Science in the hive - apiculture products


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The science behind hive products. Ingram koncic kosalec, science in the hive snv apiculture knowlege share event foumban june 2010

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Science in the hive - apiculture products

  1. 1. The science behind hive products Verina Ingram CIFOR & University Amsterdam, Netherlands Marijana Zovko Koncic, Assistant Professor Ivan Kosalec, Assistant Professor Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry University of Zagreb, Croatia Bush/wild mango Irvingia spp. SNV-WCA Forestry Knowledge Network Event 1-3 June 2010, Foumban, Cameroon THINKING beyond the canopy
  2. 2. Hive products are valuable • Honey is the most well known apiculture product in Cameroon. • Other hive products are either unknown or simply thrown away as beekeepers do not realise their values. • However wax and propolis can, kilo for kilo, fetch up to double the market price of honey, particularly in international markets
  3. 3. The bee - tree link • The physical and chemical properties of hive products are determined by the vegetation upon which bees forage. • Each vegetation type imparts unique properties to honey, wax and propolis • The botanic origin can be used to market not just honey, but all hive products. • This provides a ‘unique selling point’, that can be used to enter new markets, differentiate products, assure customers of quality and explain differences Lophira lanceolota Kofia
  4. 4. Nuxia congesta nfuewain Croton maestsius ejuam Carapa grandifolia e'vuin Aims • Present results of botanic assessments, chemical and physical analysis of honeys from 2 Cameroon beekeeping sites : Oku & Ngoundal • Explain the technical terms and how honeys differ based on the vegetation. • Propose a floristic profile of honeys in Cameroon
  5. 5. Technical terms PHENOLS • Important constituents of plants • Phenols protec plants against – UV rays – Insects – Microorganisms… • Great structural diversity MICROBIAL • Uses to counter microorgainsims eg fungii
  6. 6. Methodology Propolis Laboratory analysis • Laboratory test extracted propolis (University of Zagreb, Croatia) Honey Botanic assessment • Field observations, literature review, interviews and data from beekeepers, feedback during SNV Training of Trainers meeting, Bamenda 2007 Laboratory analysis • Laboratory test for chemical residues, chemical and physical properties (APPICA Lab, Germany & VIMTA Labs, India) • Pollen analysis (APPICA Lab, Germany ) Wax Laboratory analysis • Laboratory test of chemical residues, heavy metals, chemical and physical properties (APPICA Lab, Germany and VIMTA Lab, India)
  7. 7. Technical terms FLAVONOIDS • Flavonoids among the most important plant phenols • They have different biological activities – Antioxidant – Antiinflammatory – Antiinfective – Diuretic – Enzyme inhibitors • Propolis is rich in flavonoids
  8. 8. Technical terms ANTIOXIDANTS • Oxidative stress can lead to – Chronic inflammation – Cardiovascular diseases – Cancer – Diabetic complications • Antioxidants help prevent these sicknesses
  9. 9. Results: Propolis Propolis is a mix of beeswax & resins collected from plants, particularly flowers, leaf buds and resins, mixed with saliva and other secretions. • 12 Samples - 3 groups – Hive Type • Traditional hives or wild swarms in tree boles – Locations • Ngoundal in Adamaoua • Oku in Northwest • Bamenda in Northwest
  10. 10. Composition of Cameroonian propolis • Up to 35% is extractable with 80% ethanol • Extracts are rich in; – Phenols – Flavonoids – Extract from Ngoundal (12) is richest in phenols and flavonoids. – No differences between extracts from Adamaoua (2 4,6 11) and Oku (1,5)
  11. 11. Antioxidant properties • 1. Antiradical activity – Extracts 1 and 12 were as effective as strong antioxidant, BHA • 2. Reducing power – Dose-dependent for all the extracts – Extract 12 was the most active • 3. Antioxidant activity in reaction with carotene – Extracts 2 and 6 were as active as BHA • Activity was related to quantity of phenols • Extracts from traditional hives were more active than from tree holes • No diferrences in activity of extracts from Oku and Adamoua
  12. 12. Antimicrobial properties • Propolis is used honeybees protection of hive and community against microbes and invanders • Ethanol extracts of Propolis (EPE) have a wide range of antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, viruses • The best known application of EPE is local (on skin or mucous), to combat inflammation and infections and foster local immuno-system • EPE act as angiogenic (formation of new vessels), antiflogistic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic • The biological activity of propolis is influenced by its chemical composition  this is a reason for quality assessment
  13. 13. Antimicrobial properties Results of diffusion method Samples / zones of inhibition (mm) Honco Guiding Hope Oku Honey Crop Microbial species Guiding Hope 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 S. aureus 0 0 10 10 11 13 12 10 13 10 13 12 B. subtilis 0 10 10 14 12 0 10 10 13 10 11 10 E. coli 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 P. aerugini osa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C. albicans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Legend: 0= no antimicrobial activity in diffusion method
  14. 14. Antimicrobial properties Results of serial macro-dilution method Samples / MICs (mg/mL) Honco Guiding Hope Oku Honey Crop Microbial species Guiding Hope 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 S. aureus 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 B. subtilis >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 E. coli 12,5 12,5 12,5 12,5 12,5 12,5 25 12,5 12,5 12,5 25 12,5 P. aerugini osa >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 C. albicans 12,5 12,5 12,5 12,5 12,5 25 12,5 12,5 25 25 12,5 12,5
  15. 15. Results: Antimicrobial properties • EPEs were found to be antimicrobially active against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli • Samples showed relatively similar antimicrobial activities
  16. 16. Propolis Conclusions • Cameroonian propolis: – Rich in phenols – Valuable source of natural flavonoids – Excellent antioxidant properties – Has potential in prevention and therapy of many diseases e.g. antibacterial , fungicidal, tissue regeneration and renovation (dermatological & cosmetic applications) – A valuable bee product!
  17. 17. Propolis indigenous uses • Cameroonian propolis: – Used powdered or extracted in ointments, creams and soaps for skin complaints, rashes, fungal infections, ringworm – Chewed for stomach upsets and sore throats – Placed on tooth for toothache – gently warmed in hot water to soften and applied to affected boils ringworm, fungus infections especially on finger, wounds and sores. – It is seen as most effective when used fresh from the hive with no processing other than chewing or warming to soften. Local uses match scientific evidence of its properties Sources: Interviews Berudep, Anco, Honco, Oku Honey Cooperative, Guiding Hope, Mampu Honey Cooperative 2008-2010
  18. 18. Botanic Woody tropical savannah forest & shrubs (900m to 1500m: *#Lophira Lanceolata (Kofia), *#Daniella olivera (Kea), *Annona assessment Adamaoua savanna senegalensis, *Croton macrostachyus, *Psorospermum febrifugum, *Syzygium guineense, Burkea africana, Terminalia spp., Combretum molle, Entada abyssinica, Entada africana, Mimosoideae, Parkia biglobosa, Protea madiensis, Psiliostigma thonnigia, Prosopsis africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Acacia angustissima, Terminalia molle, Terminalia glaucescan Harungana, *#Bombax pentandrum L., *Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea nut), Harungana madagascariensis, $Vitex doniana, $Vitex madiensis Valley bottoms, closed semi-deciduous forest: Aubrevillea kerstingii, Erythrophloeum suaveolens, Chlorophora excelsa, Khaya grandifoliola, Phyllanthus discoideus; Swampy valleys dominated by; Syzygium guineense var. guineense. Pollen analysis by microscopy: Accompanying pollen (>15%) 37% relative content: Combretaceae Significant isolated pollen (≥ 3%) 9% relative content: Anacardiaceae, Campanulaceae, Mimosaceae, Acacia, Myrtaceae, Proteaceae, Rutaceae, Zanthoxylum-T
  19. 19. Afromontane cloud forest; Kilum-Ijim Highly biodiverse montane & semi montane tropical cloud forests (1600m to 3000m): Maesa lanceolata, Podocarpus latifolius, Gnidia glauca, Rapanea melanophloeos, Solanecio mannii; Montane mixed forest (2100m to 3000m): Milletia conraui, Markhamia lutea, Schefflera abyssinica, Schefflera barteri, Schefflera manii, Maesa lanceolata, Nuxia congesta, Albizia gummifera, Syzgium guineense, Syzgium staudii, Croton macrostachyus, Maesa lanceolata, Pittosporum viridiflorum, Solanecio mannii, Rapanea melanophloeos, Prunus africana, Carapa grandifolia, Syzygium guineense, Maesa lanceolata; Montane woodland: Erica mannii, Gnidia glauca, Maesa lanceolata, Hypericum revolutum; Mature alpine bamboo: Maesa lanceolata, Gnidia glauca, Pittosporum viridiflorum; Open woodland/ scrubland: Gnidia glauca, Maesa lanceolata, Hypericum revolutum. Canarium schweinfurthii Pollen analysis by microscopy: Main pollen (>45%) none. Accompanying pollen (>15%) 27% relative content: Zanthoxylum (Tomtom/Ebotom, Bongo, Elelongo) %, Coffea 27%, Eucalyptus 23%. Significant isolated pollen (≥ 3%) 15% relative content: Aster, Acanthaceae, # Balsaminaceae (Impatiens), #Chenopodiaceae (Chenopodium),#Compositae (Vernonia colorata), Gramineae, Myrtaceae, Palmae (Elaeis), Salicaceae (Salix), Thymeleaceae (Daphne) Botanic assessment Symbols # species used locally and internationally for medical properties of their barks, roots and leaves *melliferous species $ pollen rich species.
  20. 20. Northwest and Southwest Highlands • 107 local and endemic species identified •63 agroforestry and agricultural species identified •3 bee hating species! Anona sengelensis, Chinipodium sp., Afromomum spp (Gorilla food, wild ginger) • 4 species known to produce granulated / crystallized honey Croton macrostachyus , Sheffleria mannii, Scheffleria abysinnia and Vocassa grass Botanic assessment
  21. 21. Agro-ecological zones Cameroon white montane savannah gold highlands
  22. 22. Profiling Cameroon honeys • In Cameroon no standards and little consumer understanding of why there are different honey characteristics • Confusion between quality, geographic & botanic origins and processing/production • EU has already developed criteria to classify and address producer and consumer misunderstandings • Why not use a similar classification for Cameroon?
  23. 23. 1. Definition: Honey is the natural sweet substance produced by Apis mellifera bees from the nectar of plants or from secretions of living parts of plants or excretions of plant-sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which the bees collect, transform by combining with specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in honeycombs to ripen and mature. EU Directive 2001/110/EC 20 Dec 2001 relating to honey 2. Honey types: (a) according to origin: (i) blossom honey or plant nectar honey (ii) honeydew honey (from excretions of plant sucking insects (Hemiptera) (b) according to mode of production and/or presentation: (iii) Comb : stored in freshly built broodless combs or wax comb foundation sheets (iv) Chunk or cut comb in honey: contains one + pieces of comb; (v) Drained honey: by draining decapped broodless combs; (vi) Extracted honey; obtained by centrifuging decapped broodless combs; (vii) Pressed honey; obtained by pressing broodless combs with/without application of moderate heat not exceeding 45 °C; (viii) Filtered honey; obtained by removing foreign inorganic or organic matter to lead to significant removal of pollen. 3. Baker's honey; (a) suitable for industrial uses or as an ingredient in foodstuffs which are then processed and (b) may: have a foreign taste or odour, or have begun to ferment or have fermented, or have been overheated.
  24. 24. Profiling Cameroon honeys Visual & Taste Honey type /Name Moisture & Sugar content Colour Contamination Physical state (solid/ liquid) Thin, runny liquid Chemical residues/ Bacterial contamination ? Thick, runny liquid ? Organic certified Stingless or Ground bee honey Lowland forest honey Average around 20% Average around 17% Dark amber (brown) Dark amber (brown) Savannah honey Average around 17% Dark amber (brown) Thick, viscous liquid Montane white honey Average around 14-17% but often up to 22% Light amber (Cream) Solid, wholly ? granulated or smooth “paste” consistency Gold Highlands honey Average around 16 – 18%% Amber (Golden brown) Thick, runny liquid to semi crystallised Bacteria& fungus found in “market” processed honeys in Dschang area Geographic/Botanic Origin Location Typical plant & examples source Example NW: Oku Montane forests? ANCO HONCO SW: Buea, Mamfe, Akwaya, Tombel NW; Ako, NW: Wum Adamoua; Ngoundal, Ngoundere NW: Oku/Kilum Ijum forests, Nkambe, Ndu Kupe Muanenguba? Lowland rainforest trees BDC BEFCO BOBEEFAG NW: Fundong, Bafut, Mezam, Ndop, Kumbo, Menchum valley W: Dschang, Bafoussam, Mbouda, Fongo Tongo Farmlands Agrofrestry trees (coffee, avocado pear, plum, citrus, mangos) BEMIXCIG Woody tropical savannah trees and shrubs montane and semi montane tropical cloud forests Also farm forest gallery or small forests BERUDEP Oku Honey Coop Oku Honey Association ANCO HONCO WAP: Boyo Gold FAP RIBA HONCO
  25. 25. Honey tests Example: Guiding Hope • Organic certified UK Soil Association • Analysis of Hydroxy methyl furfuldehyd (HMF), pH, acid, glycerine, sugar spectrum, proteins, yeast, moisture, and starch and pollen content, sediment, invertase activity • Tested for microbiological activity Price increases up to 25% for quality honey in urban markets Export markets higher price for certified organic 2.50 €/1592 FCFA
  26. 26. Wax tests Example: Guiding Hope • Organic certified UK Soil Association • Tests for main properties: Melting point, Acid value, Ester value, Ratio number Saponification value • Tested for ceresin, paraffin and other waxes (purity) • Tested for glycerol and other polyhydric alcohols (purity) • Tested for chemical residues and heavy metals ‘’All clear’’ on all tests! Demonstrating quality can increase price e.g. black to yellow wax increase by 29% and organic certification by 49%.
  27. 27. Conclusions • Producers should know and record where honey, wax and propolis comes from! • Tests can provide information that can be used in marketing honey; locally in Cameroon and internationally • Use botanic and geographic information to sell products and increase profits • Tests can prove quality and origin • Information can reassure consumers
  28. 28. Merci!