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  • 1. 2013 Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, Inc. 43rd Annual Legislative Conference” INSPIRING LEADERS/BUILDING GENERATIONS New Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC September 20, 2013 RON E. ARMSTEAD, MCP, LSW EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR CONGRESSIONAL BLACK CAUCUS VETERANS BRAINTRUST “ 2 5 TH S I L V E R A N N I V E R S A R Y O F T H E VETERANS BRAINTRUST”
  • 2. Dr. Ralph J. Bunche, the United Nations Undersecretary and Chief Mediator in Palestine, negotiated the first Arab-Israeli truce in 1948. In recognition of his efforts to bring peace in the Middle East, in 1950, he became the first Africn American to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. He died in 1971 at age 67 . Dr. Ralph J. Bunche, United Nations Undersecretary
  • 3. The World Veterans Federation (WVF)
  • 4. The World Veterans Federation (WVF) World Veterans Federation Credo “None can speak more eloquently for peace than those who have fought in war. The voices of war veterans are a reflection of the longing for peace of people the world over, who within a generation have twice suffered the unspeakable catastrophe of world war. Humanity has earned the right to peace. Without it, there can be no hope for the future. And without hope, man is lost. The voice of the people must be heeded they aspire to a richer life in freedom, equality and dignity, as in things material; they pray for peace. Their will for peace and a better life can be, must be, crystalized into an irresistible force against war, aggression and degradation. The people have had to work and sacrifice for wars. They will work more willingly for peace. Let there be a dedicated effort, a greater crusade than history has ever known, for a world of peace, freedom and equality.” Ralph Bunche Nobel Peace Prize, 1950
  • 5. African History
  • 6. Abu Abdullah Muhammad XII was the last Moorish King of Granada, Spain, 1492  On January 2, 1492, as Muhammad XII left the city of Granada with his wife Moraima, the rest of his family and retainers, he paused to look back at the Alhambra Palace, which his ancestors built two hundred and fifty years before, and the whole of Granada. "Allahu akbar!" he said, "God is most great," and burst into tears. His mother Fatima chided him: "You do well to weep like a woman, for what you could not defend like a man." The spot where Muhammad XII took his farewell bears the name el ultimo sospiro del Moro" which translates as "the last sigh of the Moor." The family retired to an estate in the Alpujarras Mountains. Moraima died soon afterward, and was buried in Monjudar. In the autumn of 1492, Muhammad XII crossed over to Morocco. He never returned to Spain.
  • 7. The Berlin Conference on Partition of Africa, 1884
  • 8. The Battle of Adwa (March 1, 1896)  Emperor Menelik II
  • 9. Menilik II Square Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  In Menelik II Square stands the imposing equestrian statue of Emperor Menelik II, the victor of Adowa. The statue was erected by Emperor Haile Selassie and dedicated on the day before his coronation in 1930, in memory of his great predecessor.
  • 10. Tirailleurs Senegalais, World War I  Tirailleurs Senegalais in World War I France
  • 11. Senegalese Tirailleurs Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  The Senegalese Tirailleurs were a corps of colonial infantry in the French Army recruited from Senegal, French West Africa and throughout west, central, and east Africa, the main province of the French colonial empire.  The first Senegalese Tirailleurs were formed in 1857, and served France in a number of wars, including World War I (providing approximately 200,000 troops, more than 135,000 of whom fought in Europe, and 30,000 of whom were killed), and World War II.  Other tirailleur regiments were raised in French North Africa from the Arab and Berber populations of Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, they were called Tirailleurs algeriens or Turcos. Tirailleur regiments were also raised in Indochina, they were called Vietnamese, Tonkinese or Annamites Tirailleurs.
  • 12. The Sinking of the SS Mendi, 1917  The story of the South African Native Labour Corps (SANLC), particularly the sinking of the Mendi troopship, is one of the most fascinating stories ever related in South Africa‟s military history.
  • 13. German East Africa   Historical map with “Kilima-Ndscharo” in German East Africa, 1888 Map of German Possessions in Colonial Africa, German East Africa highlighted in 1913 Note: The Limits of the areas of control may not be perfectly accurate due to the imprecision of the reference maps.
  • 14. German East Africa, World War I  Gen. Paul von Letton-Vorbeck‟s surrendering his forces to the British at Abercon (present-day Mbala) in Northern Rhodesia, November 1918 Author: Anonymous African Artist Source: National Museum of Tanzania From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • 15. South African writer Hamilton Wende has argued that the experience gained by black Africans who fought in the East Africa Campaign was one source of inspiration for the liberation movements that emerged in South Africa in the decades following World War I as “white and black screamed and died together in the simple equality of human suffering.” Hamilton Wende, South African Writer, Freelance Journalist and Television Producer
  • 16. First Pan African Congress, 1919  The Pan-African Congress was a series of seven meetings held in 1919 in Paris, 1921 in London, 1923 in London, 1927 New York, 1945 Manchester, 1974 Dar es Salaam and 1994 Kampala, following the Pan-African Conference of 1900 that were intended to address the issues facing Africa due to the European colonization of most of the continent.  In 1919, the first Pan-African Congress was organized by W. E. B. Du Bois. There were 57 delegates representing 15 countries, a smaller number than originally intended because British and American governments refused to issue passports for their citizens who planned on attending.
  • 17. Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia  Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia died in 1975 at the age of 83. During his reign, Selassie‟s main ambition included the modernization of Ethiopia, international recognition for his nation, the abolishment of slavery, expanded education and the elimination of foreign intervention.  In 1936, a year after Italy invaded Ethiopia, Selassie was forced to flee his county. He remained a strong symbol for many Blacks worldwide who saw the struggle of Ethiopia as one of their own.  He returned to organize a resistance movement in Ethiopia which was finally liberated in May of 1941.  However, despite his many progresses, Selassie‟s failure at class and land ownership reform eventually led to a coup thus putting a close to the 3,000 year old Makkeda-Solomonic Dynasty.
  • 18. Ethiopian Patriots Association, Addis Ababa  Medals left to right: Patriots Medal with 1 palm (awarded to those fighting in Ethiopia) Refugees Medal with 4 palms (awarded to Ethiopians helping from outside the country) Star of Victory Medal, 1941 (awarded to all combatants) Each palm represents one year of service.
  • 19. Ethiopian Patriots Association, Addis Ababa  Patriots attending the funeral of a fellow soldier, Addis Ababa 2007 Both Photos: Andrew Chadwick
  • 20. The Lion of Judah, La‟gare Square & Yekatit 12 Square Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  This bronze statue of the Lion of Juda is a tribute by Haile Selassie to all Ethiopian Patriots. Taken to Rome along with the Axum Obelisk, it was returned to Ethiopia in 1967 and placed at its original site in front of the La'gare Square  Located at the Yekatit 12 Square, this monument honors victims of a brutal Italian reprisal following an attempt to kill the then Italian Viceroy Rodolfo Graziani on 19 February 1937, or Yekatit 12 in the Ethiopian calendar.
  • 21. The Black Eagle of Harlem & The Brown Condor  Colonel Hubert Fauntleroy Julian with his Packard Bellanca, "The Abyssinia" in 1931. Julian was at the time the holder of the World's Non-Refueling Endurance Record for a flight lasting 84 HRS. and 33 MINS. Colonel Hubert Fauntleroy Julian, the Black Eagle of Harlem is another little known figure in Ethiopian and American history. Hubert Fauntleroy Julian died in the borough of the Bronx, New York City, in February 1983. His passing went largely unnoticed.  Col. John C. Robinson, later known as the Brown Condor returning home in 1936  Colonel John Robinson (the Black Condor [sometimes called the Brown Condor]), helped in establishing the nascent Ethiopian air force. Colonel Robinson commanded The Ethiopian Air Force and actively participated in reconnaissance mission for the Ethiopian Army during the Italian invasion in 1935.
  • 22. Casablanca Conference 1943, Morocco  On January 24, 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill concluded the Casablanca Conference at the Anfa Hotel. There they planned the European strategy of the allies during World War II.
  • 23. Allied Landing in Southern France on August 15, 1944, also known as the „Forgotten D-Day‟  A sculpture at the harbour promenade commemorates the landing of Allied Troops August 15, 1944, in Sainte-Maxime, Departement Var, at the Cote d‟ Azur, Provence, Southern France  August 15th marks the anniversary of Operation Dragoon and the Southern France Campaign, 15 August – 14 September 1944, in Arlington National Cemetery
  • 24. World War I Exhibit examines role of Asian, African Troops ”Man, Culture and War,” an exhibit at Brussells‟ BELvue Museum, seeks to set the record straight about the contribution of colonial troops during the 1914-1918 conflict that became known as the Great War        This is one of the pictures displayed at the temporary exhibition “Man, Culture and War” at the Belgian BELvue Museum. The exhibition shows the contributions of colonial troops from various ethnic groups, nationalities and cultures during World War I. (Photo courtesy of BELvue Museum) Bay State Banner, November 13, 2008 – Vol. 44, No. 13   Brussels, Belgium – After the guns of World War I fell silent, a young Vietnamese kitchen worker petitioned the leaders of the victorious Allied powers at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference to support independence for his country. The appeal went unheeded, and Ho Chi Minh ended up leading the movement that decades later liberated Vietnam from French colonial rule. More than 1 million soldiers from Europe‟s African and Asian colonies answered the call to arms, yet they were largely forgotten afterward, and promises of freedom were not fulfilled. The betrayal laid the foundations of the independence movements that ultimately brought an end to the colonial empires. The colonials fought alongside France, British, the US, Belgium, Canada, Australia and others on the Western Front. They accounted for more than 100,000 of the almost 4 million killed on that front, but their sacrifice was long overlooked by the history books and the governments that sent them into battle. The soldiers – all volunteers, since there was no conscription in the colonieswere lured in part by promises of greater freedom for their homelands in Africa, Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. But after returning home they saw the promises being broken, and the resentment fed their liberation movements. The French armed 140 battalions from West Africa and Madagascar and sent them into the carnage of trench warfare. Whole divisions of North Africans – mainly Moroccan, Algerians and Tunisians – also took part in the fighting. More than 35,000 were killed. Germany used local troops in its African colonies, and France and Britain again mobilized colonial troops in World War II. The exhibit also details the discrimination the colonials soldiers suffered. For example: Solomon Plaatje, a South African writer, witnessed the treatment of his fellow blacks in the ranks, tried unsuccessfully to address the Versailles Peace Conference, and later became one of the founders of the African National Congress (ANC), ending apartheid in the 1990s. (Associated Press)
  • 25. POST WORLD WAR I French IndoChina, 1913 Ho Chi Minh addresses French Communist, 1920
  • 26. Solomon „Sol‟ Plaatje was the first black South African to write a novel in english „Mhud,‟ in 1919, only to be published in 1930. He is also viewed as the founding father of black literature in South Africa. Plaatje was also a founding member and the first Secretary General of the then South African Native National Congress (SANNC), at its foundation in 1912, which later became the African National Congress (ANC). As a member of SANNC he would travel to England to protest the Native Land Act, 1913, and later to Canada, and the United States where he met Marcus Garvey and W.E.B. DuBois. Solomon T. Plaatje, a South African Intellectual, Journalist, Linguist, Po litician, Translator and Writer
  • 27. In Pictures: Africa‟s World War II Veterans UNTOLD STORY The African soldiers who fought for the British Empire in World War II are remembered in an exhibition at the Imperial War Museum North in Manchester, UK . “This is the untold story of the forgotten heroes of the Commonwealth,” says Zimbabwean artist Raphael Chikukwa, the curator of the exhibition. Chikukwa was prompted to put on the exhibition after seeing an earlier exhibition on the war, which he found lacking “Africans were not being represented for their contribution to the mother empire,” he says. (BBC NEWS) Raphael Chikukwa, Zimbabwean Artist and Curator Photo by: Andrew Chirenje
  • 28. Africa‟s Forgotten Soldiers of World War II
  • 29. Mural commemorating the Thiaroye Massacre, Dakar, Senegal, 1944
  • 30. Graves of the Thiaroye 44; site of the Thiaroye 44 Massacre
  • 31. Thiaroye Massacre, 1944 ISS World History Forum: 10th Grade: Student Blog  Thiaroye is a name of a historical town in Senegal. It is found in the suburbs of Dakar, on the southeast coast of the Cap Vert peninsula between Pikine and Rufisque. The village of Thiaroye was founded around 1800, and as the city of Dakar, which was a city created by the french, expanded in territory during the 20th century, Thiaroye was slowly merged into the larger city. Thiaroye is most known for the Thiaroye Massacre, a massacre which happened in 1944. The Thiaroye Massacre was a mass killing of French West African troops - Tirailleurs Senegalasi- by French forces around December 1944.  The Tirailleurs Senegalais were a West African Colonial Army troop who fought for the French during World War I, World War II and in other smaller battles and operations. Even though these troops were named after “The Tirailleurs Senegalais” the soldiers were not only recruited, or forced in Senegal but also through out the French part of West Africa. In 1857 The Tirailleurs Senegalais were the permanent unit of black African soldiers under the French rule. Throughout 1857-1905 the French used the Tirailleurs Senegalais for fighting resistance forces and defending the French territories in Africa. With the start of World War I in the summer of 1914 many Tirailleurs Senegalais soldiers were brought to France and helped the French in some important battles. There was 170,891 Tirailleurs Senegalais soldiers fighting during World War I and by 1918 once the war had ended 30,000 of them had been killed.  During World War II ,which started in 1939, France once again decided to use the Tirailleurs Senegalais troops. By the 1940‟s 9 % of the French army was made up of African Troops. This time they used 200,000 Tirailleurs Senegalais soldiers and by 1945 (end of World War II) 25,000 of them had been killed while in battle. Many of these African men had been taken into German labor camps and some which had been taken as prisoners during the war were murdered by the Wehrmacht in 1940. In World War I the Tirailleurs Senegalais soldiers were not really integrated into the French military units but during World War II with changes made they suddenly were, but then when Charles de Gaulle, the French president at that time, saw that France was very close to victory, he ordered a “whitening” of the troops by replacing 20,000 Africans which were at battle at the front with white French soldiers. This event caused hatred and dislike between the white and the blacks at war. Once the French had gained there liberation, the Tirailleurs Senegalais troops were grouped in French centers waiting to go back home. While at the centers these African soldiers faced discriminatory treatment. They barely got food and resources they needed and basically did not have any kind of shelter. In December 1944, humiliated and without having been given what they were promised, the soldiers protested for the back pay that they were entitled to. The protest was seen as a defiance against the French military and the general in charge with the help of the gendarme (Military Police) ordered the "white" French military to open fire, which resulted in 35 Africans killed, hundreds wounded and many sent to jail. The French government has decided to forget this part of history and in no school books or history lessons is there the mention of the Tirailleurs Senegalais, who where very much part of the French liberation. There is neither a festive day to commemorate these heroes or any monument to remotely remember them in the French capital. It is like they never existed but in reality they where as much present as any other French solider and suffered as much if not even more. This part of French racism has been forgotten and it is about time that we show are respect and appreciation towards these fallen heroes. Pacome Schembri Sant, Graduate
  • 32. The Christiansborg Crossroad Shooting 1948 Accra, Ghana  On 28th February 1948 veterans of World War II, who had fought with the Gold Coast Regiment of the Royal West African Frontier Force, organized a peaceful demonstration marching to Christiansborg Castle, Accra, Gold Coast (Ghana), to hand in a petition to the colonial governor, demanding that they receive end of war benefits and pay which they had been promised.
  • 33. The Mali President welcomed the pensions news as a “historic decision” The French President told leaders of 12 former colonies, “There are debts which are never extinguished. It was time to recognize that.” Hundreds of thousands of Africans served France in two World Wars and the Algerian war of independence. Tens of thousands are still alive… France had previously resisted paying the same pension to veterans of its armed forces who did not live in French territory, though many are in countries that were French colonies at the time of their service. Recently, the French Constitutional Council decided that the long-established practice of paying veterans from former colonies between one-tenth and one-fifth of the benefits given to French soldiers was illegal. African veterans, who also fought in the Indochina wars of 1945-1954, saw their pensions frozen at the end of the 1950s. (BBC NEWS EUROPE) July 13, 2010 French President Nicolas Sarkozy and Mali President Amadou Toumani Toure
  • 34. Ethiopian Kagnew Battalion Korean War Memorial, Addis Ababa  Author: US Army Africa From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository  Ethiopian veterans Kagnew Battalion who served alongside US soldiers during the Korean War
  • 35. Ethiopian Memorial in the Republic of Korea  The monument in this picture was built on May 7, 1968, on the initiative of the United Nation Association of the Republic of Korea and the citizens of Chunchon to commemorate participation and fighting of the Ethiopian forces for freedom on behalf of a people they never knew before, not even their countries had any known inter-state relations. The ROK Association of reservists and the Korean Finance group donated the cost for construction.  On May 19, 1968, during his visit to South Korea Emperor Haile Selassie inaugurated the monument.
  • 36. Battle of Dien Bien Phu, 1954 The French Indochina War, 1947 – 1954 Source: http://www.blackpast.org/?q=gah/tirailleurs-senegalais-indochina-war-1947-1954   The French began recruiting Senegalese soldiers in 1947, as the war began. The first soldiers arrived in Indochina in April 1947.  The demand for Senegalese soldiers kept growing; there were 14,500 mobilized in 1951, and when the French were finally defeated in 1954, there were 19,570.  More than a thousand were captured by the Vietminh. They were the most exploited prisoners, and given the harshest labor. In 1954, approximately 800 of them were released. It was estimated that about 5,500 Tirailleurs Senegalais had been killed, died, disappeared, or had deserted during the French Indochina War.  End of the French Indochina War The French Indochina War pitted the French Colonial Government against the Vietminh, the communist Vietnamese devoted to national liberation.   Tirailleurs Senegalais in the French Indochina War The last Tirailleurs Senegalais left Vietnam with the French troops in September 1956.  Sources: Eugene-Jean Duval, L’epopee des Tirailleurs Senegalais (Paris: L‟Harmattan, 2005); Martin Windrow, The Last Valley: Dien Bien Phu and the French Defeat in Vietnam (Cambridge, MA: De Capo Press, 2004)
  • 37. Mt. Kenya Flag  Summary 1.) Green -Land. 2.) White-Peace. 3.) Black-The People. 4.) Shield -Defense. 5.) Mountain-1st peak Aberdares 2nd peak Mt Kenya. 6.) Valley under the shield-Laikipia and Nakuru Districts(diaspora districts). 7.) Red-The blood Shed(Before and after independence) and the Blood covering of Jesus(97% of kikuyu's are Christians).
  • 38. Kenya Mau Mau War Veterans Association  A team of 22 Mau Mau Veterans traveled to the United Kingdom (UK) to issue a claim for compensation for torture against the British Government. On Sunday morning 21st June, 2009 the team attended a church service at CCBC Swahili Service in Barking where they addressed the congregation and later in the afternoon they visited the popular Kenyan joint - Thatched House where they were happy to meet Kenyans while eating Nyama choma and Ugali. On Tuesday 23rd June, 2009 the team held a a press conference at The Law Society, The Law Society's Hall, 113 Chancery Lane, London WC2A 1PL, London/Chancery Lane) at 11am. Thereafter at 2 p.m. the team lawyers, Leigh Day & Co issued a claim for compensation for torture against the British Government on behalf of 22 Kenyans. The claims was formally issued at the Royal Courts of Justice on the Strand, Strand, London, WC2A 2LL. The team was helped to come to the UK by Kenya Human Rights Commission. The claimants are now in their 70s and 80s and have travelled to London from rural Kenya in order to issue the claims in person.  Above all the claimants are seeking an official apology for the torture they were subjected to. The Mau Mau Veterans team include their spokesman Mr. Gitu wa Kahengeri, Mrs. Jane Muthoni Mara, Susan Ciongombe Ngondi, Wambugu Nyingi, Paul Muoka Nzili, Mucheke M'Mucheke Kioru, M'Njau Ndei, Espon Makangaa (Western), Njeru Mugo, Ndiku Mutwiwa, Stephen Kipkering Sugut (Rift Valley), Nyambane Gekonde, Emmanuel Musakari, Habil Omolo (Kisumu), Mburu Ngugi, Joseph Mwarandu (Coast) and Leonard Murithi M'Imanyara (Meru). The Kenya Human Rights Commission team include Muthoni Wanyeki, Goerge Morara, Olga Mutoro, Davinder Lamba, John Nottingham, Zahid Rajan, Anne Kariithi and Paul Muite. They were in the UK for a whole week.
  • 39. African National Congress Flag (ANC)
  • 40. Spear of the Nation, South Africa  This is the logo of Umkhonto we Sizwe ("Spear of the Nation"), the armed resistance movement of the African National Congress (also known as MK) which Mandela and others launched on December 16, 1961.
  • 41. Robben Island Museum & World Heritage Site Cape Town, SA  “Today when I look at Robben Island, I see it as a celebration of the struggle and a symbol of the finest qualities of the human spirit, rather than as a monument to the brutal tyranny and oppression of apartheid. It is true that Robben Island was once a place of darkness, but out of that darkness has come a wonderful brightness, a light so powerful that it could not be hidden behind prison walls… ' Nelson Mandela  Nelson Mandela spent more than 25 years imprisoned on Robben Island
  • 42. Members of Umkhonoto We Sizwe Military Veterans Association (MKMVA)  Members of the Umkhonto We Sizwe Military Veterans Association (MKMVA) salute in front of posters of former presidents of the African National Congress (ANC), Nelson Mandela (L) and Thabo Mbeki, during the ANC's centenary celebration in Bloemfontein January 8, 2012. South Africa's ruling ANC celebrated its 100th birthday on Sunday. The long-banned liberation movement took power in 1994 after Nelson Mandela negotiated an end to apartheid with the white-minority government. Capitalising on its role as the standard bearer in the fight against apartheid, the party has dominated politics since then, but bitter faction-fighting and accusations of rampant corruption have raised questions about how long it will continue to lead Africa's biggest economy.
  • 43. Sharpeville Massacre, March 21, 1960  The Sharpeville massacre of March 21, 1960 was a decisive turning point in South Africa‟s history. It marked the climax of a decade mounting, nonviolent resistance to apartheid centered among black majority of the country‟s inhabitants. Six-nine antipass demonstrators were killed on that day, mainly shot in the back, and 186 were injured.  It also signaled the opening of a much more brutal and intensive phase of state repression – the state introduced a battery of draconian measures: The African National Congress (ANC) and Pan African Congress (PAC) were banned, a national state of emergency was declared, security laws and institutions were extended and reinforced.  The ANC and PAC at first called for mass action, later they went underground, and finally launched armed wings (Umkhonto we Sizwe, or MK, and POQO) or various forms of armed resistance.
  • 44. The Soweto Uprising, June 16, 1976    Iconic photo by Sam Nzima of Hector Pieterson. Pieterson, 12, was shot and killed by police in the Soweto uprising on June 16, 1976. The image was published around the world and became an icon of the anti-apartheid movement. In Soweto, South Africa, on June 16, 1976, about ten thousand black school children marched in a column more than half a mile long, protesting the poor quality of their education and demanding their right to be taught in their own language. Hundreds of young students were shot, the most famous of which being Hector Peterson (see image). More than a hundred people were killed in the protests of the following two weeks, and more than a thousand were injured. The International Day of the African Child has been celebrated on June 16 every year since 1991, when it was first initiated by the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). It honors those who participated in the Soweto Uprising in 1976 on that day. It also raises awareness of the continuing need for improvement of the education provided to African children.
  • 45. Eduardo Chivambo Mondlane Monument, Father of Mozambique‟s Independence
  • 46. Joao Cizaverinha‟s Mural of the History of Mozambique by Hero Square & the National Heroes Monument in Heroes Square where the bodies of Samora Machel, Eduardo Mondlane and other Mozambique Freedom Fighters are buried  by Michael Cookson
  • 47. National Heroes Acre Harare, Zimbabwe  The Zimbabwean heroes acres with the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in the foreground, the eternal fire tower in the background and elaborate stone work deco derived from the chevron pattern of the Great Zimbabwe archaeological site. (Picture by Author ….
  • 48. SS Mendi Memorial, South Africa Janet Szabo The striking statue commemorating the sinking of the SS Mendi
  • 49. World Veterans Federation
  • 50. Opening of the World Veterans Federation‟s 26th General Assembly Copenhagen, Denmark October 19, 2009 Abdul Hamid Ibraham, President of the World Veteran’s Federation (WVF)
  • 51. Executive Board Meeting – 2011 The 142nd meeting of the Executive Board was held in Oslo, Norway on November 15, 2011. President Hamid Ibraham Ibraham chaired the meeting and the SCEA was represented by the Chairman of the SCEA, Vice President of the WVF, Mr. Dan-Viggo Bergtun. President Hamid Ibraham of the World Veterans Federation (WVF)
  • 52. South Sudan - 2011  Mr. Bol Wek Agoth, Former Ambassador to Norway and Southern Sudan Head of Mission to Nordic Countries meets with the World Veterans Federation‟s Standing Committee of European Affairs (SCEA). He wants to establish a new veterans organization and has asked for help from the SCEA. They welcomed this initiative and wished him success in establishing it in their new country.
  • 53. War Veterans Day Celebrated in South Sudan August 24, 2011 (Juba) Sudan Tribune by Amoko Robert  Wounded Sudan People‟s Liberation Army (SPLA) veterans march during Independence Day Ceremony in Juba, July 9, 2011 (Reuters)
  • 54. Capt. John Adole, Ret’d., Chairman, Nigerian Legion (left), and Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan
  • 55. In December, 2003, South African President Thabo Mbeki opened the World Veterans Federation 24th General Assembly by calling on former combatants to continue their quest for peace and non-violent conflict resolution. He said, “ I am certain that nobody who has experienced the destructive fury of war would wish to see any people exposed to military conflict.” Thabo Mbeki, President of South Africa
  • 56. If you kill “someone or see your friends being killed, it goes to your hard drive, but sooner or later it burst out” During the apartheid era, every white man was liable for conscription into the Army, in which he would serve at least two years. Several thousand Black men and women were trained in military camps run by the liberation groups MK and APLA. The legacy of these conflicts is in some cases massive mental trauma, stemming from shame and horror at the activities these soldiers were forced to carry out. South Africa is still trying to come to terms with its violent past, both internal conflict and military intervention across southern Africa. Deacon Mathe, Chairman of the MK Veterans’ Association, South Africa
  • 57. Solomon “Solly” Rataemane, MD, South Africa
  • 58. According to President Armando Guebuza of Mozambique who is also the President of the ExCombatants Association and a national liberation hero the armed struggle started in 1964 with 259 guerillas which later grew to 100s, and then 1000s through logistical support. President Guebuza has more recently stated that while veterans pensions are significant, they will not bring significant improvement to Mozambiques economic struggles. He argues instead that the focus should not be on dependency through pensions, but instead on working to “overcome poverty.” President Armando Guebuza of Mozambique (File Photo) Image by: Siphiwe Sibeko/Reuters
  • 59. Vice Chairman, Standing Committee on African Affairs (SCAA), World Veterans‟ Federation Rock Vicente Chooly, is the son of Vicente Nkamalila Jose Chooly and Helena Mwanini Majembe, and was born on October 28, 1947, in Northern Mozambbique. His parents were both peasants, and at seven years old he went to primary school, where he finished in 1960. And since there were no secondary schools for Africans, he was forced to enter the seminary, where he finished his secondary school training. In 1964, he was expelled after being accused of group subversive activities against the Portuguese colonial administration. Afterward, he joined the Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO), a political movement which launched the armed struggle for independence as a Freedom Fighter. After independence he was demobilized with the rank of Colonel from the Army and joined the Mineral Resources Department and after twenty years retired as a civil servant in 2006, when he was later elected Secretary General of the Combatants‟ Association of National Liberation Struggle of Mozambique (ACLLN). Col. Rock Chooly, Ret’d., Secretary General of the Combatants Association of National Liberation Struggle of Mozambique
  • 60. Brig. Gen (Rtd) Hashim Mbita was Executive Secretary of the Liberation Committee of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) founded in the early 70‟s for more than 20 years, until his mission was accomplished with the democratic elections in South Africa in 1994. The Liberation Committee was wound up on 15 August 1994 with a special ceremony hosted by Mwalimu Julius Nyerere in Arusha, attended by 10 heads of state and government, two vicepresidents and nine foreign ministers. The ceremony paid tribute to the courage of the freedom fighters who fought and won independence. SADC has now taken up the task of documenting that history. An office has been established in Dar es Salaam under the leadership of Professor A. Temu.. The project is operational in Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, S outh Africa, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In an inspirational address to the researchers last year, Mbita stressed the need to “record the inspiration, commitment, determination, sa crifices, means, strategies and experiences gained at different stages.” He said the “decolonisation struggle which engulfed the African continent during the last 60 years was basically one, though fought in various parts and against different colonizing powers. “History should be reflected in proper perspective through the African eye because many a time it has been written from outside the continent,” Mbita said. The project was approved by the Summit of SADC Heads of State and Government when they met in Botswana in August 2005 to mark the Silver Jubilee of the regional community. The project is funded entirely by SADC governments. Ambassador Hashim Mbita, Executive Secretary of the Liberation Committee of the Organization of African Unity (OAU)
  • 61. Dr. Kaunda led Zambia to independence and served as the first President of the Republic of Zambia, from 1964 to 1991. In 1992 he founded the Kenneth Kaunda Peace Foundation and Kenneth Kaunda Children of Africa Foundation organizations dedicated to the establishment of peace and conflict resolution on the continent; in addition to focusing on fighting HIV/AIDS and poverty in Africa. In addition to his efforts in Zambia, Dr. Kaunda was in the forefront of the efforts to liberate all of Africa, serving as the President of the Pan-African Freedom Movement for East, Central and Southern Africa (Pafmesca) in 1962 and as Chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) from 1970 to 1973. He also played key roles in the mitigation of territorial disputes between Kenya and Somalia and the liberation movements in Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Zim babwe, and South Africa. Former President Kenneth David Kaunda is an author and former educator who has received many honors and awards. He was recently a Balfour African President in Residence at Boston University's African Presidential Archives and Research Center. President Kenneth David Kaunda of Zambia
  • 62. G. Madaraka Nyerere, Son of former President Julius Nyerere of Tanzania
  • 63. Mount Kilimanjaro   G. Madaraka Nyerere (Left) at the summit of Mt. Kilimanjaro About 55,000 visitors climb or tour Mount Kilimanjaro every year, among them are international sports figures, film and pop stars, as well as charitable organizations.  Kilimanjaro is the world‟s highest free standing mountain and is made up of three distinct volcanic cones, with Kibo escalating to 5,895 meters or 19,341 feet, being the highest point on the African continent. Other peaks are Mawenzi at 5,149 m (16,893 ft) and Shira 3,962 m (13,000 ft).
  • 64. Amputee veterans stand up to Mt. Kilimanjaro The Washington Post, Wednesday, August 11, 2010  Disabled veterans take on Mt. Kilimanjaro  Several military veterans accepted the Warfighter Sports Challenge and event organized by Disabled Sports USA that pits climbers against Mt. Kilimanjaro  From left to right: U.S. Army Sgts. Kirk Bauer, Neil Duncan and Dan Nevins pose for a photo at Gilman‟s Point 5,681 meters or approximately 18,638 feet. Reed Hoffman – Disabled Sports USA
  • 65. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, Eduardo moved to Tanzania in the early 60‟s where his father, Dr Eduardo Mondlane founded FRELIMO (The Mozambique Liberation Front), and was elected its first president. Eduardo Jr moved to Mozambique in 1975, and from 1977 studied Political Science at UCLA, after which he established Mozambique‟s first private events promotions company. Eduardo is currently a Group Director at ABSA, Barclays Bank Mozambique, Founding Shareholder and Chairman of Retail Masters SA, holding the master franchise for the Pick „n Pay retail group in Mozambique. He continues to advise various multinational corporations, and is a member of the Advisory Board of the Confederation of Economic Associations of Mozambique and a regular panelist at Boston University‟s African Presidential Roundtable. Eduardo Chivambo Mondlane, Jr., son of Dr. Eduardo Mondlane founder of FRELIMO
  • 66. South West Africa People‟s Organization (SWAPO) is a political party and former national liberation movement in Namibia. It has been the governing party in Namibia since achieving independence in 1990. SWAPO was founded on April 19, 1960. Namibia National Liberation Veterans Association (NNLVA)
  • 67. The Heroes‟ Acre, Namibia  The Heroes‟ Acre is an official war memorial for the government of Namibia. Built just outside the city of Windhoek, Heroes‟ Acre opened on August 26, 2002 and operates for the purpose of fostering a spirit of patriotism and nationalism, and passing on the legacy to the future generations of Namibia.
  • 68. Jabulani Sibanda is the chairman of Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans Association (ZNLWVA), an organization originally comprising all the veterans that fought during the Second Chimurenga or Zimbabwe War of Liberation which ended in 1979. Under his leadership the ZNLWVA mobilized Zimbabweans in the takeback of land stolen under colonialism. The ZNLWVA was formed after Zimbabwe‟s independence in 1980. It was mainly formed to assist demolized combatants of the bush war, mostly members of ZANLA and ZIPRA. Jabulani Sibanda, Leader of the Zimbabwe National War Veterans Association (ZNWVA)
  • 69. Kenya Mau Mau War Veterans Association Kenyan Mau Mau War Veterans Generals Kassam Njogu, Njeru Mugo and Ndungu Gicheru
  • 70. World Veterans Federation (WVF) Peace & Security Summit, 2013  Swedish Veterans Federation (SVF) were requested by World Veterans Federation (WVF) to arrange the WVF Peace and Security Summit 2013 (PSS13) in May 2013.The aim of the summit is to raise the status of veterans in society and to promote the well-being of veterans. The Swedish Government has tasked the Armed Forces together with SVF to conduct the WVF Conference Peace & Security Summit in Sweden May 28-31 2013. The theme for PSS13 is: "How can veterans contribute to Peace and Security in Society?"
  • 71. Aftermath of the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombing showing people helping others from scene
  • 72. Boston Marathon bombing victim Martin Richard, 8, held a call for peace at a school event last year. He ended up dying a victim of violence. Read more at: http://www.nydailynews .com/news/nationa/you ngest-boston-victimmourned-article1.1325050#ixzz2S4oBoy LK Martin Richard, 8 Neighborhood House Charter School/EPA
  • 73. World Veterans Federation Peace & Security Summit Stockholm, Sweden, May 28 – 31, 2013 Welcome to Sweden and the Peace and Security Summit STOCKHOLM DECLARATION Veterans have experienced the horrors of war and have to live with the consequences for the rest of their lives. They deserve help, support and recognition from their society. On the basis of this understanding, the Peace and Security Summit in Stockholm opened a new dimension in the discussion of veterans affairs. Veterans can give a lot to their societies having served under severe circumstances worldwide and demonstrated skills that can be of benefit to all parts of their societies. The Summit demands that the countries represented within the WVF and the international community exploit and make best use of these experiences and capabilities, which should come to bear to prevent the use of force, during conflict and thereafter. Veterans should also be involved to prevent ethnic crises, and in support of integration processes within their societies. The message of the veterans, voiced individually, through their organizations, or the WVF should be listened to in all crisis situations. Stockholm, May 30, 2013
  • 74. U.S. Army Africa Command
  • 75. Gen. William E. Ward, Commander of the U.S. Army Africa Command
  • 76. Africa Command Dress Patch  Full Color Dress Patch for the US Army Class „A‟ Uniform
  • 77. Annual Veterans Day Ceremony in Tunisia  A Veterans Day ceremony is held annually at the American Battlefield Memorial Cemetery in Tunisia to honor U.S. Veterans and to commemorate the thousands of U.S. service members who fought and died in North Africa during World War II.
  • 78. Congressional Black Caucus Veterans Braintrust (Hons. Corrine Brown, D-FL, Sanford Bishop, Jr., D-GA & Charles Rangel, D-NY, Chairs ) Thank You  Ron E. Armstead, MCP, LSW, Executive Director 617-331-3583 / ronearmstead@gmail.com  Website: http://veteransbraintrustonline.snappages.com