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  1. 1. Philo 1 MIDTERM Stephanie F. Branzuela TF(7:30-9:00)AMPROF. FRANKLIN Q. CLITAR
  2. 2. Judgment..• The second act of the intellect by which it pronounces the agreement or disagreement between terms and ideas.• It is the act by which the intellect compares and expresses the objective identity or non- identity between ideas. Ideas in themselves are neither true nor false.
  3. 3. • Example : The term “ lady ” and the term “ beautiful ” are neither true nor false. But when the intellect compares these two terms and expresses whether they agree or disagree in a statement, then we can say whether the statement is true or false. Thus, the sentence “The lady is beautiful.” could now be said to be true or false. The intellect making judgment therefore either affirms or denies.
  4. 4. Proposition• external sign of judgment w/c express declarative sentence.• provides reason, explanation to support a judgment made expresses an idea, explanation feeling or emotion.• can be analyzed as either true or false• definition a statement which affirms or denies something about a reality or object.
  5. 5. Components of A Proposition1. Subject term- being talk about the predicate. a) Quantifier- words w/c determines the quantity.2. Copula- are expressed in the verb ‘to be’ - determines the quality.3. Predicate term- the one that describe the subject.
  6. 6. 2 kinds of Proposition• Affirmative Proposition- Expresses agreement between two terms• Negative Proposition- Expresses disagreement between two terms
  7. 7. Quality of the Proposition The quality of proposition is determined by the quality of the copulaAffirmative  whenever the predicate term accepts something of the subject term All roses are flowers.Negative  whenever the predicate term negates or denies something of the subject term A squash is not an eggplant.
  8. 8. A. Proposition in terms of Quality (Copula)1. Affirmative proposition that uses affirmative Copula2. Negative proposition that uses negative Copula B. Truth and Falsity (proposition in terms of Reality)1. True proposition- is the proposition that agree to the reality2. False proposition- is a proposition that disagree the reality
  9. 9. C. Proposition in terms of Quantity (Quantifier)1. Particular Proposition- is a proposition that uses particular subject term.Ex. Some, several, few and etc.• Several movie directors are passionate.2. Universal Proposition- is a proposition that uses singular, indefinite, collective and universal w/c focuses on subject term.Ex. This, that, all, every, each, any, group and no quantifier but it’s ends in ‘S’• All government officials are natural- born citizens.
  10. 10. Combination of a Quantity and Quality of Proposition1. Universal Affirmative Proposition- A” Proposition“2. Particular Affirmative Proposition- “I” Proposition3. Universal Negative Proposition- “E” Proposition4. Particular Negative Proposition- “O” Proposition
  11. 11. Proposition Quantity QualityA Universal or Affirmative SingularE Universal or Negative SingularI Particular AffirmativeO Particular Negative
  12. 12.  All affirmative propositions share theirextensions to the subject terms and by doing sothe predicate gives some of its parts to the subject subject is drawn to the extension of thepredicate In Negative propositions the subject isexcluded from the extension of the predicate No relationship exists b/w the subject and thepredicate
  13. 13. Special types of PropositionI. Categorical Proposition  a proposition whose Predicate is Directly attributed to the Subject.  Answerable by true or false and yes or no directly.  Predicate is always pointing our the subject directly.  proposition by which the affirmation or denial b/w two concepts is expressed in an Absolute, Immediate, Direct or Unconditional manner Ex. Mangyans are the minorities from Mindoro.
  14. 14. Kinds of CategoricalA. Single Categorical Proposition- a proposition having 1S and 1P, whose P is directly attributed to the S.Ex. Rema is pretty. 2 types of Single Categorical Propositiona) Simple Proposition- is a proposition w/a 1S,1P and has NO MODIFICATION to the S,P and to the C.Ex. She is simple.b) Composite Proposition- is a proposition w/a 1S,1P and has a MODIFICATIONS to the S,P,C and to the S and P.Ex. The boy at the back is late.(S is modified) The boy is 15 mins. Late.(P is modified) The boy must be late.(C is modified)
  15. 15. 2 types of Compositea. Complex- Subject, Predicate, subject and predicate are modified.b. Modal- Copula is modified.Modal Proposition- is a proposition whose Copula is modified in order to show the MANNER or MODE how the Predicate belong to the Subject.
  16. 16. Kinds of Modal1. Necessary Modal- a proposition whose copula is modified in order to show that the P MUST BELONG or (necessarily belong) to the S.FORMULA: MUST BEEx. A circle must be round.2. Impossible Modal- a proposition whose copula is modified in order to show that the P CANNOT/DOES NOT belong to the S.FORMULA: CANNOT BEEx. A square cannot be round.
  17. 17. 3. Possible Modal- a proposition whose copula is modified in order to show that the P CAN BELONG/MIGHT to the S.FORMULA: CAN BE/MIGHT BEEx. I might be shopping tomorrow4. Contingent Modal- is a proposition whose copula is modified in order to show that the P NEED NOT BELONG to the S.FORMULA: NEED NOT BE/LONG
  18. 18. B. Multiple Categorical Proposition- a proposition w/c is a combination of two or more proposition uses 1S,2P,2S,1P,2S,2P,2S,3P,3S,2P,3S,3P and etc.Ex. Argene is handsome and smart.o Argene is handsome.o Argene is smart.
  19. 19. Kinds of multiple proposition1. overtly multiple- plainly multiple(obviously)2. covertly multiple- it appears to be single but actually multiple. • Copulative- is a proposition that has 2 or more SUBJECT/ PREDICATE combined into 1. It uses conjunction such as AND. E.g. mira and steph are dancer and singer. Mira is dancer. Mira is singer. Steph is dancer. Steph is singer.
  20. 20. • Adversative-combination of 2 proposition that are opposed to each other, with the conjunction; BUT, YET, ALTHOUG, EVEN THOUGH. E.g.• We bathed the dog, but we couldn’t get him clean.• You see yet do not hear.• This technology, although not a foolproof way to monitor abusers, might give victims advance warning that danger is approaching.• Even though she is ignorant but she is fine.
  21. 21. • Relative- 2 proposition that is combines, where the predicate have relation in terms of times and places; WHILE, AFTER, BEFORE.e.g. Before you go, turn of the light. She is watching while eating. After the class, I play volleyball.
  22. 22. • Causal- combination of 2 proposition of it is cause/reason for the other. BECAUSE, FOR e.g. You got 5 because you didn’t take your examination test.• Comparative- combination of 2 proposition expresses degree of comparison. • (GREATER, MORE THAN) E.g. Zerods is more smarter Than Earl.