Culture (Latin: cultura, lit. "cultivation") is a term thathas many different inter-related meanings. However,the word "culture" is most commonly used in threebasic senses: Excellence of taste in the fine arts and humanities, also known as high culture An integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization, or group
Based on global research, GeertHofstede ‘measures’ country /organization culture on 5 culturaldimensions Power Distance Index (PDI) Professor Geert Hofstede conducted one of the most comprehensive studies of how values in the workplace are influenced by Individualism (IDV) culture. He analyzed a large data base of employee values scores collected by IBM between Masculinity (MAS) 1967 and 1973 covering more than 70 countries, from which he first used the 40 largest only and afterwards extended the analysis to 50 countries and 3 regions. Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) He scored each country using a scale of roughly 0 to 100 for each dimension. The higher the score, the more that dimension Long-term Orientation (LTO) is exhibited in society.
This refers to the degree of inequality that exists – and isaccepted – among people with and without power.A high PD score indicates that society accepts an unequaldistribution of power and people understand "their place" inthe system.Low PD means that power is shared and well dispersed. It alsomeans that society members view themselves as equals.
This refers to the strength of the ties people have to others within thecommunity.A high IDV score indicates a loose connection with people. In countries with ahigh IDV score there is a lack of interpersonal connection and little sharing ofresponsibility, beyond family and perhaps a few close friends.A society with a low IDV score would have strong group cohesion, and therewould be a large amount of loyalty and respect for members of the group.The group itself is also larger and people take more responsibility for eachothers well being
This refers to how much a society sticks with, and values,traditional male and female roles.High MAS scores are found in countries where men areexpected to be tough, to be the provider, to be assertive and tobe strong. If women work outside the home, they have separateprofessions from men.Low MAS scores do not reverse the gender roles. In a low MASsociety, the roles are simply blurred. You see women and menworking together equally across many professions. Men areallowed to be sensitive and women can work hard forprofessional success.
This relates to the degree of anxiety society members feel whenin uncertain or unknown situations.High UAI-scoring nations try to avoid ambiguous situationswhenever possible. They are governed by rules and order andthey seek a collective "truth".Low UAI scores indicate the society enjoys novel events andvalues differences. There are very few rules and people areencouraged to discover their own truth.
This refers to how much society values long-standing – asopposed to short term – traditions and values.In countries with a high LTO score, delivering on socialobligations and avoiding "loss of face" are considered veryimportant.
Dimension More Aligned Canada IndiaPower Distance Index (PDI) Low Low HighIndividualism (IDV) Low and High High LowMasculinity (MAS) High Medium MediumUncertainty Avoidance (UAI) Low Low LowLong-term Orientation (LTO) N/A Low High Social, Team-Building Events Cross Location Travel Involve as many people as possible in decision making
Dimension Ideal Canada IndiaPower Distance Index (PDI) Low Low HighIndividualism (IDV) Low High LowMasculinity (MAS) Low Medium MediumUncertainty Avoidance (UAI) Low Low LowLong-term Orientation (LTO) High Low High Acknowledge accomplishments (IDV) Encourage debate and expression of own ideas (IDV) Emphasize the long-term benefits (LTO) Emphasis on communication
Dimension Ideal Canada IndiaPower Distance Index (PDI) Low Low HighIndividualism (IDV) N/A High LowMasculinity (MAS) N/A Medium MediumUncertainty Avoidance (UAI) Low Low LowLong-term Orientation (LTO) High Low High Follow the process Emphasize the long-term benefits (LTO)
Dimension Ideal Canada IndiaPower Distance Index (PDI) N/A Low HighIndividualism (IDV) N/A High LowMasculinity (MAS) N/A Medium MediumUncertainty Avoidance (UAI) Low Low LowLong-term Orientation (LTO) Low Low High Emphasize the long-term benefits (LTO)