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Collection development of e-resources
 

Collection development of e-resources

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Last three decades have witnessed the information explosion. New ICT systems have increased the generation of more and more information and multiplied the knowledge bases. Every day more and more ...

Last three decades have witnessed the information explosion. New ICT systems have increased the generation of more and more information and multiplied the knowledge bases. Every day more and more information is digitally born. The ordinary user is unable to cope with the Internet to select, choose, download, store and retrieve the right information they need from this information deluge. Yet the modern generation prefers digital format due to its advantages. For Librarian this is a great opportunity to concentrate on collection development of digital resources / e-resources and assist users by providing methods and techniques for better control of the digital resources. The principles of Library and Information Science couples with the modern day Information Technology facilitates several options for better management of Libraries, collection and services.

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    Collection development of e-resources Collection development of e-resources Document Transcript

    • One Day State Level Seminar on Library as a Source of Information and Knowledge, SIA College Dombivili, Mumbai, August 31, 2013. 1 | P a g e Collection development of e-Resources. Mrs. Chandrakala N Pai* Mr. V. Sriram Librarian, K J Somaiya Polytechnic Chief Librarian, KNRaj Library Vidyanagar, Vidyavihar Centre for Development Studies Mumbai -400077 Prasanth Nagar, Ulloor, email: kalapai@rediffmail.com Thiruvananthapuram-695011 email: vsrirams@gmail.com Abstract: Last three decades have witnessed the information explosion. New ICT systems have increased the generation of more and more information and multiplied the knowledge bases. Every day more and more information is digitally born. The ordinary user is unable to cope with the Internet to select, choose, download, store and retrieve the right information they need from this information deluge. Yet the modern generation prefers digital format due to its advantages. For Librarian this is a great opportunity to concentrate on collection development of digital resources / e-resources and assist users by providing methods and techniques for better control of the digital resources. The principles of Library and Information Science couples with the modern day Information Technology facilitates several options for better management of Libraries, collection and services. Key words: collection development, e-resources, library professional 1 Introduction: Library plays an indispensable role in the dissemination of information and knowledge. Library comprise of the trinity viz. collection, readers, and staff. The importance of any library is measured by its strong collection so and systematic collection building in various formats is a prerequisite to match the needs. Collection development is a vital process in creating and building a library collection, be it in an academic, public or special library. Library collection can be described as the holdings of the library. The libraries basically acquire process, organize, manage and disseminate the information to the users whenever required. The users visit the library for various purposes but their main objective is to get the information available in their area of work. The recent advances in communication technology, networking, use of internet and electronic products have brought about a revolutionary change in selection, acquisition, and information transfer process. 2 Definitions: 2.1 Collection Development 2.1.1 Collection Development, Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting E-Resources.
    • One Day State Level Seminar on Library as a Source of Information and Knowledge, SIA College Dombivili, Mumbai, August 31, 2013. 2 | P a g e 2.1.2 Encyclopedia of library and information science describes “Library collection is the sum total of library material – books, manuscripts, serials, government documents, pamphlets, catalogues, reports, recordings, microfilm reels, micro cards, and micro fiche, computer tapes etc- that makes up the holding of particular library”. 2.2 Electronic Resources: 2.2.1 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS explains electronic recourses as – “An electronic resource" is defined as any work encoded and made available for access through the use of a computer. It includes electronic data available by (1) remote access and (2) direct access (fixed media). In other words: Remote access (electronic resources) refers to the use of electronic resources via computer networks. 2.2.2Electronic resources, as defined by the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources (ISBD(ER) is all those materials codified for computer elaboration; including material which requires the use of a peripheral. They constitute a constantly growing patrimony within the bibliographicresources of the university library system 3. Need of E-Resources. Technology permeates everyday life, from e-mail to remote database access to computers in our cars, microwave ovens, and cell phones etc. In terms of information, technology presents many important benefits to the researcher and to libraries, from remote access to full-text searching. The amount of information—the good, the bad, and the ugly being produced electronically grows exponentially each year. Unquestionably preserves information for future generations, but if libraries do not master and understand the media that their users prefer, the current generation may devalue the library to the point where it does not survive to serve future users. 3.1 Currency: Refers to the timeliness of information. Technology enables the rapid updating of information, a feature highly valued by users looking to evaluate the validity of their assertions against new information’s. Print publishing requires gathering, assembling, printing, and distribution, Online databases eliminate the delay in delivery and allow information to be posted online even as it is created.
    • One Day State Level Seminar on Library as a Source of Information and Knowledge, SIA College Dombivili, Mumbai, August 31, 2013. 3 | P a g e 3.2 Print Materials Are Limited and Exclusive in Use: Print texts, being physical entities, restrict use of any given volume to a single user at any given time. Digital information can be replicated innumerable times and simultaneously 3.3 Convenience: Technology has transformed libraries and the manner in which they provide their services. Proxy servers and virtual private networks allow users to connect to library resources remotely. 3.4 Portability: A book, or any physical container, occupies space. Data too require a home, but the scale on which space is needed is minuscule compared to physical formats. A physical library cannot be easily carried from one location to another, whereas devices such as handhelds, USB memory keys, and laptops envision an eminently portable virtual library. Even though the data may not be in the most easily used or preferred format, it is still accessible, transferable, and downloadable to multiple devices. 3.5 User Expectations: Considering all of the benefits, it is not surprising that users have adapted to technology and demanded greater availability. Those accustomed to conducting research at odd hours or searching across multiple databases with a single query find print resources constraining 3.6 Not everything available in Print: Dual format publishing is on the rise, and born- digital documents already outnumber print ones. Even in the scholarly world, the number of resources published exclusively online is increasing. This growth was prompted by the rapid increase in publisher print pricing, and propelled further by lower distribution costs, technology’s evolution, and user demand. 3.7 Lower Costs and Fewer Space Needs: In some cases, electronic databases are less expensive than books, and in almost all cases they require less space. 3.8 Accurate Use Assessment/ statistics: Libraries through the ages have sought mechanisms through which to measure use. Library collections, which are primarily non- circulating, pose particular challenges. While reshelving and circulation statistics can provide some data, they are not complete and therefore not entirely reliable.. 4. Methods of Selecting Electronic Resources:
    • One Day State Level Seminar on Library as a Source of Information and Knowledge, SIA College Dombivili, Mumbai, August 31, 2013. 4 | P a g e The selection of electronic resources follows the well established criteria for selection of non- print materials. Any selection decision must be based on the principle that the library has adequate equipment by which to view, play, or provide access to the product. The two primary factors influencing collection development activities for electronic products are technology options and licensing issues. As a primary function, libraries should select only those electronic products for which they have the applicable technology. Some recommended steps are discussed in detail below. They are: • Step 1. Determine the purpose of your e-library. • Step 2. Develop a collection development plan. • Step 3. Collect, evaluate and select resources for your e-library collection. • Step 4. Design, create and maintain your Web-based e-library collection Web site. 4.1. Determine the purpose of your e-library: It is essential that from the outset the goals for the e-library collection are well defined, while allowing room for growth. In addressing the issue of the purpose of e-library, following planning areas may be considered: • User community: Who are the potential users of your site? For whom will you be creating the e-library collection? • Resources. Why collect Web-based resources? Which resources should be collected? What subject areas? What depth of coverage or educational level or resources should be included? • Services. What is the service function of your virtual collection? • Access. Where and how will the e-library Web page(s) be published? What skills or knowledge will be expected from users in order to access the e-library collection? – What speed and type of Internet connection will be available to your user population? What will be the primary Web browser used to access the information and what functions will be available through this software? 4.2. Developing a collection development plan: Creating an e-library collection involves a large investment in time and personnel. In order to justify these significant investments there must be a compelling reason to dive into the realm of ephemeral resources. The most important
    • One Day State Level Seminar on Library as a Source of Information and Knowledge, SIA College Dombivili, Mumbai, August 31, 2013. 5 | P a g e reason is to provide enhanced, customized services for patrons based on in-depth knowledge of your patrons, their needs and the currently available Web-based resources. 4.3.Collect, evaluate and select resources for your e-library collection : Choosing resources that are appropriate for your clients acquires new dimensions with Web-based resources; traditionally, when we are assessing resources, we consider issues such as scope or level of coverage, accessibility (is the source written in language appropriate to the discipline and understandable to the target audience?), and presentation i.e.do the information clearly and logically presented in a format that is useful to the target audience? 4.4 Evaluation criteria: appropriateness for digital/Web-based format: Web-based resources selected should provide enhanced access or improved presentation of information over their print counterparts. Some ways in which Web-based versions of print resources are an enhancement or improvement include: • simultaneous use by multiple users • portability (can be saved, printed, and used at multiple locations) • search ability (user can find specific information they are interested in rather than reading through all of a text) • ease of use (homogeneous interface, fun) • ability to manipulate digital data/format (can copy digital information for use in other applications – graphics, statistics, text, software, presentations) • interactivity (links, forms, tutorials, chat, courseware) and • Uniqueness of resources available (searchable, archives of discussion groups, newsgroups, e-journals, images). 4.5 Design, create and maintain your Web-based e-library collection: Creating an e-library is a time-consuming process. In addition to the usual collection development responsibilities such as reviewing new information resources and deciding if they are needed and appropriate for our patrons. E-library maintenance involves maintaining the quality and content of the e-
    • One Day State Level Seminar on Library as a Source of Information and Knowledge, SIA College Dombivili, Mumbai, August 31, 2013. 6 | P a g e library collection. This does not mean the e-library manager does not need to know anything about the technology. 5. Strategies and tools for storage and dissemination Modern ICT systems provide diverse and convenient solutions for efficient management of digital / e-Resources. 5.1 Storage Solutions: Diverse hardware storage solutions are now available for effectively storing the digital documents. These hardware are easy to configure, have high storage capacity (1 TB and above), occupy less space and utilize less energy. SAN, NAS, and so on are some among such reliable solutions. Apart from these, normal computer now come with minimum 500 GB storage which is sufficient for a library venturing to start a digital collection. Modern computer hardware come with swappable disk facility are a scalable. Hence, when the existing storage is full, new hard disks (some times up to 4 or 6) can be inserted next to one another and used simultaneously. 5.2 Software / Applications – There are any number of software solutions available for managing the digital collection. They fall in both proprietary and open source categories. DSpace, Green Stone, E-Prints, etc are some of the prominent open source digital library software that is developed according to international standards and formats. Most of them are very stable, easy to install, use and are supported by international agencies for regular updations. Social media applications / Web 2.0/3.0 tools, bibliography management software a (Zotero, JabRef) and so on can be integrated to the digital library software easily since they also support international standards. This provides maximum visibility and value addition for users while using the digital library. 5.3 Services – Digital library can be stored in house in computer installed with digital library software. For libraries that unable to do this, cloud computing based (SAAS, PAAS, etc.) solutions are also available for hosting their digital repository in hired locations.
    • One Day State Level Seminar on Library as a Source of Information and Knowledge, SIA College Dombivili, Mumbai, August 31, 2013. 7 | P a g e 6. Advantages of e-Resources Building up collection of e-Resources in libraries has a lot of advantages over print based collection. 6.1 Space: In an age when physical space is premium, digital collection is a good solution. Digital repository having a million documents can be stored in one good computer machine, and will occupy only a small space in the institution. Even if institution decides on a back up installation for safety reason, the entire collection can be stored in an external hard disk, or a series of DVD’s. They also occupy less space. 6.2 Maximum control: Unlike print resources, library staff will have complete control over digital repository. The documents stored in computer hard disk will remain safely there itself without fear of being misplaced, mutilated, torn / damaged, or pilfered. The questions such as security of the resources, stock verification will become redundant. 6.3 Access: Digital repository can be made available across the campus network and if required on the Internet. Since the library users access the digital repository from any machine on the network, their presence within the library premises is not very essential. 6.4 Usage: Another advantage is that digital repository can be used all 24 hours throughout the year. The working days and hours of the library will not affect the usage of digital repository, because the users access it via the network that is always available. Hence the service is uninterrupted. 7. Challenges for Library Professionals: In today’s electronic environment, collection development is becoming collection management, which is much wider in scope. The librarian must act as a knowledge manager, applying the skills right from collection planning, selection, analysis and cooperation in order to manage the intersection of both print and e-resources. They need to think about the availability and accessibility of multiple electronic formats in order to deliver the best information to all users in the least possible time.
    • One Day State Level Seminar on Library as a Source of Information and Knowledge, SIA College Dombivili, Mumbai, August 31, 2013. 8 | P a g e 8. Conclusion Library plays an important role in the society for promotion of education and reading. Collection of a library should aim to support both casual and serious reading habits of individual users. Quality of a collection should be looked at through the angles of both ‘Value – based’ and ‘Demand – based’ approaches. Modern day user prefers e-resources for their research and reading purpose. Hence modern libraries should reinvent themselves as ‘hybrid libraries’ and try developing e-resources collection also along with the print collection for the use of patrons. 9. References 1. Baker, S. L. (1991). Measurement and evaluation of library services. Virginia: information resource press. 3. Collection Development Policy / Laval University. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bibl.ulaval.ca/info/polsec.html. 4. Collection Development Policy / National Library of Australia. (n.d.). http://www.nla.gov.au/policy/colldevt.html 5. Dartmouth College Library Collection Management & Development Program: Guidelines for Writing Collection Development Policies, D. C. (n.d.). www.dartmouth.edu/~cmdc/bibapp/cdpguide.html. 7. Drummond, R. C. (1991). A joint venture : Collaboration in collection development building. Collection Management , 14 (12), 59-72. 8. Evans, G. E. (1995). "Developing library and information center collections," 3rd ed. Englewood, Co: Libraries Unlimited.on, A. D. www.enssib.fr/autressites/poldo/index.html. 9. Schamber, L. ((2009).). Library Collection Development in an Electronic Age. 10. Diane K. Kovacs, Angela Elkordy: Collection development in cyberspace: building an electronic library collection, Library Hi Tech; Volume: 18 Issue: 4; 2000. 11. Amy E. Fordham: The collection developing planning process http://faculty.libsci.sc.edu/bob/class/clis724/SpecialLibrariesHandbook/collection.htm 12. Sharon Johnson& others: Key Issues for E-Resource Collection Development: A Guide for Libraries: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/.
    • One Day State Level Seminar on Library as a Source of Information and Knowledge, SIA College Dombivili, Mumbai, August 31, 2013. 9 | P a g e 13. Kumbar, B D & Hadagali, G S: Collection development in the electronic environment : Challenges before library , 3rd Convention PLANNER -2005, Assam Univ., Silchar, 10-11 Nov., 2005 Pg 73-82. 14. Dhiman, A K & Sinha, S C: Academic library: New Delhi: Ess Ess Publication, 2002 Pg. 74-194.