Governing Forest Commons in the Congo Basin:Non-Timber Forest Product Value Chains


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Governing Forest Commons in the Congo Basin: Non-Timber Forest Product Value Chains. Ingram govenrning congo basin forest ntfp v cs 11012011

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Governing Forest Commons in the Congo Basin:Non-Timber Forest Product Value Chains

  1. 1. Community conservation and livelihoods: complimentary or tradeoffs? 13th Biennial Conference of the International Association for Study of the Commons 11 January 2011 Hyderabad, India Governing Forest Commons in the Congo Basin: Non-Timber Forest Product Value Chains Verina Ingram Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) & University of Amsterdam THINKING beyond the canopy THINKING beyond the canopy
  2. 2. Background • • • • • Congo Basin Forests High (67%) forest cover, globally 2nd largest intact humid forest, rich & unique biodiversity, low but increasing degradation & deforestation Low levels development, 61% >$2 day, 46% population in/near forests High corruption, poor governance, high inequality, difficult business environment Forests economic resource: commercial logging = export revenues 87.5 million US$ (1-6% of GDP), 23% forest cover allocated to timber leases Under valued & unknown contribution of NTFPs: % of household rural/urban incomes, multiple uses, level of household and ,business dependence THINKING beyond the canopy
  3. 3. A Congo cocktail.......... • • • • • • • • Take Cola (Cola acuminata, nitida & anomala, Garcinia kola) caffeine rich nuts (a century’s old stimulant): alone or in Coca-Cola Add the strong cultural associations when given & consumed with palm wine made from indigenous raffia (Raphia spp.), a traditional alcoholic beverage Mix palm wine with forest honey for ‘ntop mimbo‘, a sweeter, stronger cocktail Stir in ground pygeum (Prunus africana) bark to treat multiple aliments including prostate hyperplasia Drink from a bamboo (Yushina alpina) beaker Eat with eru (Gnetum spp): popular, nutritious leaves of ancient vine, (also traditional medicine & wine) and safou plums (Dacryodes edulis) Take bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) bark and eru leaves if feeling sick or have a hangover afterwards! and safou if you have toothache or diarrhoea Cola acuminata Wax, propolis & honey Apiculture products Eru/fumbwa Gnetum spp. Bamboo Raphia spp. Safou Dacryodes Bush mango edulis Irvingia spp. THINKING beyond the canopy
  4. 4. Issues • Despite their economic and cultural importance, recent, reliable use, trade & income figures almost non-existent • Values more than just economic: social, cultural, ecological • Resource stocks largely un-quantified and cultivated stocks (almost) completely unknown: How can manage what isn’t measure? • Despite this lack of data, some products highly regulated, others in a formal void, others customarily governed ……although changes afoot regionally and nationally • Conflicting interests: conservation lobby vs. immediate needs vs. long term livelihood needs • Fears that some NTFPs may become extinct as shifts from subsistence to international trade lead to over-exploitation of wild stocks + low levels domestication • Market arrangements, especially international trade, appear counterproductive to sustainable trade • Lack of information exchange: actors, aspects and issues in chain unknown largely to each other Photo: K Stewart Prunus africana THINKING beyond the canopy
  5. 5. Aims & Research Questions Gnetum africana Aim Explore interrelationships and impacts of the variety of governance arrangements on sustainable livelihoods of those engaged in forest product market chains originating from the Congo Basin. Questions 1. What do NTFPs contribute to the livelihoods (economic, socio-cultural & environmental) of actors involved in the value chains? Especially the poorest and the forest based? 2. What types of governance arrangements are found in NTFP market chains? and how and why THINKING livelihoods? do they shape and affect NTFP chains, species survival and subsequent beyond the canopy
  7. 7. Dacrodyes edulis Safou Safo Democratic Republic Congo Equateur Bas Congo Kinshasa Extreme North from source…. Study sites Cola spp. Rhapia spp. Adamaoua NW, SW & West East Centre, Littoral, South Cameroon Cameroon Dacryodes edulis THINKING beyond the canopy
  8. 8. to final consumer Study sites THINKING beyond the canopy
  9. 9. Selection Field work VCA 2007-2009 PAR PAR Analysis Outputs NTFPs in Cameroon & DRC, value • Literature review; NTFPs in Cameroon and VCs chains • Actor sample and Production zone selection – Stakeholder interviews (2007) • Inventory - transects 3 zones (2007-2008) (Prunus africana) • Bark regeneration post-harvest study – 4 zones (2009) • Structured Interviews (25% sample of actors in chains ) = 3424 actors & 632 consumers • 40 focus group interviews &7 problem analysis workshops in 4 cities . • 5 market surveys (2007-2008) • Participatory action research: SWOTs, stakeholder analysis, Prunus africana: 6 working sessions stakeholder groups & 1 all stakeholder workshop, participatorily developed Prunus africana management plan. Honey: EU Export HMRP, Geographic Origin Indication , National Union, National honey profiling • Capacity building events; group organisation, business skills. Harvest, production & processing (honey & Prunus )training, legal framework • Data analysis SPSS and Excel, TIAMA, interpretation satellite images, SWOT, GIS mapping • Preliminary findings verified in meetings /workshops & peer cross-checked • Value chain maps: Visualisations • Reports: Problem analysis workshop report, Inventory in NW & SW Cameroon, Guidelines for a National Management Plan for Prunus africana in Cameroon, Assessment sustainable harvest methods, Baseline study of Prunus africana chain, Domestication Guide (ICRAF), Harvest and inventory norms GTZ + CIFOR) , 8 value chain reports, articles, presentations • Actors’ grouping: Prunus Platform, Scientific Group supporting CITES Authority, Apiculture Interprofession • Policy brief: NTFPs and Cameroon& Product sheet: 8 in French & English Policy Briefs: DRC in Cameroon Product sheets: Prunus africana in Cameroon THINKING beyond the canopy Methodology Review
  10. 10. Key findings: • Regulatory, institutional, policy framework Regulatory framework exists in Cameroon and DRC – distinguishes between own use and trade, but is: – Seldom implemented, largely un-enforced and ineffective – Illogical, inconsistent, NTFPs ill defined confusing – Not based on resource availability, nor location specific quotas nor (for majority) any vulnerability assessment – Highly susceptible to corruption – Heavily mixed with overlapping layers of customary rules and land tenure arrangement • Policy timber focussed, doesn’t address actual situation, and not aligned to business realities, cross border trade not harmonised across region • Institutional framework also timber focused, weakly devolved & fragile institutions, donor-NGO lead, little interaction between competent authorities. Although some business associations in Cameroon and strong traders unions in Nigeria, few in DRC THINKING beyond the canopy
  11. 11. Key findings: Social and economic aspects • Positive impacts on forest based, rural & urban livelihoods • Large and growing demand for NTFPs in rural, and especially, urban areas Garcinia kola . • Wide variances in sustainability of livelihoods and chains NTFPs play a role in food security, health and providing cash income to meet basic needs Dacryodes edulis . Irvingia spp. • Organisation and efficiency of markets a function of local culture, product & location, technologies, distance & access • Lack of knowledge among actors about their chain • Market information influences vertical integration • Market Information System & actor Platforms show initial positive results improving integration marginalised & profits • Stakeholders shown openness to participate in formulating policy and regulatory options • Sustainable harvest techniques & domestication technologies offer potential to increase profits – but needs wide scale THINKING beyond the canopy disseminating and enforcement Gnetum spp.
  12. 12. Average use of 9 NTFPs in Cameroon & DRC by harvesters Values % Perished % barterd % given as gifts NTFP chain % Consumed % Sold - 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % of total production Average annual household income from NTFPs DRC and Cameroon (2007-2009) AVERAGE RDC Apiculture Subsistence & income Safou Fumbwa AVERAGE CAMEROON Rhapia Cola Bamboo Gum arabic EN Irvingia SW, C, S, L, E Prunus NW SW Apiculture NW, SW, A Gnetum SW Lit AVERAGE DRC & CAM - 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % annual harvester's houshold income from NTFP Beeswax 90 THINKING beyond the canopy
  13. 13. Annual market value NTFP chains DRC & Cameroon 2007/2008/2009 Apiculture Safou Fumbwa NTFP chain Livelihoods Employment & Production TOTAL DRC TOTAL CAMEROON Rhapia NW W E Cola NW W E Bamboo NW SW C Litt Gum arabic EN Irvingia SW, C, S, L, E Prunus NW SW Apiculture NW, SW, A Gnetum SW Lit - 5,000,000 10,000,000 15,000,000 20,000,000 25,000,000 30,000,000 Annual market value US$ Num bers of actors per regional NTFP m arket chain TOTAL DRC Apiculture Safou NTFP chain Fumbwa TOTAL CAMEROON Rhapia NW W E Cola NW W E Bamboo NW SW C Litt Gum arabic EN Irvingia SW, C, S, L, E Prunus NW SW Apiculture NW, SW, A Gnetum SW Lit - 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 No of direct actors per chain 30,000 35,000 THINKING beyond the canopy 35,000,
  14. 14. Impacts of governance arrangements • • • • • Customary rules fill some regulatory voids eg honey, bamboo & Prunus harvesting techniques Traditional systems also act as barriers: favouring existing actors and elites Technology & market changes however create new opportunities Decentralisation introduces new forms of control over resources Collective action increases negotiating power and access to information, prices and profits Illustrations • • • • • Unregulated access to Raphia leads to decreases in quantity and quantity Cola is planted upon the birth of the 1st son and trees are often ‘owned’ Over 52 % of Prunus africana trees inventoried in wild forests are harvested, of which 60% unsustainably – compared to 40% planted Prunus of which 38% unsustainably 97% of eru harvesters indicate increasing scarcity & 45% is harvested using unsustainable techniques Beekeepers now planting hive material sources and avoiding using Kofia THINKING beyond the canopy (Lophira lanceolota) as fuel wood to melt wax
  15. 15. Conclusions • • • • • • • • • • • Congo Basin NTFP trade under appreciated & insufficiently captured in economic, employment, food security and health statistics Governance arrangements major impact on income equity & distribution, market access & control and profit margins Power, relationships (lobby and government contacts) & tenure critical Overlapping & conflicting traditional, regulatory and devolved authorities cloud governance Policy & regulatory extremes & inappropriate legal framework ripe for rationalisation Processing & storage important to add value locally (vertical integration) Domestication a good indicator of sustainability - cultivation decisive for long term chain continuation Employment & profitability increase when sector professionalized - but access to most profitable parts of chain may then be limited by powerful/elites Importance of business, capital, legal, infrastructure & technical support For long lived species, temporal consideration waiting long term impacts of changing governance arrangements Raising awareness and enforcement of new policy regimes (honey, Prunus africana etc.) will be critical in actualizing changes THINKING beyond the canopy
  16. 16. Thank you! The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) is one of the 15 centres supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) THINKING beyond the canopy THINKING beyond the canopy