Biases against girl child  health & labour 18-1-04
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Biases against girl child health & labour 18-1-04

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Some one in the crowd of a hundred,...

Some one in the crowd of a hundred,
there is a battered girl
Someone in the crowd of a hundred
is a widely relishing boy
Even if you don't believe this theory
You are supposed to know,
Every second of an hour
A girl is battered sore.
Some girls in crowd of hundred
Are killed as soon as they are born
No one cares for their future
For their lives are only torn.
You might not believe me surely
You might as well be informed
A boy is given more importance
Than a girl when they are born.
One girl in crowd of a hundred
Is respected when she is at birth
You don't need to believe what I say
But you must surely be shown
How for a ninety nine girls
The future of one boy is glown
One girl in the crowd of a hundred
Is not a victim of this injustice
But all in the crowd of a hundred
The honour of girls in all ways dismiss.

By Lara Jesani

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Biases against girl child  health & labour 18-1-04 Biases against girl child health & labour 18-1-04 Presentation Transcript

  • Bias Against Girl Child Dr Vibhuti Patel, Reader, Centre for Wo men’s Studies , Department of Economics, Univesity of Mumbai, Kalina, Santacruz(E), Mumbai-400098. Phone-26527956,57,Ext.553, Resi-26770227 Fax- 26528198 E mail- [email_address] Member Secretary, Women Development Cell University of Mumbai
  • Girl Child- Lara Jesani Some one in the crowd of a hundred, there is a battered girl Someone in the crowd of a hundred is a widely relishing boy Even if you don't believe this theory You are supposed to know, Every second of an hour A girl is battered sore.  Some girls in crowd of hundred Are killed as soon as they are born No one cares for their future For their lives are only torn. You might not believe me surely You might as well be informed A boy is given more importance Than a girl when they are born. One girl in crowd of a hundred Is respected when she is at birth You don't need to believe what I say But you must surely be shown How for a ninety nine girls The future of one boy is glown  One girl in the crowd of a hundred Is not a victim of this injustice But all in the crowd of a hundred The honour of girls in all ways dismiss.
  • Statistical Profile of girl Children
    • According to SRS, in 1997, girls constituted 35.4 % of total female population i.e. our country has more than 1/3 of total female population in the age group of 0-14 years.
    • From 1951 to 2001, Life expectancy at birth for Indian girls has improved, both in terms of absolute years and in terms of percentages .
  • UNICEF Report, 2004 State of World Children 65 million girls are out of school globally. Nearly 1/10 of them are in India. Health challenges concerning a girl child cover mortality, morbidity, nutritional status and reproductive health and linked to these are environmental degradations, violence and occupational hazards, all of which have implications for her health status. It is intricately related to the socio-economic status of the households to which she belongs.
  • Intra-household Distribution of Care & Workload
      • There is data to show that in a situation of extreme food and scarcity, the adverse effect on the nutritional status of girls is greater than on boys. Girls in the 13 to 16 years of age group consume less food than boys.
      • However, in the intra-household distribution of labour, girls shoulder the major burden of economic, procreative and family responsibilities.
  • Competing Demands Due to the competing demands on their time and energy as well as their socialization, girls tend to neglect their health. The lesser access to food coupled with neglect invariably leads to a poor nutritional status and a state of ill health for most of the girls. Changing determinants in the survival struggles of girls have created an alarming situation .
  • Mortality Rate of Girl Children
    • NFHS, 2000 states Child mortality in the 0-4 age group is 43 per cent higher for females (at 42 per 1000) than for males (29 per 1000).
    • The 2004 UNICEF Report says that of the 12 million girls born in India every year, 3 million do not survive beyond the age of 15.
  • Teenage Pregnancy and Child-marriage
    • Many girl already in poor health, marry between the ages of 14 - 16. They bear children while still young and malnourished themselves. An upswing of female deaths in the age group 15-19 years indicates the high mortality rate of teenage mothers.
    • Nearly 45 % of Indian girls are married off before they attain majority. Child marriages and teenage pregnancy with and outside marriage are the major problems faced by girls in the developing world
  • Reasons for Death of Girls Pneumonia, Non Pregnancy Anaemia and Gastroenteritis take heavy toll of female infants in the age group of 0-4 years. While in 5-14 age group of girls, the death rate in percentage terms reduces drastically, still 9.5 % deaths due to Pneumonia and 15.8 % deaths due to Gastroenteritis demand immediate intervention.
  • Malnutrition Among Girls
    • Studies conducted in three metropolitan cities - Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras, indicate that a significantly higher proportion of girls compared to boys fall into grade II and III malnutrition.
    • The cumulative effect of poverty, under nourishment and neglect is reflected by their poor body size/ growth and narrow pelvis as they grow into adolescence, making child bearing a risk
  • Abortion Among Adolescent Girls
    • Adolescent girls account for more than their share of abortion related complications and deaths. Unwed pregnant girls (victims of rape, incest or seduction), turn to abortion, whether or not it is legal.
    • Faced with unintended pregnancy, they take desperate measure resulting into health risks of unsafe abortions such as sepsis caused by unsanitary instruments or incomplete abortion, haemorrhage, injuries to genital organs such as cervical laceration and uterine perforation and toxic reactions to chemicals or drugs used to induce abortion.
    [ii]
  • Education of Girl Children
    • Early child bearing in the rural and tribal areas has been responsible for high drop out rate among girls in the high schools.
    • Only 2 % of girls manage to reach institutions of higher learning .
    • SAP with its accent on privatisation of education has proved extremely detrimental for education of girl children.
  • IMPLICATIONS OF VIOLENCE AGAINST GIRLS:
    • Domestic violence in parental and matrimonial home, battering, physical tears, death due to bleeding, rape, sexual harassment at home, workplace and public places, eve teasing, kidnapping and abduction, prostitution mental health issues- autism, sexual assault, molestation, rape, child sexual abuse, nuisance calls cause psychological disturbances among girls and women throw major health burden on girls.
    • The trauma of sexual violence sparks off tension and anxiety at a dangerous level.
  • Mental Health Issues
    • Domestic violence in parental and matrimonial home, battering, physical tears, death due to bleeding, rape, sexual harassment at home, workplace and public places, eve teasing, kidnapping and abduction, prostitution, sexual assault, molestation, rape, child sexual abuse, nuisance calls cause psychological disturbances among girls and women and throw major health burden on girls.
    • The trauma of sexual violence sparks off tension and anxiety at a dangerous level.
  • Experiences of Women’s Groups
    • Women counsellors working with girls have conveyed that their mental health problems are manifested in anxiety, fear, avoidance, guilt, loss of efficiency, lack of coordination, depression, sexual dysfunction, substance abuse, relieving the traumatic incidents through memory, suicidal attempts, eating disorders, disturbed sleep patterns, fear of encountering such situation once again. It is found that girls who undergo extreme sexual violence experience a loss of self and self-esteem following the shock inflicted on them.
  • Crimes Against Girls
    • Incidents of child rape and abandonment have increased. Major problem in cases of crimes against girls is that of underreporting. Over and above Crimes Against Girl Child Punishable Under the Indian Penal Code (IPC), there are also special and local laws to prevent child labour, child marriage and immoral traffic prevention. Pre Natal Diagnostic Technique (PNDT) Act 1994 has not been able to reduce sex-selective abortion of female foetuses. In response to CEHAT petition in the Supreme Court of India, the central and State governments are activating state machinery to book culprits .
  • HIV, AIDS & STDs
    • STD pathogens can more easily penetrate the cervical mucus of girl than that of older women. The cervix of a girl is more susceptible to gonorrhoeal and chlamydeous infection as well as to the sexually transmitted human papilloma virus (HPV), which causes cervical cancer. They may be even more reluctant than adults to seek treatment for STDs . Also, they may not know that they have a disease.
    • They may be too embarrassed to go to a clinic, have no access to a clinic, or be unable to afford services. They are instead taken to unqualified traditional healers or obtain antibiotics from pharmacies or drug hawkers without proper diagnosis.
  • Girl Child Labourer
    • In 1986-87, 32.6 % of rural and 29.4 % of urban girls were never enrolled in schools due to paid and unpaid work they had to do in homes, fields, factories, plantations and in the informal sector.
    • The child labour policies, however, do not spell out anything specific to girl child workers. There is no implementation of prohibition of girls working in hazardous occupations as per Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986
  • Absence of Legal Safety Net
    • The child labour policies, however, do not spell out anything specific to girl child workers.
    • There is no implementation of prohibition of girls working in hazardous occupations as per Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986
  • Role of the UN System-ILO, UNICEF
    • International Labour Organisation
    • Standardisation of work hours
    • Child labour prevention
    • Occupational health and Safety
    • Compensation for displaced population
    • Girls in difficult circumstances
    • Sexual abuse of girls
  • Declaration of SAARC decade of Girl Child (1990-2000 A.D. )
    • Declaration of SAARC has highlighted 3 main areas for strategic intervention to improve quality of life for girls. They are :
    • survival and protection of the girl child and safe motherhood ,
    • overall development of the girl child and
    • special protection for vulnerable girl children in difficult circumstances and belonging to special groups.
  • Women’s Movement Demands Juvenile Justice (care and Protection of Children) Act -Integrated Child Development Scheme -Establishment of Childline Service, a 24 hour phone service for girl children on the streets for proper counselling and information about shelter homes, NGOs, hospitals. Special emphasis on girl’s education -National Commission for Children, special mandate for girls.
  • Current Concerns National Nutrition Mission to provide supplements to adolescent girls and expectant mothers -Special scheme to target quality of life of adolescent girls Policy on HIV/AIDS keeping pace with new forms of sexual exploitation of girls, child abuse, proliferation of drugs and trafficking of children .
  • Daughter is not for slaughter Let the girls bloom Thank You