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Demographic shift of population of Mumbai 11 12 jan 2012

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Major demographic shifts have taken place in Mumbai in terms of work, sex ratio, CMR, MMR, HIV AIDS, in migration and out migration.

Major demographic shifts have taken place in Mumbai in terms of work, sex ratio, CMR, MMR, HIV AIDS, in migration and out migration.

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  • 1. Demographic Shift of Population of Mumbai presented at International Seminar on Mumbai fort-A Fountainhead of Development at Sophia College, Mumbai on 12-1-2013 Prof. Vibhuti Patel Head, Dept. of Economics SNDT Women’s University Mumbai-400020 Email: vibhuti.np@gmail.com 1
  • 2. Population• Growth of Mumbai: in 350 years• The following is a timeline of the growth of Mumbai’s population over the last four centuries• 1661: 10,000 inhabitants 1675: 60,000• 1864: 816,562 1872: 644,605• 1881: 773,196 1891: 821,764 1901: 812,912 (Greater Bombay)• 1911: 1,018,388 1921: 1,244,934 1931: 1,268,936• 1941: 1,686,127 1951: 2,966,902 1961: 4,152,056• 1971: 5,970,575 1981: 8,227,382• 1991: 9,900,000 + 2,600,000 (Thané) = 12,500,000 (Greater Bombay)• 2001: 11900000 (Mumbai city) and 16,368,084 (Greater Mumbai, incl. Thané)• 2011: 12,478,447 i.e. 1.24 crores (excluding Agglomeration) and Greater Mumbai:18,414,288 i.e. 1.84 crores 2
  • 3. Demographic Profile of Mumbai City• Over 12 million People staying in 437-460 sq. km.• Average density: 28000 per sq. km.• 66% of Mumbai region occupied by water• Northward movement of population in terms of housing• 55% slums on private land• Daily trips of local trains-70 lakhs per annum• Daily trips of Bombay Electricity and Suburban Transport buses- 52 lakhs per annum 3
  • 4. Demographic Profile of MumbaiSex Ratio (Per 1000) 2001 2011 838 777Child Sex Ratio (0-6 Age) 874 922Average Literacy 86.04 88.48Male Literacy 90.23 90.54Female Literacy 81.38 86.03Total Child Population (0-6 262,229 339,723Age)Male Population (0-6 Age) 139,906 176,789Female Population (0-6 Age) 122,323 162,934Proportion of Children (0-6 8.34% 10.18%Age)Proportion of Boys(0-6 Age) 8.17% 9.41%Proportion of Girls(0-6 Age) 8.53% 11.16% 4
  • 5. Mortality Rates• Mortality rates in Bombay have fallen dramatically since independence, although, even before, they were lower than the corresponding rates in villages.• The infant mortality rate in Mumbai has been static at 40 per 1000 births in the last six years while the maternal mortality rate has been on a rise.• increase in maternal mortality rate as the BMC registered 206 maternal mortality cases in 2010, compared to 149 the year before.• Source: Report of Executive Health Officer, BMC 5
  • 6. Table: 1 Overall Sex Ratio (Number of women per 1000 men) of Greater Mumbai Year Thane Mumbai Mumbai Suburban 1901 939 652 652 1911 947 570 570 1921 937 561 561 1931 935 592 592 1941 940 616 616 1951 920 712 574 1961 919 744 626 1971 894 769 670 1981 883 801 729 1991 879 831 791 2001 858 822 777 2011 880 857 838 6
  • 7. Migration• Immigration: Important role in growth & development of Mumbai• Total Migrants to Mumbai: 70% from Maharashtra• Rural origin of in-migration• Migration to Greater Mumbai urban agglomerate• Out-migration of youth: IT professionals, skilled workers• Problems in Mumbai: Transport, housing, water, work life balance 7
  • 8. Child Sex Ratio in Mumbai Metropolitan Region-2011Mumbai 874Mumbai Suburb 910Thane district 905Thane Rural 953Thane city 858Navi Mumbai 901Thane district 905 Source: Provision Population Totals, Census of India, Paper 2 Highlight: Locus of discriminatory abortions of female foetuses shifting to rural areas 8
  • 9. Chart 1 9
  • 10. Malnutrition in MumbaiStudy by Neeraj Hatekar et al (2003) based on survey of 1006 households in Matunga (E & W), Dadar, Mahim, Bandra, Mankhurd, Kurla, Vikhroli (E & W) and Ghatkopar on malnutrition among kutcha slums children in 0-5 age group revealed that the extent of malnutrition, stunting and related deaths is similar in the Mumbai slums and tribal villages of Jawahar Taluka as a result of poor coverage of public health and sanitation facilities. As a result continued bout diarrhea becomes a classic correlates of malnourished children in Mumbai. Overall, severe malnourishments were higher in Mumbai than in Jahwar. A possible connection between the characteristics of urban informal labour markets, especially among women, and the high incidence of malnutrition among children, is discussed. This article also contains a discussion on policy integration for minimizing the incidence of malnutrition in this population. 10
  • 11. AIDS• With 4.7% of AIDS cases in India from Mumbai, Mumbai is subject to 160% more AIDS than the average prevalence in India.• The number of new Aids cases reported annually in the city has dropped 88.64% in the last five years: down to 595 till October 2011 from 5,240 cases reported in 2007.• The numbers are likely to drop further with the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) available at more centres and drugs getting cheaper. 11
  • 12. Education Scenario in Mumbai• Universities in Mumbai : 12• CBSE affiliated schools in Mumbai : 36• ICSE affiliated schools in Mumbai : 58• BMED-run schools : 1191• Secondary/ Higher Secondary schools : 3075• Vocational Education and Training Institutes in Mumbai : 19• Junior colleges in Mumbai : 330• Engineering Colleges : 38• Architecture Colleges : 7• Pharmacy Colleges : 9Mumbai is an education hotspot & Research hub of 12
  • 13. Slum population• According to the results of Census of India, 2001, 48.88 of the population of Mumbai % and 38%of population of Thane lived in the slums of Mumbai. This is by far the largest slum population in any city of India. 72.48% of this slum population was literate.• This brings out pressing need for improving the affordable housing stock supply in most of the urban settlements of Mumbai Metropolitan Region.• According to World Bank, out of total households 13 of Mumbai, 52 % lived in slums & 37.5% in chowls.
  • 14. Employment Patterns• In 2001, out of total population of 178.46 lakhs in urban MMR, the total resident workers were 66.16 lakhs in the year 2001 i.e. 37.07%. In case of Greater Mumbai, share of total resident worker in its total population, which was 36.81% in the year 1971 has varied over the years namely, to 34.69% in 1981, 34.59% in 1991 and 38.00% in 2001.• As Bombay moves from a primarily manufacturing to a services based economy, jobs are slowly moving out of the congested Island city. 14
  • 15. Changing profile of Employment• a city which was defined by the textile industry was now welcoming new and different kind of economic activities-IT, tele-working, BPO, KPO, electronics, food processing, tourism related, hospitality industry,• Rise of workforce in service sector-domestic work• Child labour in local trains, bus stops, grocery shops, shoe-shine boys, newspaper vendors, rag pickers, hawkers, vendors, domestic workers, baby minders, coolies, helpers in shops, stigmatised slum-based labour markets,• Change in labour processes and labour relations• From factory based to home based work• Feminisation of work force 15
  • 16. Thank you 16

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