KEY NOTE SPEECH
Verina Ingram
CIFOR &
University Amsterdam

Taking stock &
projecting apiculture value chains
into the fut...
Taking stock
1. What is an apiculture value
chain?
2. What are the products of
value chains?
3. How do these chains work
i...
Looking forward....
1. What is the potential to increase the

Propolis

number of people who benefit from
apiculture?

2. ...
• Semi & structured interviews with actors all stages chains = 190 Zambia, 702
Cameroon, 379 DRC
VCAs
2007-2009

• Intervi...
Zambia

Cameroon

North West
Adamaoua
Ngoundal

Europe, USA

DRC
What’s a value chain ?
“The value chain describes the full range of activities required
to bring a product or service from...
creams

foods

soap

medicines

cosmetics
Wine/
candles

beer

Apiculture
value
chain
products
unknown
untried
under-used
...
What do these apiculture chains
look like & how do they work?
>20 Traders/exporters
12 Processer/traders
Meiganga, Ngoundal

7 village
beekeeper groups
Adamaoua
>17,000

Ngaoundal

Ngo...
Lunchu, Kapiri, Centre Province

Kapiri/Kabwe

Lusaka

Pc=K3555/kg
BK=70%
Q=65%

B

Medium-small
registered
companies

Pl=...
Salujinga, Mwinilunga NW Province

Lusaka

International

Pc=K1988

Importing companies
in EU, USA

Large registered
compa...
Bas Congo et Plateau Batéké

Mampu

Average
1135 Fc/L
2.06 $/L

Producer/Harvesters

Local markets

In village

Sold to Fa...
What and who benefits?
LOCATION
Country

Region

BENEFICARIES
%
household
s in region
Beekeeper
s

househo
ld
income
from
...
Results: Cameroon
•

Regions: Adamaoua = 41% & NW = 30% of est. national
production, high & increasing population density ...
Results: Zambia
•
•

•
•
•
•

•

Regions: Mwinilunga 82%, Kapiri 5% est. national production,
low population density 6 to ...
Results: DRC
•
•
•

•

•
•

•

Regions: Equateur & Plateau Bateke, average low population
density inhabitants 14.9 per km2...
Honey & wax exports
66 -100 tons pa

Win: Livelihoods

5005 tons honey
235 tons wax

Employment, income & production
> 13....
Win?: Conservation
Forest management & protection
• Inherently unsustainable practices: bark hives (Z), water & charcoal u...
Loosing: Conservation (long term)
Forest management & protection
4000

5540
1988-2001

3500

3842

2500

4491

2177

2000
...
Negative aspects
• Unclear/usufruct land tenure = conservation disincentive
• Open access to forest = tragedy of commons
•...
HONEY
•Price increases up to 25% for quality honey in
urban markets
• Export markets in general offer lower price
UNLESS i...
Numbers
• Large production increase possible- estimates
difficult – limiting factors are access to land,
available good qu...
Poverty
• Apiculture is not (yet) a
pathway out of poverty
But
• Augments average household incomes
• Provides important s...
Opportunities & challenges
•
•
•
•

•
•

•

•

Introduction of modern technologies allows more women to
get involved in pr...
The balance....
Livelihoods ‘win’ and conservation ‘looses’, unless......
• Apiculture is more highly valued (economic, so...
Thank you plenty!

On
mange
quoi?

Special thanks to Guiding Hope &
Rebecca Howard for data and photos!

La forêt.
?
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Taking stock & projecting apiculture value chains into the future in West and Central Africa: Win wins for livelihoods & conservation?

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Taking stock & projecting apiculture value chains into the future in West and Central Africa: Win wins for livelihoods & conservation? Ingram Apiculture knowledge sharing SNV CIFOR 31 may 2010

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Taking stock & projecting apiculture value chains into the future in West and Central Africa: Win wins for livelihoods & conservation?

  1. 1. KEY NOTE SPEECH Verina Ingram CIFOR & University Amsterdam Taking stock & projecting apiculture value chains into the future in West and Central Africa: Win wins for livelihoods & conservation? Bush/wild mango Irvingia spp. SNV-WCA Forestry Knowledge Network Event 1-3 June 2010, Foumban, Cameroon THINKING beyond the canopy
  2. 2. Taking stock 1. What is an apiculture value chain? 2. What are the products of value chains? 3. How do these chains work in WCA at the moment? 4. How many people benefit from apiculture in WCA – directly & indirectly? 5. What income is realized from apiculture – as % of household income and absolute amounts? 6. How important is apiculture for the poorest ? wax processing
  3. 3. Looking forward.... 1. What is the potential to increase the Propolis number of people who benefit from apiculture? 2. What % increase in income can be gained from improved knowledge and Candles skills of apiarists? 3. What are the challenges? 4. Where are the opportunities? Soaps
  4. 4. • Semi & structured interviews with actors all stages chains = 190 Zambia, 702 Cameroon, 379 DRC VCAs 2007-2009 • Interviews service providers & support actors Interviews Action data Analysis Outputs • Participatory action research: SWOT, Stakeholder analysis, working sessions • Market price tracking; Cameroon • Monitoring, training & capacity building events • Data analysis SPSS and Excel • Preliminary findings verified in meetings & peer cross-checked • Value chain maps; representations & visualizations • Reports • Policy briefs & product sheets Methodology Background • Literature review • Production area selection
  5. 5. Zambia Cameroon North West Adamaoua Ngoundal Europe, USA DRC
  6. 6. What’s a value chain ? “The value chain describes the full range of activities required to bring a product or service from conception, through the different phases of production (involving a combination of physical transformation and the input of various producer services), delivery to final consumers, and final disposal after use.” (Kaplinsky and Morris, (2000), A Handbook For Value Chain Research, IDRC, 113p) Broad definition concerning all activities and actors related to a marketed product in a chain, from production to consumption • • • • Can use to: Understand how relations and processes between actors and product and markets work Calculate values, volumes, profits, distribution and margins Understand how costs-benefits are embodied and distributed among actors Plan for interventions (development, conservation etc.) to enhance inclusion of specific groups (SMEs, women, poor etc.) in local, national and global value chains, and increase production, income and employment opportunities.
  7. 7. creams foods soap medicines cosmetics Wine/ candles beer Apiculture value chain products unknown untried under-used simple processing honey propolis crafts in-demand wax those that exist are often of: polish bee venom hive frames Royal jelly hive drone juice low & variable quality locally sold poorly labeled low quality untested/dubious claims uncompetitively priced
  8. 8. What do these apiculture chains look like & how do they work?
  9. 9. >20 Traders/exporters 12 Processer/traders Meiganga, Ngoundal 7 village beekeeper groups Adamaoua >17,000 Ngaoundal Ngoundal, Bamenda, Yaounde, 3 Producer Co-ops Bamenda, Belo, Oku Beekeepers 6 intermediary processer/trader & capacity builder >5 Importers/processors >15 Processing companies EU, USA, SA. Europe, South Africa Craftspeople >20 Bamenda, Foumban 4 Producer shops >8 Pharmaceutical/ Cosmetic companies EU, USA >200 Trad.Medicine practionners „> 20 Buy‟am sell‟ams‟ Middlemen Bamenda, Belo, Oku, Douala >10 Supermarkets & grocery shops Consumers (International) Oku, Bamenda, Fundong, Belo, Yaounde, Douala Bamenda, Yaounde, Douala ,Bafoussam, Buea >75 Roadside and rail side traders North West >4600 Ctrl African Rep, Nigeria, Middle East 5x 10Market stalls (urban) Ngoundal, Ngoundere, Bamenda, Dschang, Bafoussam Bamenda, Yaounde, Douala ,Bafoussam, Buea Urban consumers (<450km from source) Yaounde, Douala Products Urban consumers (>100km from source) Bamenda, Bafoussam, Buea, Ngoundere >15 Beer brewers (local) Tabeken, Ndu Local consumers (within village) wax propolis honey Beer/ wine Others North West Adamoua Cameroon apiculture value chains; NW & Adamaoua 2008/2009
  10. 10. Lunchu, Kapiri, Centre Province Kapiri/Kabwe Lusaka Pc=K3555/kg BK=70% Q=65% B Medium-small registered companies Pl=K18,250 Pl=K18,213 Supermarkets and grocery shops US$0.5 and US$0.8 per kg Pl= E K18,213 E BK=5% E Q=1% Urban consumers (>150km from source) Pl=K4000 K Importing companies in Eastern and Southern Africa US$5 per kg shops Roadside traders Pl=K11,800 E P Pl=K4100 E BK=25% R Q=21% S Pl=K4700 BK=10% ♀ Q=13% Local consumers (within village) Urban consumers (<150km from source) US$3.80 hawkers Pc= price per kg comb honey Pl= price per kg liquid honey BK= beekeepers selling to market Q= fraction of total volume produced, sold to market Zambia apiculture value chains: Kapiri honey (2007)
  11. 11. Salujinga, Mwinilunga NW Province Lusaka International Pc=K1988 Importing companies in EU, USA Large registered companies BK=86% Q=83% Medium-small registered companies B e e k e e p e r s Supermarkets and grocery shops Pl=K3500 Pc=K2333 Pl=K15000/kg BK=11% Middlemen Q=10% (only trading) Pc=K1800 BK=7% Beer brewers (local) Q=7% Pl=K4487 Local consumers (within village) Importing companies in Eastern and Southern Africa Pl=K11750 Pc=K3400 Pl=K16525 Market stalls (urban) Pl=K2637 Beer brewers (urban) Pl=K18992 Urban consumers (>500 km from source) 600-700 tons Pl=K4487 Urban consumers Pc= price per kg comb honey Pl= price per kg liquid honey BK= beekeepers selling to market Q= fraction of total volume produced, sold to market Zambia apiculture value chains: Mwinilunga honey (2007)
  12. 12. Bas Congo et Plateau Batéké Mampu Average 1135 Fc/L 2.06 $/L Producer/Harvesters Local markets In village Sold to Family KINSHASA Supermarkets/ Hotels church Wholesalers (markets) 500 – 1933 Fc /L 1- 3.5 $/L Retailers Retailers (Permanent) (temporary/roving) Traditional Medical pracitionners Consumers IMPORTED HONEY 10 $/L Average 2533 Fc /L 4,6 $/L DRC apiculture value chains: Equatuer, Bas Congo et le Plateau Batéké (2007)
  13. 13. What and who benefits? LOCATION Country Region BENEFICARIES % household s in region Beekeeper s househo ld income from apicultur e% INCOME % male Average producer income apiculture US$ Ngoundal, Adamaoua 68 48 86 433 Kilum Ijim, NW 55 30-60 80 587 Cameroon Bas Congo DRC Importance Plateau Batéké 31 61 20 25 83 140 Major cash source, primary activity 55% households Average incomes in general 17% > 1$ day 50% > 2$ day 36% income from NTFPs, 52% of this from apiculture 80% > 1$ day 1st cash source 2nd most impt. livelihood activity after farming 63% > 1$ day 87% > 2$ day Equateur Mwinilunga, NW Zambia 50 Kapiri, Centre 29 beekeepers 20 25 Brewer 100400
  14. 14. Results: Cameroon • Regions: Adamaoua = 41% & NW = 30% of est. national production, high & increasing population density 70-99 inhabitants km² NW and 8/km² Adamaoua • • History : Traditional (NW 88%, Ad 97%), project „push‟ 80s, market focus >5 years Production technologies: Basic & traditional, large volume, low quality, new technologies now emerging for wax processing & propolis collection Ecological conditions: rapid deforestation of montane forest, slower degrading savanna forest, forest protection/controls in NW, competing forest uses Institutional context: High level collective organization (NW n=284, Ad n=98), bio & ethical schemes at enterprise level, Geographical Indication scheme emerging Regulatory context: Unregulated national production & market, no standards, exports to Europe regulated since 2009, no interaction forestry & livestock authorities, customary rules exist but often overridden and degrading concerning forest use in NW, but good in Adamaoua Governance: high corruption levels re transport, business set up, taxes and exports, poor „doing business‟ and „corruption perception‟ indexes • • • •
  15. 15. Results: Zambia • • • • • • • Regions: Mwinilunga 82%, Kapiri 5% est. national production, low population density 6 to 11.2 inhabitants km2 History: Traditional, 150 years of trade, colonial support, government post –independence, donor push since 1970s & community owned, organic 1990s & fair trade since 2003, change to private enterprises Production technologies: 90% traditional bark hives, low level hive management, low volume 2nd processing except for beer Livelihood: Mw 50% households beekeepers, av.73 hives, av. yield 7.4 – 20 kg, male dominated Ecological conditions: Miombo woodlands, secondary clearings preferred for diversity, in Kapiri degraded forest more regulated Institutional context: Major source foreign exchange, beekeeping Division „65-„91, high level NGO/development involvement, numerous SMEs vertically active in chain, & provide support marketing Regulatory context: Govt support, national beekeeping policy developed 2008, good customary regulation for forest use
  16. 16. Results: DRC • • • • • • • Regions: Equateur & Plateau Bateke, average low population density inhabitants 14.9 per km2, Bas Congo, 36.5 per km2 History: Traditional for own consumption, increasing trade to urban areas Production technologies: 78% wild harvest, 22% hives (of which 21% traditional 78% modern), low rate of secondary product transformation Livelihood: Mw 50% households beekeepers, average 7 hives, average yield 10 liter per hive & 8 liter wild, 60-80% males along chain Ecological conditions: Savanna and degraded forest, plantations Institutional context: 56% producers organised (projects), many small scale and individual actors, approx 18 producer organisations – selling average 30 litres annually Regulatory context: Little govt support, some donors & religious
  17. 17. Honey & wax exports 66 -100 tons pa Win: Livelihoods 5005 tons honey 235 tons wax Employment, income & production > 13.7 tons honey ≈2 tons wax Annual value KIN US$ 2,006 (2007) 10% consumed 90% sold Annual value US$ 5.6 million (2009) 11% consumed/use 83% sold 5% gift >4,559 people directly involved production NW Annual value US$ 1.6 million (2003) >125 SMEs & 2 large enterprises 5% consumed 95% sold Honey exports US$800,000 1500 tons honey 400 tons wax
  18. 18. Win?: Conservation Forest management & protection • Inherently unsustainable practices: bark hives (Z), water & charcoal use in wax production (C), smoking techniques (DRC, C, Z) • Little positive evidence despite conservation rhetoric • Projects end - protection levels decrease & degradation continues (C) • Hive trials show secondary forest just as productive (Z) • Loss of honey types due to decreasing forest : white montane honey (C) • Forest health and honey production links explicit before local beekeepers act e.g. hive materials (C, Z) • If apiculture insufficiently valuable & not a high livelihood priority - it doesn‟t outweigh other beekeeper & conflicting external interests
  19. 19. Loosing: Conservation (long term) Forest management & protection 4000 5540 1988-2001 3500 3842 2500 4491 2177 2000 1500 1424 734 1000 896 270 500 21 2700-2998 2500-2700 2300-2500 2100-2300 1900-2100 1700-1900 1500-1700 1300-1500 0 1051-1300 S urfac e débois ée (en ha) 1978-1988 3000 C la sse s d'a ltitude Zambia average 1% (900,000 ha) pa deforestation Sources Husselman 2008, Cheek 2000, Solefack 2009
  20. 20. Negative aspects • Unclear/usufruct land tenure = conservation disincentive • Open access to forest = tragedy of commons • Conservation focus ignores livelihoods aspects & forest use conflicts – dual approach needed for long term sustainability • Production rather than market focus discourages beekeepers • Entering specialty & export markets = high cost for small, local, remote organizations with unsure and marginal profits • Importers have hands in both countries honey pots- restrictive market control or collaboration/learning opportunity? • Collective action without ‘good’ governance = over-organized, high cost, inefficient organizations and ultimately ‘death’ • Dependency on export markets enables cash income & can increase market scale & quality, but creates credit access problems • Remoteness can be a cost and market barrier • Many small, unconnected organizations and actors = inefficiency, lack of exchange on technology and market information. Positive aspects + new market chains and new markets = increasing opportunity for beekeepers + hive trials indicate ease & sustainability of modern hives but little quantity or quality difference + deregulation opens up competition + external actors ‘brokers’ promote information/sector exchanges + remote forests = naturally organic, pest free, highly resilient + successful income & high value = incentive for forest management Making the value chain work better... Zambia: KTB, bark and mud hives
  21. 21. HONEY •Price increases up to 25% for quality honey in urban markets • Export markets in general offer lower price UNLESS in high volume e.g. urban market in Cameroon 4.12 € 2700 FCFA/kg; Export 2.50 €/1592 FCFA (certified). Income Potentials Mead Cosmetics WAX •Quality can increase e.g. black to yellow increase by 29% and organic certification by 49%. Soap PROPOLIS • Exports up to 50% higher price than some local markets but quantity and quality standards needed.
  22. 22. Numbers • Large production increase possible- estimates difficult – limiting factors are access to land, available good quality forest & other forage, training & marketing Who • Women & forest users Routes • Harvest other hive products • Process by-products/increase range of processed products • Invest in marketing outside of production zone • Invest in differentiation: o Quality : packaging & labeling o Volume: high volume, lower value, • Certification an option for export markets • Geographical Indication option in Kilum-Ijum Potentials Cameroon: Poor & good quality beeswax
  23. 23. Poverty • Apiculture is not (yet) a pathway out of poverty But • Augments average household incomes • Provides important source of cash • Where little or no alternative sources of income, apiculture is vital in preventing sinking deeper into poverty • Apiculture products increases and diversifies household cash incomes • Vital for remote communities, marginalized ethnic groups and women prevention more than alleviation Oku: Beeswax
  24. 24. Opportunities & challenges • • • • • • • • Introduction of modern technologies allows more women to get involved in production Women already active in adding value –especially in Zambia Low entry barriers: both poor & and wealthy households keep bees (low costs, ease of entry & potentially high returns Lost opportunity: Low level value-adding in both countries despite wide range of options available (low tech & cost): e.g. candles, creams, wines, beers National and African regional markets highly promising and easy to reach Export & specialty markets increasingly open (propolis, organic, ethical & fair trade, community trade etc.) Need strong, financed national institutions coordinating sector support, with clear roles and responsibilities and supporting legal frameworks to enforce and protect. Increased coordination and networking facilities (stakeholder platforms, trade fairs, etc.) to avoid duplication & improve collaboration Oku: Beeswax
  25. 25. The balance.... Livelihoods ‘win’ and conservation ‘looses’, unless...... • Apiculture is more highly valued (economic, social & legal aspects and values) • The value of apiculture is sustained over a long term = vicious circle! • Can compete favorably with other forest uses & population pressure • Unlikely that apiculture alone can achieve MDG goals of poverty alleviation & environmental sustainability. • ……instead consider apiculture as one activity in diversified livelihood portfolio • External factors also have a major impact (agriculture, industry, infrastructure, market access political culture….) • Value chain approach taken with business focused support and capacity building for associations, cooperatives and service providers • Coordinated and inter-sectoral policies and institutions created.
  26. 26. Thank you plenty! On mange quoi? Special thanks to Guiding Hope & Rebecca Howard for data and photos! La forêt. ?

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