Strategic research agenda for cocoa coffee Wageningen UR 09062014

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Developing a strategic research agenda

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Strategic research agenda for cocoa coffee Wageningen UR 09062014

  1. 1. Developing strategic research agendas for cocoa and coffee Interactive session , 2nd World Cocoa Conference, Amsterdam 09 June 2014 Verina Ingram, Don Jansen, Lucas Judge
  2. 2. Introduction  Wageningen UR leading a Top Sector Public Private Partnership project with KIT, CIRAD, IDH, DE Foundation, UTZ and Dutch government ‘Enhancing sustainability of Dutch cocoa and coffee imports: Synergy between practice, policy, strategy and knowledge’ to improve the sustainability of the cocoa and coffee sectors.  Cocoa and coffee are crops with persistent problems: ● Growing demand combined with volatile production and prices ● Concerns about quality, farmer livelihoods, climate change, keeping soils fertile and managing pest and diseases, enhancing relations between producer and consumer countries, securing sustainable supply and production.  Much research globally but fragmented, often not accessible to parties in the chain that need it,  Scope to increase knowledge transfer across crops.  Need to “rejuvenate” and build capacity in research  Implies need for (more) research and (more) collaboration and coordination between researchers in origin and consumption countries and (better) dissemination among users and stakeholders: governments, farmers, industry, support organisations. Verina
  3. 3. Why develop strategic, collaborative research agendas for cocoa and coffee?  The need has been signalled (again)!  Priorities, needs and interests not always clear  Contribute to a (shared) vision for these commodities in the future  Provide guidance and a wider framework for those commissioning research  Coordinate research efforts and dissemination whilst o Recognising the diversity of needs o Learning from previous initiatives o Building on current initiatives, platforms and networks
  4. 4. The survey  circa. 350 people contacted directly  Asked to forward link on within their networks  Link posted on various websites and via social media  Survey available since beginning of December 2013  First round closed on the 8th May 2014  Initial analysis completed......  First meeting 62 people in research 23 May 2014 in Wageningen
  5. 5. Survey results
  6. 6. 76 respondents so far. Where do they come from? 62%14% 11% 8% 4% 1% Europe Africa Latin America Asia/Pacific North America Worldwide Europe (47) Latin America (8) NL 24 Brazil 3 UK 10 Costa Rica 2 Germany 3 Colombia 1 Belgium 2 Honduras 1 Italy 2 Nicaragua 1 Switzerland 2 Africa (11) France 1 Cameroon 4 Luxembourg 1 Ghana 2 Spain 1 Uganda 2 EU 1 Kenya 1 Asia/Pacific (6) South Africa 1 Australia 3 West Africa 1 Indonesia 2 North America (3) Vietnam 1 USA 3 Worldwide (1)
  7. 7. The 76 respondents so far: Who are they? 29% 18% 53% Cocoa Coffee Both 30% 30% 17% 12% 8% 3% Private Sector Research/knowledge institute Civil Society Government Other Industry Association
  8. 8. Research? 31% 9% 33% 27% Yes (in-house) ONLY Yes (3rd party) ONLY Yes (in-house + 3rd party) No No research, why not? • Lack of internal capacity/budget; • External research is too expensive; • Research conducted by umbrella organisations, indirect involvement; • Research Institutions conduct research using external funding
  9. 9. Current research At first glance: same topics equally important for coffee & cocoa Private sector involvement stronger in cocoa Relative importance of different stakeholder types varies by research topic
  10. 10. Research gaps 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Agronomy Economics Environment Processing Social Sustainability Organization Other Fraction of total participants indicating gap Total Coffee + Cocoa Total Cocoa Total Coffee 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Agronomy Economics Environment Processing Social Sustainability Organization Other Fraction per gremium indicating gap Coffee Civil Private Government Research Other 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Agronomy Economics Environment Processing Social Sustainability Organization Other Fraction per gremium indicating gap Cocoa Civil Private Government Research Other Important gaps in research indicated • Overall similar for coffee & cocoa • Importance of gaps varies per stakeholder type • Agronomic issues mentioned most, and by all stakeholders
  11. 11. Research gaps: total responses per field Agronomy Economics Environment Processing Social Sustainability Organization Other Civil 9 2 1 2 9 2 4 1 Private 34 3 1 5 2 5 7 4 Government 15 3 3 2 0 2 1 0 Research 42 7 6 3 4 6 2 1 Other 14 2 0 1 0 7 6 1 Totaal 114 17 11 13 15 22 20 7 Economics Environment Processing Social Sustainability Organization major issue Profitability Landscape approach Postharvest / quality Diversity farmers / farms M&E, Impact Service delivery nr of respondents 6 4 7 7 7 10 nr other topics 9 4 5 6 10 9
  12. 12. Research gaps Agronomy 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Genetics / breeding Pest / Disease Climate Change Productivity Soil / fertility Rehabilitation / Rejuvenation Diversification / risk Others Research gaps Agronomy Total Coffee + Cocoa Total Cocoa Total Coffee 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Genetics / breeding Pest / Disease Climate Change Productivity Soil / fertility Rehabilitatio n / Rejuvenation Diversificatio n / risk Others Knowledge gaps Agronomy Cocoa Civil Private Government Research Other 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Genetics / breeding Pest / Disease Climate Change Productivit y Soil / fertility Rehabilitati on / Rejuvenatio n Diversificati on / risk Others Knowledge gaps Agronomy Coffee Civil Private Government Research Other Genetics/breeding most mentioned and by all stakeholders Climate change mainly mentioned by government and research Most topics more urgent in cocoa than in coffee
  13. 13. Overlap in research 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Yes Overlap No Overlap Unclear if Overlap Overlap Negative Overlap Positive No Overlap Negative No Overlap Positive Coordin ation / Collabor ation… Overlap in Research Total Coffee + Cocoa Total Cocoa Total Coffee 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Yes Overlap No Overlap Unclear if Overlap Overlap Negative Overlap Positive No Overlap Negative No Overlap Positive Coordin ation / Collabor ation… Overlap in Research Coffee Civil Private Government Research Other 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Yes Overlap No Overlap Unclear if Overlap Overlap Negative Overlap Positive No Overlap Negative No Overlap Positive Coordin ation / Collabor ation… Overlap in Research Cocoa Civil Private Government Research Other Overlap in research • Not always seen negatively • But more coordination and collaboration may help efficiency and efficacy
  14. 14. Changes in motivation for research 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 CSR Lack of available research Other Increase + Maintain Supply Increase + Maintain Quality Motivation current research Cocoa Civil Private Government Research Other 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 CSR Lack of available research Other Increase + Maintain Supply Increase + Maintain Quality Motivation future research Cocoa Civil Private Government Research Other 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 CSR Lack of available research Other Increase + Maintain Supply Increase + Maintain Quality Motivation current research Coffee Civil Private Government Research Other 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 CSR Lack of available research Other Increase + Maintain Supply Increase + Maintain Quality Motivation future research Coffee Civil Private Government Research Other
  15. 15. How is research funded? 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Internally funded Externally funded Subsidies Government funds Partial funding PPP Coffee Cocoa Coffee + Cocoa Total
  16. 16. What is the timescale of research being conducted? 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Short (<2 years) Medium (2-5 years) Long (>5 years) No response Coffee Cocoa Coffee + Cocoa Total
  17. 17. Financing cycle of activities / projects Short (< 2 yrs) Medium (2-5 yrs) Long (> 5 yrs) Genetic / breeding 4 9 16 Pest & Disease 1 11 6 Climate change 5 6 6 Short (< 2 yrs) Medium (2-5 yrs) Long (> 5 yrs) Total Civil 4 5 1 10 Private 4 9 8 21 Government 4 2 3 9 Research 6 10 7 23 Other 3 4 1 8 Totaal 21 30 20 71 Normal financing cycle per stakeholder Normal financing cycle per stakeholder mentioning research gap on indicated (long term) topics
  18. 18. What are the challenges facing research? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Insufficient funds Time scale Cost of 3rd party Other Coffee Cocoa Coffee + Cocoa Total Other? • Competition between standards to prove impact leads to fragmentation of impacts research • Lack of external expertise to interpret our intervention logic • Lack of awareness of need for long-term pre- competitive research within parts of industry • Crop improvement requires long-term investment • Difficulty cooperating with local institutions • Human resources (capacity, expertise, age) • Lack of internal resources to manage research programs • Setting right priorities
  19. 19. How can these challenges be overcome? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Own research External Consultants Research / Knowledge institutes Joint projects Collaborations / Partnerships Other Coffee Cocoa Coffee + Cocoa Total Other? • Pool questions and resources • Seek wider industry participation • Develop a long-term funding mechanism • Improve capacity in developing countries • Prioritization of research topics
  20. 20. Strategic research lines Priority Research lines Key themes 1 Vulnerability and productivity • Production systems, performance and risk management • Production system diagnostics • Breeding, productivity, resistance and quality • Pest and disease spread, control and monitoring 2 Diversity and sustainability of production • Genetics • Social, economic and ecological diversity and resilience farmers, production systems, environment, organisations & chains 3 Market transformation and transparency • Market/chain interactions and economics • Chain of custody and certification 4 Quality and new business models • Quality prognosis and improvement • Production, processing and chain models, efficiency and impacts 5 Service delivery and concerted action • Effectiveness service delivery to small holders • Models and impact concerted and collective action • Governance models impact on service delivery and concerted action on production and quality • Scale and connectivity Production sustainability Consumption & chain sustainability Sector strategic management Abidjan Declaration 2012 Industry chain sustainability & Sector strategic management Production sustainability
  21. 21. Who are our stakeholders? Who uses the research? 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% %ofrespondents
  22. 22. Current platforms (general)  Chocowerkgroep  SFL  ICCO  ICO  Progresso  4C Association  COSA  Sustainable Food Lab  FAO Advisory Committee  FAST  ISEAL  UNFSS  ICOPR  CSP  IDH  State of Sustainability Initiatives  AgroProFocus  Development Studies Association  VLIR-UOS  Plantbreeders Training Network
  23. 23. Current research initiatives  CocoaConnect  COPAL  CacaoNet (Global Cacao Genetic Resources Network)  WCF and WCF African Cocoa Initiative (WCF/ACI)  INGENIC (International group for generic improvement of cocoa)  INCOPED (Permanent working group for cocoa pests and diseases)  Caobisco-ECA-FCC Research WG  INAFORESTA (agroforestry and environment)  National level • Ghana Cocoa Platform • CRA-GCGRA-CRUK • PPPP-CCC Ivory Coast  World Coffee Research  ASIC  Sustainable Coffee Partnership (SCP)  CoffeeReseach.org  Lets Talk Coffee  CORNET Coffee research network ASARECA  National & regional: • Uganda Platform • JNC Peru • African Coffee Research Network (ACRN) Convergence of Science CoS-SIS
  24. 24. Preference for type of platform 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 numberofresponses 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 all cocoa all cofeeboth % interested in joining multi- stakeholder platform to obtain and/or communicate research results?
  25. 25. Interest to join a platform, to obtain and/or communicate research results 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Civil Private GovernmentResearch Other
  26. 26. Summary  Around 50% say a strategic agenda s needed – particularly in cocoa  There are overlaps and some initiatives that could be up scaled to cover the specific issues, but also provide the multi-stakeholder platform most stated as needed  Main research gaps in both coffee and cocoa are in agronomy, climate change, pests and diseases and productivity  Major drivers of research in both coffee and cocoa now for all stakeholders are to maintain and increase quality and supply, as a CSR obligation and due to a lack of available research  There is interest to collaborate in both sectors –different perceptions on what kind of collaboration is needed – single or multi-stakeholder, single issue or multi-issue?
  27. 27. Examples cocoa research platforms CocoaConnect WCF COPAL CRA/CRUK/GCGRA collaborative Industry Research International Cocoa Research Groups (INCOCOA) informal working groups
  28. 28. Cocoa CONNECT • International knowledge portal to share, meet and learn for sustainable cocoa (online since March 2013) Why? • Coordination • Put knowledge in the public domain • Identify knowledge gaps • Research • Owned by the members of the Dutch Choco Working Group • Moderated by KIT Sustainable Economic Development (Royal Tropical Institute) • Financially supported by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs • Active through website (www.cocoaconnect.org), facebook and twitter Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl
  29. 29. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl
  30. 30. Cocoa CONNECT functions • To share – access to information • To meet – meeting place/market place • To learn – work space Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl
  31. 31. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl
  32. 32. Challenges • Participation • Maintenance • Business model Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl
  33. 33. How can it contribute to common research agenda? • Build on existing platform  How? • Connection with other platforms Who? • Revise/build in functions  What? • Work towards a strategy  When? Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl
  34. 34. Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl
  35. 35. • UK-based non-profit scientific cocoa research associations • Focus on conservation and utilisation of genetic resources to support efforts to get better planting materials to farmers and research to improve integrated crop management (inc. pests & disease control, agronomy, food safety aspects) • Emphasis on public domain research: publication of results to make them widely available to research community) www.cocoaresearch.org.uk Current contributors/partners: CRA, CRUK, GCGRA CRA, CRUK, GCGRA CRA, CRUK CRUK GCGRA CRA/CRUK/GCGRA Collaborative Industry Research
  36. 36. “INCOCOA” International Cocoa Research Groups • Informal groups with a common interest in aspects of cocoa research • Workshops to coincide with COPAL International Cocoa Research Conferences • Working Groups, websites and email lists to promote sharing of information and collaborative activities • Some support and in-kind contributions from industry, research institutions, and other sponsors allow secretariats to function and to support workshops www.incocoa.org The International Group for the Genetic Improvement of Cocoa The International Permanent Working Group for Cocoa Pests and Diseases Sustainable Cocoa Production in Agroforestry Systems
  37. 37. Ingredients of a strategic research agenda collaboration ....... 1. Transparent, shared goals and vision 2. A efficient convening platform (coordination, secretariat, regular communication, organise events) 3. Define members, their contribution and roles 4. Agreement and commitment to a strategic agenda 5. Agreement and commitment to a coordinated approach (e.g. common indicators, standards, guidelines, data management, data sharing and the process) 6. Agree on resources to support and sustain 1-5 7. Independence of research outputs (from those commissioning) 8. Quality of research (methods)
  38. 38. Different models 14 international research centres, a common data collection methods to ensure sites comparison across space and time> 250 sites in 15 countries from 1992 - date. Open access database with information about biodiversity, livelihoods, institutions, & forest carbon Formal formal Formal, membership based Coordinated Secretariat Coordination unit Open access data Semi-open access Closed data International research project & network since 2004 semi-open database 8000+ households in 40+ study sites in 25 countries. comparative, detailed socio-economic data collected quarterly at household and village level by 50+ research partners using standardised definitions, questionnaires and methods. 90 global participants funding and building a scientific foundation driving innovation in consumer product sustainability: transparent LCA methodologies, tools, and strategies addressing environmental, social, and economic issues. Jointly administered by Arizona State University, University of Arkansas Wageningen University, & Nanjing University. Reddit bridges a gap between the people who do or report science and the public that enjoys it: ‘’science for dummies’’ online . NGO, administered by Texas A&M University System, technical advisory committee of industry and researchers, sources funding and conducts research.
  39. 39. Avenues for collaboration? Discuss the goal(s) and topics seen as priorities for a developing a strategic agenda: do participants agree? Are there other priorities?: ● Vulnerability and productivity ● Diversity and sustainability ● Market transformation and transparency ● Quality and new business models ● Service delivery and concerted action Should and can these be tackled together? Or separately? In a multi-stakeholder platform? How to build on existing initiatives/platforms? GENERAL DISCUSSION
  40. 40. ISSUES  Pre-competitiveness and confidentiality  Increasing availability of data currently out there  Multi or single stakeholder? Wide or single issue?  Which level most appropriate for different issues ?  Linking up local, regional and international level?  Capacity building?
  41. 41. Upcoming events we can use to consolidate a network....  WCF/ACI Regional Symposium of the Next Generation of Cocoa Research for the West and Central African Cocoa Region, November 11-14 2013, Ibadan, Nigeria  WCF Partnership Meeting and Round Table Sessions, 15 - 16 October 2014, Copenhagen, Denmark  COPAL, International Cocoa Research Conference, Oct 2015, Peru?  Congreso Café Cacao, 14 - 17 April 2015, Havana, Cuba
  42. 42. Action: Break out multi-stakeholder groups→ Discuss → Report back the “ingredients” of collaboration 1. Goals and vision of specific structure 2. Convening platform 3. Members, contribution and roles 4. What (e.g. common indicators, standards, joint research, guidelines, management, data sharing, publishing etc.) 5. Resources needed (including building on existing initiatives) the “content” of collaboration 1. Which research lines? 2. Which research questions should be asked? 3. Which topics are missing? 4. Should there be a geographical focus?
  43. 43. Next steps? Follow up: A petite committee is willing to move things forward : Wageningen UR, Cocoa Research UK, IITA, Bioversity, Mars, CAOBISCO, KIT, NRI, CIRAD (in absentia)

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