ecosystem services in tropical timber value chains


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Ingram ecosystem services timber value chain 07052013 2

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ecosystem services in tropical timber value chains

  1. 1. Innovations in integrating ecosystem services into tropical timber value chains with Dutch links Ecosystem Services Workshop, University of Kiel, Germany 6-8 May 2013 Verina Ingram1, Jolanda van den Berg1, Mark van Oorschot2 and Marcel Kok2 1 Agricultural Economics Institute, (LEI) Wageningen University & Research centres, 2 Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL)
  2. 2. Aim & scope  Aim: ● Inventory governance “steering” mechanisms for Dutch government to stimulate sustainable use and maintenance of ecosystem services through international value chains.  Scope: ● International chains for tropical timber, relevant to the Netherlands (consumers, enterprises, NGOs etc.) ● Analyse trade from/for Dutch policy perspective.
  3. 3. Methodology 1. Develop and test analytical framework a) Literature study b) Conceptual & analytic framework c) Policy and practice discourse analysis (using ES definition/framework from MEA) 2. Select case studies: innovations in international tropical timber a) Literature review b) Interviews 3. Develop recommendations for intervention possibilities 4. Next step: workshop to test results and recommendations
  4. 4. Analytical framework FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS Regulation Business operating environment Demand Political system Infrastructure POLITICAL ECOLOGY INNOVATION SYSTEMS VALUE CHAINS PROCESS DYNAMICS Retail Consumers processing Wholesale Retailers Production & Traders Resource Processors Harvesters Relationships Institutions Actors Processies Chain platform Enabling e.g. certification Government Research CSOs & NGOs Consumption
  5. 5. - Links locations and landscapes also demand and supply Embodies economic but also other forms of value links products and ESS associated with their extraction, production & use Links different actors Embraces (plural) governance (formal, informal, market-based) & management systems Timber value chain Consumer Individuals Timber companies Packaging companies Consumer Private sector Furniture companies Carpentary & Joinery companies Veneer Veneer Plywood Plywood Saw mills Veneer plants Plywood mills Logs Logs Illegal loggers Natural forest Construction companies Paper & pulp companies Panel products Panel products Sawn wood Sawn wood Local individuals & communities Consumer government sector Paper products Biomass Biomass energy energy Paper Mills Energy plant Pulp Mills Pulp Pulp Logging companies Enriched natural forest Government landowners Forests & Trees Concession holders Plantations Wood residues Wood residues Small scale & plantation owners Agroforestry & Individual trees Energy production companies Biomass Biomass
  6. 6. Results Discourse analysis 1. 2. ES not defined in Dutch policy: vague, container term 3. Couched in terms of economic value, strong emphasis on market mechanisms to ensure sustainable use and maintenance of ES 4. Biodiversity “valuable” frequently associated with conservation, new market-based initiatives & financial instruments to maintain it 5. Dutch sustainability agenda strongly internationally driven- emphasise Dutch competiveness 6. Business partners stimulated to lead, government facilitating, stimulating and supporting role – creating space for enterprises to take sustainability initiatives and develop innovations ES used to connect economics and ecology, emphasising the economic use of natural resources and biodiversity
  7. 7. Results Selected cases of chain innovations Case Sustainable Trade Action Plan 2011-2015 Driver Dutch government Focus Multi-stakeholder partnerships and platform Innovation Institutional framework, finance (€105 million 5 years) Learning Explicit in IDH business model Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification (International and Dutch) Private sector Certification for sustainable operations, specific expanding certification to ecosystem services Include ecosystem services in certification, process orientated Pilot, ForCES multistakeholder, learning explicit Dutch Public Procurement Policy EU & Government driven GFTN and TPAC as a multistakeholder platforms Framework conditions, regulations to drive innovations in chains Linked to FSC and PEFC certification standards REDD International, NGOs, national policy Multi-stakeholder platforms Novel mix of finance, policy practice & research, resource focused Pilots learning orientated, Specific mention ecosystem services
  8. 8. IDH & Action Plan for Sustainable Trade 2011-2015  ES not explicit in IDH & STAP model and not mentioned in its literature or interviews:  IDH stimulates “trade in certified sustainably produced timber and other forest products is a proven mechanism for promoting sustainable forest management”. STAP stimulates certification, especially FSC, seeks to increase demand for certified timber in Netherlands & Europa.  Innovations: chain wide, PPP matching system stimulates innovations and ‘tried & tested’’ approach, focus on sustainability problems central. Platform and network approach  Stakeholders: all actors – but excludes some (CSOs, research), accent on business, government role indirect as IDH executes Dutch government policy
  9. 9. Sustainable Trade Action Plan & IDH FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS Stimulating PPP Wholesale Retail Consumers Production & processing Retailers PROCESS DYNAMICS Traders Resource Processors Harvesters ESS addressed: - Provisioning goods (timber) Via FSC - Goods (timber, non-timber) - Regulating functions - Support functions - Cultural functions + - Biodiversity Consumpti on Chain platform Enabling e.g. certification Government Research CSOs & NGOs
  10. 10. Forest Stewardship Council  All ESS explicit (some implicit) in FSC standards & principles  Further being developed in FoRCES “Expanding FSC Certification to Ecosystem Services” pilot project – bundles ESS  Innovations: chain breed (traceability), emphasis on ES production level (forest) & consumer, multi-stakeholder, only certification organisation to look at multiple ES products and services - other schemes (e.g. carbon) look at just one.  Stakeholders: companies (timber companies/ timber concession holders , transporters, processers, retailers) & NGOs (WWF, Greenpeace, SMN, ICCO)  Roles: joint development and implementation of standard, criteria and system
  11. 11. Forest Stewardship Council Wholesale Retail Consumers Production & processing Retailers FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS Voluntary Market-based PROCESS DYNAMICS Traders Resource Processors Harvesters ESS addressed: - Provisioning goods (timber, non timber, carbon in ForCES) - Regulating functions - Support functions - Cultural functions + - Biodiversity Consumpti on Chain platform Enabling e.g. certification Government Research CSOs & NGOs
  12. 12. Dutch sustainable procurement  ES largely implicit in Dutch 2008 procurement criteria for timber (TPAC), although forest regulation function explicitly stated.  Innovations in chain: example and target setting by government as buyer, tests use of certification (FSC, PEFC) as way of meeting 100% sustainable procurement by 2010, code of conduct, controls & sanctions by business association VVNH.  Stakeholders: government buyers, construction & timber company suppliers, Association Dutch timber companies, NGOs (Milieudefensie), SMK/TPAC, Dutch Agency, research bodies, customs.  Roles: central government ‘steers’ (via financing), policy implementation by SMK/TPAC, independent testing by TPAC trade mark, self-regulation (enforcement) timber sector (via association), import authorities.
  13. 13. Public procurement FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS Regulation Wholesale Retail Consumers Production & processing Retailers PROCESS DYNAMICS Traders Resource Processors Harvesters ESS addressed: - Provisioning goods (timber) Via FSC - Provisioning goods (timber, non-timber) - Regulating functions - Support functions - Cultural functions + - biodiversity Chain platform Enabling e.g. certification Government Research CSOs & NGOs Consumpti on
  14. 14. REDD+ in Indonesia  ES only implicit in REDD+ pilot projects. CO2-reduction and biodiversity protection only ES that are specific.  Innovations: new legal and institutional setting (new actors: REDD+ Commission, Bappenas, UKP4, REDD+ Task Force) for REDD+ in Indonesia.  Stakeholders: Ministries Foreign Affairs & Economic Affairs, Dutch Ambassador, NGOs (WWF, Greenpeace), FSC Nederland, IDH Borneo Initiative, IUCN-NL, NL REDD+ platform, researchers.  Roles: Dutch (indirect) financing of FCPF-World Bank en direct ODA support (for REDD+), Dutch ambassadorial support and from bilateral support to Indonesian government, NGO’s & enterprises.
  15. 15. ESS addressed: - Provisioning goods (timber, carbon) - Regulating (climate) + - biodiversity REDD FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS Voluntary Global convention Retail Consumers Wholesale Retailers Production & processing Traders Resource Processors Harvesters PROCESS DYNAMICS Consumpti on Chain platform Enabling e.g. certification Government Research CSOs & NGOs
  16. 16. Commonalities & differences  Multiple chain stakeholder involvement seen as critical to success  ES have been largely not made explicit in cases, instead sustainability and biodiversity  Exception is FSC certification –driver to integrate ES in 3 cases  Drivers vary per cases- mandating, facilitating, partnering and endorsing  Framework conditions triggered innovations - but created barriers  Differing extent to which civil society and consumers (private, corporate or public)  Power and control of the chain, especially access to information and institutional building, important to how innovation introduced and its impact.
  17. 17. Conclusions  4 cases illustrate studies dependence upon 2 governance or steering mechanisms: market based & regulatory  Actors remarked that ES concept is not clear and is too complex confusion with concepts of biodiversity and sustainability   Timber certification forms basis of innovations in all 3 cases Paradox: Dutch government does not intervene in FSC standard (companies & NGOs in lead) → role limited for Dutch government to promote FSC certified timber (procurement policy & financing IDH) so Dutch government only indirectly able to promote ES via FSC certification (FSC & IDH members). Risk of derailing by interests of other chain actors and other initiatives with more control in chain
  18. 18. ESS Cascade (Potschin & Haynes-Young, modified) Governance and management institutions for public and private goods & services Governance and management institutions/systems for public and private goods & services
  19. 19. Recommendations 1. Simplify terminology 2. Move up from concession and chain to landscape level 3. Lengthen temporal focus further than just ‘since certification’ 4. Refocus on ES at other chain stages- not just production 5. Move towards evidence based policy making on impact of certification on ES 6. Make ES conservation through certification more explicit 7. Develop & use (internationally accepted) impact indicators for ES assessment to “see through the trees” of multiple certification schemes and sustainable forest management initiatives
  20. 20. Questions? Comments? More information: