. Tax-exemption forsanitary pads and napkins for babies etc. is welcome. It will enhance mobility of rural women andwomen from the working class background.Drinking water (Demand Number 67 in Table 2): Dalit (Untouchable) and tribal women find it verydifficult and at times impossible to get water from the common taps. Common taps are in the center ofthe villages. While their dwelling places are in the margin of the villages. Hence, separate taps forDalit and tribal women, in their hamlet should be provided by the state.Special Scheme for Water Supply (Urban Development, Demand Number 80): The budgetaryallocation must be enhanced and privatisation of water must be curtailed.Unmet Needs of Women in the Budget, 2001-2002In all housing schemes, 10% of houses should be allocated for women headed households (WHH) i.e.widows, divorcees, single unmarried women and deserted women. In a war torn and riot riddenpockets, 30 % houses should be allocated for WHH as in these crisis prone areas percentage of WHHis around 30% of all households.At every 2-kilo meters, one public toilet for women should be provided in the urban centers. To avoidcontagious disease, Indian-style toilets should be provided.Cheap and safe eating facilities in the district, tehsil and rural areas for the Dalits, minorities and tribalpopulation and judicious distribution of goods allocated for public distribution system should beemphasized in the budget. .Budgetary allocation for the health care of women senior citizens. 10
  11. 11. In a National Population Policy (point 24) a clear-cut mandate should be given that the governmentresources should not be used for promotion of female foeticide and unsafe contraceptives. Budgetaryallocation for human trials of controversial biomedical researches involving women, whether it is ananti-pregnancy vaccine, Depo-Provera, Net-o-en should be withdrawn immediately.In a section on SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY (point 36) special policies should be envisaged forWRD (Women Resource Development) with one module on assertiveness training and self defense.Money should be earmarked to improve technology that generate occupational hazards for women insolid waste management, manufacturing units, food-fish production centers, sericulture, agriculture soon and so forth.In the North-East Region (point 59), in the industrial training institutes and computer informationcentres, women dominated sectors such as sericulture, horticulture, floriculture and weaving shouldbe targeted for introduction of advanced technology as the existing technologies are hazardous forwomen’s health.Special budgetary provisions should be made for modernisation of labour processes in whichscheduled caste and scheduled tribes are involved. These include better equipments (masks, handgloves, ban on manual scavenging with bare hands, gum boots for waste management workers) andbetter management of economic activities.In plan expenditure special consideration should be given for women specific tasks such as collectionof fuel, fodder and water.In communications, special radio and television programmes for women in regional languages shouldbe budgeted. Government controlled media should focus more on educational programmesconcerning women’s health issues such as anaemia, morbidity, backache, nutritional needs of women,adolescent health, old women’s health needs either through documentaries or docudramas, talk shows,public education advertisements.In the Non-Plan expenditure (point 67), in a budgetary provision for food and fertiliser subsidies,female-headed households should be given special considerations. Labour reducing technologies inthe subsistence sector (especially rice cultivation and animal husbandry in which women are doing themost drudgery prone tasks) should be introduced.Reduction of duty burden on contact lens solution is welcome, as it will help young women and menwho are working in computer industry and other tele-workers.The finance minister should be congratulated for totally ignoring tourism industry in the budget, asthe world market is too willing to look after travel and tourism.In conclusion, I must mention that use of gender aware language in an official document like budgetis quite heartening.Highlights of the Central Government’s Budget, 2002-2003* Increase in the Plan Allocation for the Department of Women and Child Development by33%. Total Amount- Rs. 2200 crores* 100 scholarships a year in the department of Science and Technology to women scientists andtechnologists.* National Nutrition Mission- Food grains at subsidized rate to adolescent girls and expectant &nursing mothers belonging to below poverty line families through ICDS structure. 11
  12. 12. Demand number 52, Department of Women & Child Development* Scheme “Swadhar”- shelter, food, clothing & care to the marginalized women/ girls living indifficult circumstances who are without any socio-economic support--13.50 crores.* Swayamsiddha Scheme to build training capacity-0.01 crore.* Gender Aware micro planning project for awareness generation, convergence of delivery, holisticempowerment of women, economic empowerment—0.01 crore* Gender sensitization-dissemination of data/ information of women’s Development, evaluation ofexisting programme on women and development---0.01 crore* “National Nutrition Mission” for Low Birth-Weight (LBW) babies and for reduction of InfantMortality Rates, anaemia, iodine deficiency in adults etc. – 1 crore* Self Help Groups for converging services, promoting micro enterprises—18.15 crores DEMAND NUMBER –86, page-124 in crores Monitoring of water quality ----------------- 0.50 Safety of old dams/dams in distress -------- 0.10 Rainwater harvesting to arrest Ground water depletion ----------------------- 0.10 To protect national heritage sites on Majuli Island from river Brahmaputra --- 2.00 To arrest critical erosion of river Ganga -- 2.00The National Institute of Public Finance and Policy did gender audit of the budget 2002-03. Itspublication, “Gender Budgeting in India” reports that the budgetary allocation for women specificschemes has increased only in the area of family planning. [8] The family planning schemes have gotadditional 700 crores in the present budget.For economic services concerning women, the present budget has made provision of only 153.70crores. For Rashtriya Mahila Kosh, the nodal agency for micro credit schemes, the budgetaryallocation has been reduced from earlier Rs. 3 crores to Rs. 1 crore. Budgetary allocation forproviding drinking water and electricity connections for marginalised sections are inadequate.Women’s groups have criticized budgetary cuts on the schemes to provide food grains to adolescentgirls as well as pregnant women and nursing mothers. Per capita allocation funds for nutritionalsupport for girl children through midday meal schemes declined from Rs. 112 to Rs.70. Per capitaallocation of budgetary provision for girl’s education is only Rs. 286.Table 3: Department of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Human ResourceDevelopment, Demand no. 52, Demands for GrantsItems Year 2001-2002 2002-2003Nutrition 9.45 crores 7.92 crores 12
  13. 13. Condensed Course for Women’s 2.00 Crores 1.80 CroresEducationBalika Samridhi Yojana 0.03 Crores __Hostel for Working Women 7.00 Crores 13.48 CroresSupport to Training and Employment 18.00 Crores 23.00 croresprogrammeMahila Samridhi Yojana 7.35 Crores __Socio Economic Programme 1.00 Crore __Centre Social Welfare Board 27 Crores 26.90 CroresTraining cum Production Centre 12.84 Crores 16.34 CroresShort Staying Home 12.84 Crores 16.34 CroresAwareness Generation Programme 4.00 Crores 3.80 croresNational Commission for Women 5.00 Crores 5.40 CroresSwashakti Project 15 Crores 25 croresRashtriya Mahila Kosh 1.00 Crore 1.00 CroreIndhira Mahila Yojana 6.73 Crores __National Nutrition Mission __ 0.05 CroreOther Schemes 9.45 Crores 7.87 CroresReproductive and Child Health 441.40 Crores 571.53 CroresSource: Annual Financial Statement of Central Government for 2002-2003 (as laid before theParliament on 28-2-2002), New Delhi.There has to be coordination between launching of new schemes and the budgetary allocation. It doesnot serve women’s interest if the funds are not available for the already launched scheme or funds areallocated for non-existing schemes as the funds will remain unutilised. In the absence of womenspecific educational schemes, Rs. 160 crores allocated for the National Programme for Women’sEducation remained unutilised.Women’s groups have condemned the budgetary allocation for weapons of destruction and militaryexpenditure as wasteful expenditure. Nearly half of the South Asian Population has suffering as aresult of pauperisation. [9] In this context, militarisation of the region goes against the interest ofwomen. Hence they have emphasized the need for peace initiatives cutting across national boundariesthe South Asia.Budget analysis from gender perspective should be introduced and promoted in all women’sgroups, educational and research institutions. Public debate on gender sensitive budget willhelp the country to tilt the balance in favour of area development and peaceful use ofresources in the present atmosphere of jingoism.GENDER AUDIT OF BUDGET 2003-4* Proclamation of FM- “Housewives will welcome the budget.” WILL THEY?* Implications of hike in prices of light diesel oil & fertilizers on Family budget of rural poor womenwill be negative.* BPL population is 25 to 30 crores, while budget-2004 promises to cover only 50 lakh families in theAntyodaya Scheme even when 52 m tons of food-grains are rotting in FCI godowns.* 1% cut of interest on small savings will reduce income of Self Help Groups of women involved inmicro-credit.* Privatisation and user charges for services such as health, education. Insurance schemes will deprivewomen of educational opportunities and health care facilities.Table-4: Budgetary Allocation for Women in the UNION BUDGET 2003-4 13
  14. 14. Items A Allocation-2003-4 Cuts compared to 2002-3Working Women’s Hostels 9 crores 4.48 croresLabour Social Securities 61.24 crores 30 croresSpecific schemes for Women workers 8 croresMaternity Benefits 22 croresRashtriya Mahila Kosh 1 crore 0Handloom Sector No mention IgnoredRCH 448.57 crores 122.96croresFamily Welfare Services 142 crores 254.50croresTuberculosis & Malaria 10 croresThis budget wiped out what the earlier two budgets promised the Indian women.* World Bank prescription for privatisation of health services is promoted in the budget.* Reduction in the cost of foreign alcohol will not go in favour of women.Women’s groups have DEMANDED Separate listing of women specific items & women’scomponent & TRANSPARENCY in utilization of the allocated amount for women’s programmes.Gender Budgeting Analysis of Different States in India:Last year, Review of Women’s Studies by Economic and Political Weekly published articles based onUNDP supported research reports on various schemes and programmes under the state governmentbudgets. They have shown the means adopted by different states to finance budgets and burden ofindirect taxes mostly bourn by the common citizens. [10] Though case studies of the state budget ofMaharashtra.[11] Midday Meal Scheme Tamilnadu, Bottom-up budget by involving women electedrepresentatives of the PRIs in Karnataka [12] and comparative analysis of development and socialsector expenditures of 13 Indian states with that of West Bengal [10] They have succinctly showngender differential impact of protective and welfare services (pension for widow and destitute women,budget for shelter homes and rehabilitation center for women victims of violence), social services(budgetary provision for education, health, crèche, working women’s hostels, fuel, fodder, water,housing, sanitation, nutrition-mid day meal) and regulatory services (state commissions for womenand women’s cell in the police stations, government.Table 5: Gender Budgeting 2005-6 (in crores of Rs)Ministry/Department 2004-5 2004-5 2005-6Demand Number 49 Department of Family WelfareFamily Welfare ServicesRural 1532.71 1722.10 1869.20Urban 121.00 121.00 133.08RCH 710.51 485.93 1380.68Immunisation and Polio 1186.40 1017.48 1304.60Demand No. 56 Transfer to Union Territory GovernmentsNutrition for Adolescent girls in Delhi and 2.03 2.03 2.03PondicherryDemand No. 57 Department of Elementary Education & LiteracyElementary Education & Literacy 130.00 105.00 225.00Demand 58 Department of Secondary & Higher EducationAccess & Equity 30 5.40 9.00Demand No. 59 Department of Women and Child DevelopmentChild Welfare 14
  15. 15. ICDS 1947.44 1934.40 3315.25Day Care centres 41.00 29.25 41.50NIPCCD 11.75 11.75 11.35Other Schemes of Child Welfare 14.61 13.56 14.12Women’s WelfareCondensed Course 5.25 5.25 5.40Balika Samridhi Yojana 0.03 48.00 0.03Hostels for Working Women 9.00 6.20 6.00Support for Training and Employment 22.50 16.09 13.50ProgrammeSelf Dependence 22.50 14.40 15.00Short Stay Homes 15.00 14.40 15.00Awareness Generation Programme 4.50 4.50 4.50National Commission for Women 7.00 6.55 5.77Swashakti Project 25.00 20.00 5.00Rashtriya Mahila Kosh 1.00 ----- 0.01Swayamsiddha 18.00 16.35 18.50Swadhar 2.70 3.69 5.50Scheme for Rescue of Victims of 3.00 ----- 0.25TraffickingOther Programmes of Women’s Welfare 0.20 0.15 0.15Nutrition 7.76 8.60 11.53Demand Number 61 Ministry of Labour and EmploymentImprovement in Working Condition of 99.31 98.38 125.05child/women LabourDemand No. 65 Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy SourcesBiomass, energy, improved Chullah 72.75 79-04 47.50Demand No. 79 Department of Rural DevelopmentSwaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana 360.00 360.00 344.90Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana 1377.00 1377.00 1080.00Demand No. 81 Department of Drinking Water Supply Rural Water Supply & SanitationAccelerated Rural Water Supply 2610.07 2610.07 3645.07ProgrammeRural Sanitation 360 360 630Demand No. 88 Ministry of Social Justice and EmpowermentGirls Hostels 22.00 15.00 0.01Child Welfare schemes 27.60 22.66 34.55Education work for Prohibition and Drug 26.09 22.93 30.64Abuse preventionPrevention and Control of Juvenile Social 18.90 18.90 0.01MaladjustmentGRAND TOTAL 10844.61 10574.16 14378.68Source: website: http://indiabudget.nic.inLast year budget statement highlighted gender sensitivities of financial allocations andcovered 10 demands for grant It was influenced by the proclamations made in the CommonMinimum Programme of the GOI in 2004 that promises • to bring about a major expansion in schemes for micro-finance based on self-help groups, particularly in the backward and ecologically fragile areas of the country. 15
  16. 16. • to replicate all over the country the success that some southern and other states have had in family planning. A sharply targeted population control programme will be launched in the 150-odd high-fertility districts. The UPA government recognizes that states that achieve success in family planning cannot be penalized. This explains allocation of 1381 crores for Reproductive & Child Health in 2005-6. • to protect the rights of children, strive for the elimination of child labour, ensure facilities for schooling and extend special care to the girl child. • To put in place a comprehensive medium-term strategy for food and nutrition security. The objective will be to move towards universal food security over time, if found feasible. • to strengthen the public distribution system (PDS) particularly in the poorest and backward blocks of the country and also involve women’s and ex-servicemen’s cooperatives in its management. Special schemes to reach food-grains to the most destitute and infirm will be launched. Grain banks in chronically food-scarce areas will be established. Antyodaya cards for all households at risk of hunger will be introduced.It is important to note that Union budget (2003-4) made provision of Rs. 25000 crore for foodsubsidy. The interim budget for 2004-5 has given an estimate that food subsidy would standat Rs. 27800 crore. More than enough buffer stock- rotting in the poorly equipped andmanaged warehouses. Food-grains are exported at lower price than at PDS. There have beenreports of starvation deaths in Maharashtra, Orissa, M.P., A.P. The poor are forced to starveor buy from the open market. (CEHAT , CBS & NCAS, 2004). Table: 6 Union Budget Allocations for 2006-7 Expenditure Budget: Total Allocation for DWCD- Rs. 4852.94 crores Demand No. Programmes Budget Estimates 46. Fam. Wel. RCH Rs. 1529.95Cr. 57.Child Wel Creche Rs. 11.8 Cr. 57 Women Wel CSWB Rs. 35.45 Cr. 57 DWCD ICDS (World Bank supported) Rs. 3954.00 Cr. 57 DWCD Short Stay Homes Rs. 15.90 Cr. 57 DWCD RMK Rs. 10.00 Cr. 57 DWCD Swadhar Rs. 7.00 Cr. 57 DWCD Rescue of Victims of Trafficking Rs. 0.45 Cr. 57 DWCD Working women’s Hostel Rs. 4.48 Cr. 16
  17. 17. The current budget has enlarged the statement on gender budgeting that covers 24 demandsfor grants in 18 ministries/Departments and schemes with an outlay of Rs. 28737 crore forstates and Union Territories. Thirty two ministries/ Departments have set up Gender BudgetCell and have initiated an exercise to prepare a public expenditure profile of their budgetsfrom a gender perspective.Main strength of the current budget is an increase outlay for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(Universal Primary Education) from Rs. 7165 crore in 2005-6 to Rs. 10041 crore in 2006-7and for Mid Day Meal scheme from Rs. 3010 in 2005-6 crore to Rs. 4813 crore in 2006-7.The most appealing aspect of the budget is total allocation of Rs. 14300 crore for NationalRural Employment Guarantee (NREG) Scheme. Of this, Rs. 11300 crore under NREG Act,2005 and Rs. 3000 crore will be under SGRY (Sampoorna Grammen Rojgar Yojana).Allocation and expenses of resources for women in Panchayat Budgets:To engender budgets at the village, block and district levels, we need to analyse budgets scheme-wise,sector wise, category-wise and year wise with their budget estimates, revised estimates and the actualexpenditure. It is also important to make thorough study of Economic Survey published by theGovernment of India and State Human Development Reports, State Policies for Women andallocation of resources in the State plans published by the state governments that guide programmesand budgetary allocations. This exercise helps us understand the working of macro policies indetermining women’s predicaments. Now, the women’s groups are demanding that each and everyministry should allocate separate funds for women specific needs. [13]All India Institute of local Self Government, Mumbai gives details of all schemes under these 4categories through its publications and through its workshops and training programmes. Moreover, italso teaches the elected representatives the efficient ways of programme implementation throughbudgeting from below [14]Financial Matters and Local Self Government Bodies:A recent survey of panchayats (village councils) working in 19 states, conducted by the NationalInstitute of Rural Development, Hyderabad suggested that panchayats remain toothless becausefunctional and financial autonomy has not been granted to the PRIs. The study by the Institute ofSocial Sciences shows that the extent of fiscal decentralisation through the empowerment of PRIs hasbeen very little. The report of the working group on decentralisation appointed by the KarnatakaGovernment has been criticised severely because, “It betrays utter lack of trust in the people which isthe keystone of decentralised democracy.” [16] Case studies of Panchayat finances in the GramSabhas of Midnapur district of West Bengal have corroborated the above-mentioned facts in terms oflack of fiscal autonomy, neglect of girls’ education, resource crunch. But it has played substantial rolein development of infrastructure, for example rural roads, drinking water, health, education, irrigationand power. [17] Elected representatives, officials at districts and NGOs working in the area should act as facilitatorsin preparation of the plan for area development and social justice. [18] The UN system has supportedallocation of resources for women in PRIs, right from the beginning. “The evidence on gender anddecentralisation in India thus suggests that while women have played a positive role in addressing, orattempting to address, a range of practical gender needs i, their impact on strategic gender needsii isnot remarkable.” [19]The Ninth Plan (1997-2002) stated that Empowerment of women was its strategic objective. Itaccepted the concept of Women’s Component Plan to assure at least 30% of funds/benefits from all 17
  18. 18. development sectors flow to women. The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2009) has suggested specificstrategies, policies and programmes for Empowerment of women.There is a need for provisions in the composite programmes under education, health and ruraldevelopment sectors to target them specifically at girls/women as the principal beneficiaries anddisaggregated within the total allocation. It may also be necessary to place restrictions on their re-appropriation for other purposes.To effectively attain population stabilisation, policies and plans need to empower women, promotetheir reproductive rights and involve men in reproductive decision-making and householdresponsibilities. Particular attention should be given to improve women’s access to qualityreproductive health services, including adolescent girls to counseling on reproductive health andsexuality issues.The strategy of organising women in self-help groups in the Ninth Plan period has paid gooddividends for expanding micro-credit. This should be extended not only for reaching larger numbersof women but also for increasing awareness of and access to social development, apart fromencouraging a process of convergence in the delivery of services in a decentralised set up. Technicalworkshops on allocation and expenditure of Panchayat Budgets should be organized in November forpre-budget inputs for advocacy and lobbying and in March, for critical evaluation of the budgetaryallocations.Women’s groups have demanded • Separate listing of women specific items in the budget • No diversion of women’s component funds (30% of the total) in different ministries and departments • Transparency about allocation and utilisation of funding • Right to information • Inclusion of gender economists in pre-budget workshops that should be held around October so that their suggestions can be included. • We must always remember that gender can be ‘mainstreamed’ only when the budgetary allocations are made for women’s projects, programmes and schemes.Movement building around Gender budgetingNAWO, Orissa took initiative in systematic advocacy for gender audit of the Orissa state budget andthe financial allocations and utilisations of the local self government bodies. For past 10 years severalWomen’s Studies Centres supported by UNIFEM have been doing gender audits of several schemes,programmes and sectoral budgets. Sangamma Srinivas Foundation works with women electedrepresentatives to prepare village, block, district level budgets and negotiate financial allocation withthe state government through budget advocacy among the government departments and ministries.Mahila Rajsatta Andolan (Women’s Political Movement), a state level network of women electedrepresentatives is lobbying for more financial allocation and quick implementation of schemes andprogrammes for women.Jan Swastya Abhiyan (Peoples Health Assembly) is fighting against privatisation of health care anddelivery system and making efforts to get financial allocation as per the UN directive to the nationstates that 6 % of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) must be allocated for health. Women’s groupsare advocating for 30% of health budget to be targeted to address women’s health needs. Centre forEnquiry into Health and Allied Themes (CEHAT) [20] and National Centre for Advocacy Studies(NCAS) [21] are organising training workshops on budget audit from social sector perspective. 18
  19. 19. ConclusionIncreasingly the realisation has come that without engendering, development is endangered.Gender audit of decentralisation of political governance has revealed that elected women in the localself-government bodies, legislative bodies and parliament have played a positive role in addressing, orattempting to address, a range of practical gender needs (inadequacies in living conditions such asprovision of fuel, water, healthcare and employment), their impact on strategic gender needs(affirmative action by the state, pro-active role of the employers to enhance women’s position in theeconomy and to execute measures to enhance women’s health status is not remarkable as they lackfinancial autonomy in governance. Hence, from womb to tomb, at every stage of life cycle, in theirown constituencies, the women’s health needs are neglected. [22]Key indicators to address women’s strategic gender needs are gender balance in decision makingbodies, in business and financial support, share of expenditure devoted to women specific units, cells,departments and projects, share of women in education, employment, health, housing, politicalparticipation and agenda setting power-blocks [23]. Promotion of social and gender perspectives inwomen’s health is a need an hour. [24]Reduction of financial allocation by the state for hospitalisation of the poor and introduction of userfee has been criticized severely as regressive and non-revenue generating as they entail highcollection and administrative costs and exclude the neediest and the poorest from accessing the healthcare service. The critique of health activists as well as development economists is summed up in thesewords “The argument that user fee enables the poor to demand good health care as an entitlement isalso not justified. Often those who are poor and ill are simply too weak to protest and demandaccountability from a corrupt system by paying a small token fee----The fear that free service s createa moral hazard problem with patients over-using the health services is not justified. The opportunitycost of visiting a clinic or health centre more often than necessary is simply too high for a poor personwho is bound to lose wages and also face dismissal.” [25]Due to lobbying by the health activists, the Report of the UN Secretary General has recommendedthat user fees for in the public health-care institutions must be abandoned. [26]Women’s groups have demanded that the gap between notional and actual allocation must be bridgedby coordination between financial allocation, schemes and programmes. Design of the schemesshould facilitate effective implementation. Budget for maternity benefits for poor women remainunutilised as there is no specific mention as to when a women is entitled to receive the amount, beforeor after the delivery. In several states, when a pregnant woman approaches the governmentdepartment, she is not given the amount as she is not supposed to have delivered a baby. If sheapproaches the department after the delivery, she is not given the amount and told, “You have alreadydelivered the baby. Why did not you approach us before the delivery?”There is a need to provide training and capacity building workshops on gender audits as a tool toevolve a gender-aware policy framework for decision-makers in the government structures, villagecouncils, legislative assembly, parliament, judiciary and legal system, educational institutions,corporate world, financial and funding institutions, local-national and international NGOs, humanrights organisations and audio-visual media. [27] Budgets garner resources through the taxation policies and allocate resources to differentsections of the economy. The Budget is an important tool in the hands of state for affirmative 19
  20. 20. action for improvement of gender relations through reduction of gender gap in thedevelopment process. It can help to reduce economic inequalities, between men and womenas well as between the rich and the poor Hence, the budgetary policies need to keep intoconsiderations the gender dynamics operating in the economy and in the civil society. Thereis a need to highlight participatory approaches to pro-poor budgeting, bottom up budget, childbudget, SC budget, ST budget, green budgeting, local and global implications of pro-poorand pro-women budgeting, alternative macro scenarios emerging out of alternative budgetsand inter-linkages between gender-sensitive budgeting and women’s empowerment. Seriousexamining of budgets calls for greater transparency at the level of international economics tolocal processes of empowerment.Gender Commitments must be translated into Budgetary Commitment. By using our Right toInformation (2005), transparency /accountability for revenue generation & public expenditure can beensured. For Reprioritisation in public spending in the direction of women’s health needs, we mustprepare our ‘bottom up budgets’ and lobby for its realisation in collaboration with the electedrepresentatives. [28] Gender economists must lift the veil of statistical invisibility of the unpaid ‘careeconomy’ managed by poor women and highlight equality & efficiency dimension and transformmacro-policies so that they don’t target poor women for ‘population’ control, but address themselvesto women’s overall health needs from womb to tomb. 20
  21. 21. i Strategic gender needs Strategic Gender Needs are different in different economic contexts and aredetermined by statutory provisions, affirmative action by the state, pro-active role of the employers toenhance women’s position in the economy and social movements. Practical gender needs Practical Gender Needs are identified keeping into consideration, gender basediidivision of labour or women’s subordinate position in the economy. They are a response to immediateperceived necessity, identified within a specific context. They are practical in nature and often are concernedwith inadequacies in living conditions such as provision of fuel, water, healthcare and employment. Fordetails see, Moser, 1993References:[1] Sen, Amartya Kumar Key note Address on ‘Transition to Sustainability in the 21st Century’ at the Inter-Academy Panel called Sustainability and Freedom on International Issues, Tokyo, 15th March, 2000.[2] Union Budget, Government of India, New Delhi, 2001-2, 2002-3, 2003-4, 2004-5, 2005-6.[3] Patel, V “Women and structural adjustment programme”, Development Studies Institute, The LondonSchool of economics and Political Science, London, 1992.[4] Baailancho Saad Report on HIV AIDS among women in Goa, 2005.[5] The Indian Express, Mumbai, 12-1-2005.[6] Patel, V “Gender and development debates- a case study of India, Samyukta, A Journal of women’sStudies, 2005 ; V(1): 11-46.[7] Bhattacharya, D Invisible Hands, Women Networking, Documentation, Research, Training Centre,Mumbai, 2004.[8] Lahiri, A, Chakraborty, L and Bhattacharya, P.N. 92002) Gender budgeting in India, The NationalInstitute for Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi, 2002.[9] Mishra, N. Poverty in South Asia, Delhi: Authors Press, 2001.[10] Banerjee, N. and Roy, P. What does the state do for Indian women? Economic and Political Weekly,Review of Women Studies, 2004, 39(44), October 30-November 5, pp.4831-4837[11] Swaminathan, P., Jeyaranjan, J., Sreenivasan, R., Jayashree, K. Tamilnadu’s midday meal scheme:where assumed benefit score over hard data, Economic and Political Weekly, Review of Women Studies,2004, 39 (44), October 30-November 5, pp. 4811-4822.[12] Bhat, A., Kolhar, S., Chellappa, A. and H. Anand Building budgets from Below, Economic bandPolitical Weekly, Review of Women Studies, 2004, 39 (44),October 30-November 5, pp. 4803-4810.[13] Kaushik, S. (2002), “Economic Empowerment of Women- Some Issues”, Urdhava Mula, Mumbai, 2002, 1 (1), pp.16-29.[14] Virmani, S Social mapping, modelling and other participatory methods, All India institute of Local SelfGovernment, Mumbai, 1999.[15] Verma, P. Stale Concept- Proposed Grain Bank Scheme, Not Any Different from the Pilot project”,Down To Earth, 2002, Vol.11, No. 12, p.13.[16] Bandopadhyaya, D. Panchayats in Karnataka, Economic and political Weekly, 2002, 37(35), August 31-September 6, pp.3572-3573.
  22. 22. [17] Sau, S. Decentralised financial and physical planning: a study across gram panchayats (village councils)and blocks in Midnapore district of West Bengal”, Department of Economics with Rural Development,Vidyasagar University, Midnapur, West Bengal, 2002.[18] Pal, M. Empowerment at Grassroots, Economic and Political Weekly, 37(38), September 21, pp.3923-3924.[19] UNDP Decentralisation in India- Challenges and Opportunities, United Nations DevelopmentProgramme, New Delhi. 2001.[20] CEHAT Understanding budgets and their use for advocacy to demand accountable governance, inpartnership with centre for Budget Studies, NCAS Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes,Mumbai, 2003.[21] National Centre for Advocacy Studies, Parliament Digest for the People, NCAS, Pune, 2003.[22] Pandey, D., Kanchi, A. and Akolkar, K.K. Gender audit of Maharashtra budget: an illustration ofcurrent methodology”, Economic and Political Weekly, Review of Women Studies, 2004, 39(44), October30-November 5, pp.4788-4791.[23] Patel, V “Gender Budget- A Case study of India”, Centre for Advanced Study in Economics, Universityof Mumbai, Working Paper UDE (CAS) 7(7)/2003.[24] Gupta, N Social and gender perspectives in women’s health, Health for the Millions, 27(3), May- June2001, pp.11-12.[25] Shivkumar, K Budgeting for health- some considerations, Economic and Political Weekly, Mumbai,April2-8 2005, XL(14), pp. 1391-1396.[26] UN Secretary General Investing in development-a practical plan to achieve the MillenniumDevelopment Goals, The UN, 2005.[27] Patel, V Women’s Challenges in the New Millennium, Delhi: Gyan Publications, 2002.[28] Patel, V. and Karne, M. The Macro Economic policies and The Millennium DevelopmentGoals, Gyan Publications, Delhi, 2006.

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