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TQMVIT
 

TQMVIT

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    TQMVIT TQMVIT Presentation Transcript

    • UNIT- II QUALITY PLANNING
    • What you will know…
      • SMART goal setting
      • Designing for quality
      • Manufacturing for quality
      • Process control- Cp,CpK
      • Scientific approach to TQM
      • Data based approach
      • Quantification
      • Statistical tools
      • Quality control tools
      • New 7 tools
    • SMART Goals S pecific M easurable A ttainable R ealistic T angible
    • SMART Goals Specific
      • Specific - A specific goal has a much greater chance of being accomplished than a general goal.
      • To set a specific goal you must answer the six "W" questions:
      • *Who:     Who is involved? *What:    What do I want to accomplish? *Where:  Identify a location. *When:   Establish a time frame. *Which:   Identify requirements and constraints. *Why:      Specific reasons, purpose or benefits of accomplishing the goal.
      • EXAMPLE:    A general goal would be, "Get in shape." But a specific goal would say, "Join a health club and workout 3 days a week."
    • SMART Goals Measurable
      • Measurable - Establish concrete criteria for measuring progress toward the attainment of each goal you set.
      • When you measure your progress, you stay on track, reach your target dates, and experience the exhilaration of achievement that spurs you on to continued effort required to reach your goal.
      • To determine if your goal is measurable, ask questions such as......How much? How many? How will I know when it is accomplished?
    • SMART Goals Attainable
      • Attainable - When you identify goals that are most important to you, you begin to figure out ways you can make them come true. your steps wisely and establish a time frame that allows you to carry out those steps.
      • Goals that may have seemed far away and out of reach eventually move closer and become attainable, not because your goals shrink, but because you grow and expand to match them.
      • When you list your goals you build your self-image. You see yourself as worthy of these goals, and develop the traits and personality that allow you to possess them.
    • SMART Goals Realistic
      • Realistic - To be realistic, a goal must represent an objective toward which you are both willing and able to work.
      • A goal can be both high and realistic; you are the only one who can decide just how high your goal should be. Your goal is probably realistic if you truly believe that it can be accomplished. Additional ways to know if your goal is realistic is to determine if you have accomplished anything similar in the past or ask yourself what conditions would have to exist to accomplish this goal.
    • SMART Goals Tangible
      • Tangible - A goal is tangible when you can experience it with one of the senses, that is, taste, touch, smell, sight or hearing.
      • When your goal is tangible, or when you tie an tangible goal to a intangible goal, you have a better chance of making it specific and measurable and thus attainable. Intangible goals are your goals for the internal changes required to reach more tangible goals.
      • They are the personality characteristics and the behavior patterns you must develop to pave the way to success in your career or for reaching some other long-term goal.
    • Designing for quality
      • Eliminating the Cost of Quality begins with designing in quality to avoid costly defects, errors, rework, scrap, procurement of replacement materials, factory/machine capacity degradation, re-qualifications/re-certifications costs, and overhead demands to sort out quality problems which rob resources from implementing the overall cost reduction strategy.
    • STRATEGY for DESIGN for QUALITY
      • Understand past quality problems. Thoroughly understand the root causes of quality problems on current and past products to prevent new product development from repeating past mistakes.
      • This includes part selection, design aspects, processing, supplier selection, and so forth.
      • It may be useful to have Manufacturing, Quality, and Field Service people make presentations to newly formed product development teams showing, hopefully with some real life examples, some of the past problems that can avoided in new designs.
      • Quality function deployment (QFD) to define products to capture the voice of the customer. This ensures that the first design will satisfy the voice of the customer without the cost and risk of changing the design.
      • Use Multi-functional teamwork. Break down the walls between departments with multi-functional design teams (Deming's 9th point) to ensure that all quality issues are raised and resolved early and that quality is indeed treated as a primary design goal.
      • Thorough up-front work (a key element of Concurrent Engineering ) so product development teams can optimize quality starting with the concept/architecture phase and avoid later quality and ramp problems.
      • Simplify the design for the fewest parts, interfaces, and process steps. Elegantly simple designs and uncomplicated processing result in inherently high quality products.
      • Minimize the exponential cumulative effect of part quality and quantity by specifying high-quality parts and simplifying the design with fewer parts.1  The formulas state that the quality of the product (the first-pass accept rate) will be (assuming perfect processing) equal to the quality level of the parts to the exponent of the number of parts! So, for instance a product with 500 parts with each part being 99.9 percent good, a third of the products will fail just from the parts
      • Select the highest quality processing. Automated processing produces better and more consistent quality than manual labor.
      • Raise and resolve issues early by: learning from past quality problems; early research, experiments, and models; generate plan-B contingency plans; and proactively devising and implementing plans to resolve all issues early.
      • Optimize tolerances for a robust design using Taguchi Methods. To ensure the high quality by design. This is a systematic way to optimize tolerances to achieve high quality at low cost.   It does this by using Design of Experiments to analyze the effect of all tolerances on functionality, quality, and manufacturability to analyze tolerance .
      • The procedure can identify critical dimensions that need tight tolerances and precision parts, which can then be toleranced methodically. The unique strength of this approach is that it can minimize cost while assuring high quality by identifying low demand dimensions that can have looser tolerances and cheaper parts.
      • Such a design would be considered robust so that it could be manufactured predictably with consistently high quality and perform adequately in all anticipated usage environments. It would also ensure that margins are adequate for current and future components from current and future suppliers.    
    • .
      • Poka -Yoke principles applied to product design to prevent mistakes by design in addition to traditional manufacturing techniques to prevent incorrect assembly or fabrication
      • Proactively minimizing all types of risk , not just functionality. For critical applications, use Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA)
      • Big picture metrics and compensation to avoid compromising quality with cheap parts to save cost or throwing a sub-optimal design over the wall .
      • In many organizations, individuals do what they are rewarded to do. If they are rewarded for releasing a design on time, they will, effectively, throw it over the wall on time, ready or not! If they are rewarded for achieving cost targets without total cost measurements, they will do so by buying the cheapest parts available, probably without concern for part quality. So reward systems must be structured to include quality metrics
    • .
      • Reusing proven designs, parts, modules, and process to minimize risk and assure quality, especially on critical aspects of the design.
      • Document thoroughly and completely. In the rush to develop products, many designers fail to document every aspect of the design thoroughly. Drawings, manufacturing instructions, and bills-of-material sent to the manufacturing or vendors need to convey the design unambiguously for manufacture, tooling, and inspection. Imprecise drawings invite misunderstandings and interpretation, which add cost, waste time, and may compromise quality. Centralize the most current data with good product data management.
      • Thoroughly design the product right the first time.
      • Use Design for Manufacturability techniques presented herein to ensure that the product is design right the first time.
      • If quality is not assured by the initial design, then expensive change orders will have to be carried out, wasting valuable engineering resources and possibly inducing further quality problems in the process.
      • Be sure to be able to comfortably satisfy design goals and constraints without having to compromising the product just to get products out the door.
    • Manufacturing for Quality
      • Through the implementation of Manufacturing Principals to manufacture your products, you'll realize quality improvements and cost savings that are measurable. 
      • The process improvements, quality improvements, and labor reductions achieved through Manufacturing are a direct result of implementing these Foundations and Principals:
      • Value Stream Analysis
      • 1st Time Quality & Elimination of Waste
      • Workplace Organization & Visual Management
      • One Piece Flow Manufacturing
      • Total Product Cycle Time Analysis
    • Process control- Cp, Cp K