Location Based Services Verhaert

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Verhaert's view on location based services presented at Innovation Day '06.

Verhaert's view on location based services presented at Innovation Day '06.

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  • 1. LOCATION BASED SERVICES VERHAERTINNOVATIONDAY – OCTOBER 20th, 2006 www.mastersininnovation.com Location Based Services Injaas De Mul Injaas.demul@verhaert.com www.verhaert.com Commercially confidence – This presentation contains ideas and information which are proprietary of VERHAERT, Masters in Innovation®*, it is given in confidence. You are authorized to open and view the electronic copy of this document and to print a single copy. Otherwise, the material may not in whole or in part be copied, stored electronically or communicated to third parties without prior agreement of VERHAERT, Masters in Innovation®*. * VERHAERT, Masters in Innovation is a registered trade name of Verhaert Consultancies N.V. www.mastersininnovation.com 20.10.2006 Slide 1
  • 2. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Content 1. What does location based services means? www.mastersininnovation.com 2. Main drivers for location based services 3. Identifying location techniques • Global positioning system (GPS) • Mobile positioning (Cell- ID) • RFID localisation • Wifi 4. Tracking algorithm 5. Location based services & Self service technology 6. Inspiring applications 20.10.2006 Slide 2
  • 3. LOCATION BASED SERVICES www.mastersininnovation.com What does Location Based Services mean? 20.10.2006 Slide 3
  • 4. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Location based services • Location-based services (LBS) are www.mastersininnovation.com applications that leverage the user's physical location to provide an enhanced service or experience. • Location awareness can be used, for example, for navigation and mapping, workforce tracking, finding points of interest, and getting weather information. • It presents a compelling new business opportunity for application developers, operators and content producers. Location awareness differentiates mobile applications from traditional PC and wired Internet services. 20.10.2006 Slide 4
  • 5. LOCATION BASED SERVICES www.mastersininnovation.com Main drivers for Location Based Services 20.10.2006 Slide 5
  • 6. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Main drivers for Location Based Services Main drivers: www.mastersininnovation.com 1. Adding the location aspect to a range of services increases the value of this service for the user 2. In- & outdoor localisation & tracking 3. Safety and security of persons, property and goods 20.10.2006 Slide 6
  • 7. LOCATION BASED SERVICES www.mastersininnovation.com Identifying location techniques 20.10.2006 Slide 7
  • 8. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Techniques used for identifying location Techniques that can be used www.mastersininnovation.com identifying location 1. Global positioning system (GPS) 2. Mobile positioning (Cell- ID) 3. RFID localisation 4. Wifi 5. ....... 20.10.2006 Slide 8
  • 9. LOCATION BASED SERVICES www.mastersininnovation.com Global positioning system 20.10.2006 Slide 9
  • 10. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Global positioning system (GPS) • The Global Positioning System (GPS) is www.mastersininnovation.com actually a constellation of 27 Earth- orbiting satellites (24 in operation and three extras in case one fails). • Satellites circle the globe at about 19,300 km, making two complete rotations every day. • The orbits are arranged so that at any time, anywhere on Earth, there are at least four satellites quot;visiblequot; in the sky. • A GPS receiver's job is to locate four or more of these satellites, figure out the distance to each, and use this information to deduce its own location. 20.10.2006 Slide 10
  • 11. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Global positioning system (GPS) • GPS functionality can be used by www.mastersininnovation.com emergency services and location based services to locate mobile phones • The mobile phone location may also be used to provide location specific information to the mobile phone, such as location specific advertising, or providing service information specific to the phone user's geographic location • Location based games: • search for objects hidden by other geocachers • walking or hiking to natural locations • ....... 20.10.2006 Slide 11
  • 12. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Global positioning system (GPS) • Accuracy: www.mastersininnovation.com • The receivers do this by measuring the time delay between when the satellite sent the signal and the local time when the signal was received • The location accuracy is anywhere from 1 to 100 meters depending on the type of equipment used 20.10.2006 Slide 12
  • 13. LOCATION BASED SERVICES www.mastersininnovation.com Mobile positioning 20.10.2006 Slide 13
  • 14. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Mobile positioning – Cell ID • GSM is the digital radio network for www.mastersininnovation.com mobile telephony and the positioning system takes advantage of the fact that base stations are placed for the best possible coverage • Mobile positioning technologies 1. Terminal (device) based technologies (A-GPS / E-OTD) 2. Network based technologies (E-CID / U-TDOA) 3. Hybrid solutions (combination of 1 & 2) 20.10.2006 Slide 14
  • 15. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Mobile positioning (A-GPS) • A-GPS (Assisted GPS) www.mastersininnovation.com • Uses an assistance server to cut down the time needed to determine a location using GPS • Useful in urban areas • No indoor coverage 20.10.2006 Slide 15
  • 16. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Mobile positioning (E-OTD) Enhanced Observed Time Difference www.mastersininnovation.com • A position-location method for GSM networks in which the phone measures the difference in the time of arrival signals from different towers • The phone triangulates its position using signals from the towers • Only works with phones that specifically include E-OTD technology 20.10.2006 Slide 16
  • 17. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Mobile positioning (E-CID) CID • CID: Cell Identification www.mastersininnovation.com • The accuracy of this method can be as good as a few hundred meters in urban areas, but very poor in suburban areas and rural zones. LB E-CID • E –CID: Enhanced Cell Identification • Higher accuracy by using • TOA (time of arrival) *Cell Global Identity LBS • AOA (angle of arrival) • Neighbouring cells 20.10.2006 Slide 17
  • 18. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Mobile positioning (U-TDOA) • U-TDOA :Uplink the difference of www.mastersininnovation.com arrival • Method calculates the location of a handset by using the difference in time of arrival of signals at different receivers. • The handset or device could be a standard mobile phone or PDA. • Accuracy is under 50 meters. 20.10.2006 Slide 18
  • 19. LOCATION BASED SERVICES www.mastersininnovation.com RFID localisation 20.10.2006 Slide 19
  • 20. LOCATION BASED SERVICES RFID localisation - What is RFID? What is RFID? www.mastersininnovation.com • RFID = Radio Frequency Identification • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. • An RFID tag is an object that can be attached to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification using radio waves. Chip-based RFID tags contain silicon chips and antennas. Passive tags require no internal power source, whereas active tags require a power source. 20.10.2006 Slide 20
  • 21. LOCATION BASED SERVICES RFID localisation - tracking The origin of RFID in inventory tracking: www.mastersininnovation.com • Wal-mart has spent millions of dollars since the late 1990s researching the efficiency of RFID systems to replace the bar codes (which have been in use since the early 1970s) • In 1999, with the help of scientist of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), a consortium of companies formed the Auto-ID center – a center for continued research into the nature and use of radio frequeny identification. 20.10.2006 Slide 21
  • 22. LOCATION BASED SERVICES RFID localisation - Electronic Product Code Tracking Goods with EPC : www.mastersininnovation.com • EPC = Electronic Product Code (Developed at MIT’s Audio center in 2000) • EPC is modern day replacement for the Universal Product Code (UPC) • A tag embedded EPC number is unique to the Tag • The EPC protocol is universal to all EPC compliant systems and serve two specific functions: • Telling how data is to be stored on the tag – numbering scheme • Determining how tag and readers communicate – air interface protocol 20.10.2006 Slide 22
  • 23. LOCATION BASED SERVICES RFID localisation - Electronic Product Code • Why an EPC code doesn’t contain more information: www.mastersininnovation.com 1. Security: Like a car license plate, every car has its own license plate but you need to have access to a database to find out who owns the car, where the owner lives and other private information. The same applied to EPC; it points to a file in a database, so this information stays secure. 2. Cost: Delivering a very low cost tag was one of the primary goals of the Auto-ID Center. Memory on an IC is one of the drivers for the cost. 20.10.2006 Slide 23
  • 24. LOCATION BASED SERVICES RFID localisation - The basic physics of RFID 1. RFID reader www.mastersininnovation.com 2. The Tag (active or passive – technologies antennas) 3. Frequency – Air Protocol 20.10.2006 Slide 24
  • 25. LOCATION BASED SERVICES RFID localisation - Main operating frequency www.mastersininnovation.com 20.10.2006 Slide 25
  • 26. LOCATION BASED SERVICES RFID localisation - Technical Challenges On the surface, the technology is very straightforward, but there are a number of very interesting features, limitations and weaknesses of the systems: www.mastersininnovation.com • Frequency, Power & The range of a reader/tag pair is determined by the frequency Range of transmission and the power transmitted by the reader. • The RFspectrum is tightly controlled and heavily used. • UHF support ranges around 20feet -30 • HF support range to 2 feet s up • Interference from Devices are subject to many sources of interference. • Materials and RF Readers typically cannot penetrate metals or liquids. Devices • Interference also comes from other RF devices like bar codescanners, cordless phones, wa lkie-talkies, wireless networks,and security systems. • Multiple Reads The RF wave from a reader triggers transmission in all tags within range. • Reader must contend with multiple simultaneous signals and multiple transmissions from each tag. 20.10.2006 Slide 26
  • 27. LOCATION BASED SERVICES RFID localisation - Technical Challenges • Accuracy of Reads Fully loaded pallets have a readrate of 66% • Cases on stocking carts 90% www.mastersininnovation.com • Conveyor belts 95%, • Trash compactors 98%. • Triangulation Identifying the location of a specific tag requires triangulation from multiple readers that are placed in very specific patterns. • A large number of readers are required to provide locations in a large area. • Speed of reading Cases move through distribution center at 8 MPH. • Readers must correctly identify a product at this pace. • Hacking Hackers can read tag data anywhere, anytime. • For active tags, hackers may also be able to write and overwrite data on the tags. • Encryption • Data fusion In a tag-dense environment (like an Airbus A380), a reader will receive a large number of reads in a single scan. • This will create a need for data fusion algorithms within the computers receiving the data. • Competing Tag Some environments will contain a number of tags from different Environments manufacturers and systems. 20.10.2006 Slide 27
  • 28. LOCATION BASED SERVICES RFID localisation + Wifi • Active tag including WLAN. www.mastersininnovation.com • Conventional idea would be to use something like Zigbee. • WiFi -> absurd for this type of job: • far too power-hungry (most power- hungry of all short range wireless technologies) • far too difficult to integrate into a LAN which means all the complications of setting up network addresses, IP authentication, and so on • But WiFi is available in most places. 20.10.2006 Slide 28
  • 29. LOCATION BASED SERVICES RFID localisation + Wifi • Solution power problem: tags have to pop up www.mastersininnovation.com every now and again and say quot;here I amquot; • Powered by standard AA batteries will position and track any asset equipped with a tag. • Items that move around a lot (like wheelchairs) can be set to send a signal more often than items that are relatively stationary (like heart monitors). • They don't go into sleep mode -> they completely shut off when not transmitting. They're only associated for the few seconds that they transmit. 20.10.2006 Slide 29
  • 30. LOCATION BASED SERVICES www.mastersininnovation.com Tracking algorithm 20.10.2006 Slide 30
  • 31. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Tracking algorithm – Kalman Filter Kalman filter invented in www.mastersininnovation.com 1960 by R. E. Kalman Problem: • System state cannot be measured directly • Need to estimate “optimally” from measurements 20.10.2006 Slide 31
  • 32. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Tracking algorithm – Kalman Filter www.mastersininnovation.com y • Lost on the 1-dimensional line • Position – y(t) • Assume Gaussian distributed measurements 20.10.2006 Slide 32
  • 33. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Tracking algorithm – Kalman Filter 0.16 www.mastersininnovation.com 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Sextant Measurement at t1: Mean = z1 and Variance = σz1 • • Optimal estimate of position is: ŷ(t1) = z1 Variance of error in estimate: σ2x (t1) = σ2z1 • • Boat in same position at time t2 - Predicted position is z1 20.10.2006 Slide 33
  • 34. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Tracking algorithm – Kalman Filter 0.16 0.14 measurement www.mastersininnovation.com 0.12 z(t2) prediction ŷ-(t2) 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 • So we have the prediction ŷ-(t2) GPS Measurement at t2: Mean = z2 and Variance = σz2 • • Need to correct the prediction due to measurement to get ŷ(t2) • Closer to more trusted measurement 20.10.2006 Slide 34
  • 35. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Tracking algorithm – Kalman Filter prediction ŷ-(t2) 0.16 www.mastersininnovation.com corrected 0.14 optimal 0.12 estimate ŷ(t2) 0.1 measurement 0.08 z(t2) 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 • Corrected mean is the new optimal estimate of position • New variance is smaller 20.10.2006 Slide 35
  • 36. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Tracking algorithm – Kalman Filter 0.1 6 ŷ(t2) www.mastersininnovation.com 0.1 4 Naïve Prediction ŷ-(t3) 0.1 2 0 .1 0.0 8 0.0 6 0.0 4 0.0 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 • At time t3, boat moves with velocity dy/dt=u • Naive approach: Shift probability to the right to predict • This would work if we knew the velocity exactly (perfect model) 20.10.2006 Slide 36
  • 37. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Tracking algorithm – Kalman Filter Naïve 0.16 Prediction ŷ-(t3) ŷ(t2) www.mastersininnovation.com 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 Prediction ŷ-(t3) 0.04 0.02 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 • Better to assume imperfect model by adding Gaussian noise • dy/dt = u + w • Distribution for prediction moves and spreads out 20.10.2006 Slide 37
  • 38. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Tracking algorithm – Kalman Filter 0 .1 6 Corrected optimal estimate ŷ(t3) 0 .1 4 www.mastersininnovation.com 0 .1 2 Measurement z(t3) 0 .1 0 .0 8 0 .0 6 Prediction ŷ-(t3) 0 .0 4 0 .0 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 • Now we take a measurement at t3 • Need to once again correct the prediction • Same as before 20.10.2006 Slide 38
  • 39. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Tracking algorithm – Kalman Filter • Overview: • Initial conditions (ŷk-1 and σk-1) www.mastersininnovation.com • Prediction (ŷ-k , σ-k) • Use initial conditions and model (eg. constant velocity) to make prediction • Measurement (zk) • Take measurement • Correction (ŷk , σk) • Use measurement to correct prediction by ‘blending’ prediction and residual – always a case of merging only two Gaussians • Optimal estimate with smaller variance 20.10.2006 Slide 39
  • 40. LOCATION BASED SERVICES www.mastersininnovation.com Location based services & Self service technology 20.10.2006 Slide 40
  • 41. LOCATION BASED SERVICES LBS & Self service technology • Self service technology: www.mastersininnovation.com • ICT Information & Communication Technology supported systems to automate or facilitate consumer / citizen interaction during sales, pre sales and information processes. • Initially conceived within banking industry, later transferred towards governments, retail & mobility industry. 20.10.2006 Slide 41
  • 42. LOCATION BASED SERVICES LBS & Self service technology • Why self service concepts? www.mastersininnovation.com Main goal • Improve convenience = • Lower operational costs with more control • Wider range of services more • Create new distribution channels convenience • Increase safety at a lower cost • Increase loyalty • Exclude fraud 20.10.2006 Slide 42
  • 43. LOCATION BASED SERVICES LBS & Self service technology Micro kiosk www.mastersininnovation.com Banking Info kiosk 20.10.2006 Slide 43
  • 44. LOCATION BASED SERVICES www.mastersininnovation.com Inspiring applications 20.10.2006 Slide 44
  • 45. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Near Field communication • Consumers are seeking easier ways to interact with their www.mastersininnovation.com immediate environment and to enable easy communication between their electronic devices. • NFC are getting their own notoriety as a unique technology, however, they are really just a specific type of RFID that uses the high band of the spectrum (most often 13.56 MHz). • In addition to the different band, it uses a different form of communication that has an impact on the usable range. • NFC is all via magnetic waves and has an inverse sixth power (1/r6) relationship with range, which explains why the range is only a few inches because the power to wake up and communicates with the tag diminishes very quickly. • Simply by bringing two NFC-enabled devices close together, they automatically initiate network communications without requiring the user to configure the setup. 20.10.2006 Slide 45
  • 46. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Near Field communication NFC applications can be split into four basic categories. Touch and Go www.mastersininnovation.com Applications such as access control or transport/event ticketing, where the user only needs to bring the device storing the ticket or access code close to the reader. Also, for simple data capture applications, such as picking up an Internet URL from a smart label on a poster. Touch and Confirm Applications such as mobile payment where the user has to confirm the interaction by entering a password or just accepting the transaction. Touch and Connect Linking two NFC-enabled devices to enable peer to peer transfer of data such as downloading music, exchanging images or synchronizing address books. Touch and Explore NFC devices may offer more than one possible function. The consumer will be able to explore a device's capabilities to find out which functionalities and services are offered. 20.10.2006 Slide 46
  • 47. LOCATION BASED SERVICES PDA & LBS • PDA (Personal Digital www.mastersininnovation.com Assistant) - Smartphone • Localisation -> Wifi / GPS technology? • User friendly interface • Applications: • Tourism • Guided tours • Feedback point of interest • ...... 20.10.2006 Slide 47
  • 48. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Banking applications • Banking card with RFID chip www.mastersininnovation.com • RFID reader installed in banking infrastructure • Detection the customer (m/f, age, interest,...) • Display specific information • Staff has extra client information • Video streaming 20.10.2006 Slide 48
  • 49. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Child tracking A splash at water park • An RFID locating system gives parents www.mastersininnovation.com visiting Dolly's Splash Country piece of mind, because kids are always tracked. It also gives the park the opportunity to increase revenues by adding services, like cashless payments. Crowded coast line • RFID location by using Wifi technology. • Added value 20.10.2006 Slide 49
  • 50. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Child tracking “Kidspotter” • Legoland in Denmark is using a combination of wireless technologies to track very important assets: www.mastersininnovation.com kids gone astray. Not only does the service use RFID and WiFi, the interface to it is through the parents' mobile phones. • Accuracy of about 5 feet • Renting a wristband with a Wi-Fi-enhanced radio frequency identification (RFID) tag on it for a child's arm. Parents also get a map of the site. • If they lose sight of their child, parents can send a text message (SMS) to the Kidspotter system, which will automatically send a return message stating the name of the park area and the coordinates of their child's location. 20.10.2006 Slide 50
  • 51. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Safety aspects • Developped a system that uses standard www.mastersininnovation.com access points to locate children wearing tags as they walk to and from school. • Automobile drivers are alerted to the presence of nearby children through a voice service, to reduce accidents in residential city areas. 20.10.2006 Slide 51
  • 52. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Human implants • Implantable RFID chips designed for www.mastersininnovation.com animal tagging are now being used for human beings. • An early experiment with RFID implants was conducted in 1998 • Night clubs use an implantable chip to identify their VIP customers, who in turn use it to pay for drinks. 20.10.2006 Slide 52
  • 53. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Patient care • Wave the PC over the patient's wrist and bring up the www.mastersininnovation.com problem list, medications, allergies and other critical information, it will simplify patient identification and save clinical-staff keystrokes. Tagging office folders • The goal is to eliminate many hours of searching for lost. 20.10.2006 Slide 53
  • 54. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Truck scanner • The French shipping company finds that a tag-and- www.mastersininnovation.com reader system significantly improves the efficiency of its overnight deliveries. RFID shops timber cost • RFID embedded in plastic nails. 20.10.2006 Slide 54
  • 55. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Blood service bank • RFID system to manage and track blood, improve safety, make deliveries more timely and lower costs. www.mastersininnovation.com Banks follow the money • Rabobank branches save time and cut costs by using RFID to track cash deliveries for their ATMs. 20.10.2006 Slide 55
  • 56. LOCATION BASED SERVICES RFID gate detection www.mastersininnovation.com 20.10.2006 Slide 56
  • 57. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Retail applications Customer identification -> www.mastersininnovation.com added value Product check -> Display relevant information 20.10.2006 Slide 57
  • 58. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Wearables Using assistant GPS www.mastersininnovation.com Start End Equipped with movement sensors Indoor application 20.10.2006 Slide 58
  • 59. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Proximity sensing for the Blind User • Navigation and location determination system for the blind using an RFID tag grid. www.mastersininnovation.com • Each RFID tag is programmed upon installation with spatial coordinates and information describing the surroundings. • With an established RFID grid infrastructure blind children and adults will gain the independence and freedom to explore and participate in activities without external assistance. • A reader integrated into the user’s shoe. 20.10.2006 Slide 59
  • 60. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Tracking assets (RFID + integrated sensors) www.mastersininnovation.com 20.10.2006 Slide 60
  • 61. LOCATION BASED SERVICES Tracking assets (RFID + integrated sensors) www.mastersininnovation.com 20.10.2006 Slide 61
  • 62. LOCATION BASED SERVICES www.mastersininnovation.com Verhaert New Products & Services nv Hogenakkerhoekstraat 21 9150 Kruibeke Belgium Tel +32 (0)3 250 19 00 Fax +32 (0)3 254 10 08 www.verhaert.com info@verhaert.com www.mastersininnovation.com 20.10.2006 Slide 62