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These are substances produced by
microorganisms, chemical synthesis, &
natural substance, which selectively suppress
th...
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Bacteriostatic agent:
inhibit the growth of bacteria..
Bacteriocidal agent:
directly kill bacteria…
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A) chemical structure
B) mechanism of action
C) type of organisms against which primarily
active
D) spectru...
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Sulfonamides and related drugs: sulfadiazine,
sulfones, dapsone
Diaminopyrimidines: trimethoprim,
pyrimethamin...
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Nitrobenzene derivatives :chloramphenicol
Aminoglycosides: streptomycin, gentamycin,
amikacin, neomyci...
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Nitroimidazoles: metronidazole, tinidazole
Nicotinic acid: isoniazid, pyrazinamide,
Polyene : nystatin, amphot...
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1) inhibit cell wall synthesis
2) cause leakage from cell membrane
3) inhibit protein synthesis
4) cause ...
1) antibacterial : penicillins ,
aminoglycosides,
Erythromycin
 2) Antifungal : griseofulvin, amphotericin b,
ketoconazol...
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A)Narrow spectrum: penicilline g,
streptomycin, erythromycin,
B)broad spectrum: tetracyclines,
chloramphenicol
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A) fungi: penicilline, cephalosporin ,
griseofulvin
B) bacteria: polymycin b
C) actinomycetes: macrolides, polyene...
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1) toxicity
A) local irritancy.
B) systemic toxicity
2) hypersensitivity reaction
3) drug resistance
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A) drug tolerant:
B) drug destroying
C) drug impermeable
D) cross resistance
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4) Super infection ( suprainfection)
5) nutritional deficiencies
6) masking of infection
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1) patient factors
Age
Renal and hepatic function
Local factors
Drug allergy
Impaired host defence
Preg...
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Clinical diagnosis itself directs choice of the
AMA
A good guess can be made
Choice to be based on bacteriological...
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Spectrum of activity
Type of activity
Sensitivity of the organism
Relative toxicity
Pharmacokinetics pr...
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To achived synergism:eg
Penicilline+ sulfonamide
Penicilline+ gentamycin
Steptomycin + tetracycline
Rifam...
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To broaden the spectrum of antimicrobial
action
Treatment of mixed infection
Initial treatment of severe infecti...
Thank

u
Anti microbial drugs
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Anti microbial drugs

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antibiotic policy

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Transcript of "Anti microbial drugs"

  1. 1.  These are substances produced by microorganisms, chemical synthesis, & natural substance, which selectively suppress the growth of or kill other microorganisms at low concentrations…..
  2. 2.     Bacteriostatic agent: inhibit the growth of bacteria.. Bacteriocidal agent: directly kill bacteria…
  3. 3.       A) chemical structure B) mechanism of action C) type of organisms against which primarily active D) spectrum of activity E) type of action F) antibiotic are obtained from…..
  4. 4.     Sulfonamides and related drugs: sulfadiazine, sulfones, dapsone Diaminopyrimidines: trimethoprim, pyrimethamine. Quinolones: nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin etc Beta lactam antibiotics: penicilline, cephalosporins
  5. 5.         Nitrobenzene derivatives :chloramphenicol Aminoglycosides: streptomycin, gentamycin, amikacin, neomycin. Macrolide: erythromycin clarithromycin, azithromycin. Lincosamine: lincosamycin; clindamycin Glycopeptide: venconamycin Oxazolidinone : linezolid Polypeptide:polymyxin b Nitrofuran : nitrofurantoin ,
  6. 6.      Nitroimidazoles: metronidazole, tinidazole Nicotinic acid: isoniazid, pyrazinamide, Polyene : nystatin, amphotericin –b Azole derivatives: Others: rifampin , cycloserin, ethambutol, etc
  7. 7.        1) inhibit cell wall synthesis 2) cause leakage from cell membrane 3) inhibit protein synthesis 4) cause misreading f m RNA code and affect permeability 5) inhibit DNA gyrase 6) interfere DNA fuction, syntesis 7) interfere in metabolism
  8. 8. 1) antibacterial : penicillins , aminoglycosides, Erythromycin  2) Antifungal : griseofulvin, amphotericin b, ketoconazole etc  3)Antiviral : acyclovir , zidovudine, amantadine.  4) antiprotozol : chloroquine, metronidazole….  5) anthelmintic: mebendazole 
  9. 9.   A)Narrow spectrum: penicilline g, streptomycin, erythromycin, B)broad spectrum: tetracyclines, chloramphenicol
  10. 10.    A) fungi: penicilline, cephalosporin , griseofulvin B) bacteria: polymycin b C) actinomycetes: macrolides, polyenes, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol…..
  11. 11.      1) toxicity A) local irritancy. B) systemic toxicity 2) hypersensitivity reaction 3) drug resistance
  12. 12.     A) drug tolerant: B) drug destroying C) drug impermeable D) cross resistance
  13. 13.    4) Super infection ( suprainfection) 5) nutritional deficiencies 6) masking of infection
  14. 14.         1) patient factors Age Renal and hepatic function Local factors Drug allergy Impaired host defence Pregnancy Genetic factors
  15. 15.    Clinical diagnosis itself directs choice of the AMA A good guess can be made Choice to be based on bacteriological examination
  16. 16.         Spectrum of activity Type of activity Sensitivity of the organism Relative toxicity Pharmacokinetics profile Route of administration Evidence of clinical efficacy cost
  17. 17.        To achived synergism:eg Penicilline+ sulfonamide Penicilline+ gentamycin Steptomycin + tetracycline Rifampin+ dapsone To reduced severity or incidence.: Amphotericin b+ rifampin…
  18. 18.     To broaden the spectrum of antimicrobial action Treatment of mixed infection Initial treatment of severe infection Topicallly
  19. 19. Thank u
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