English teacher-guidebook-year-2


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English teacher-guidebook-year-2

  1. 1. KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIAKurikulum Standard Sekolah RendahTEACHERS GUIDEBOOKENGLISHYEAR 2TerbitanBahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum2011
  2. 2. Cetakan Pertama 2011© Kementerian Pelajaran MalaysiaHak Cipta Terpelihara. Tidak dibenarkan mengeluar ulang mana-mana bahagianartikel, ilustrasi dan isi kandungan buku ini dalam apa juga bentuk dan dengan caraapa jua sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman atau cara lainsebelum mendapat kebenaran bertulis daripada Pengarah, Bahagian PembangunanKurikulum, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, Aras 4-8, Blok E9, Parcel E, KompleksPentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62604 Putrajaya.
  3. 3. C O N T E N TForeword vPreface viiSection 1The English Language Curriculum 3The Year Two English Syllabus 19Section 2Listening and Speaking 25Reading 69Writing 137Language Arts 167Section 3Sample Lesson 1 211Sample Lesson 2 231Sample Lesson 3 267Sample Lesson 4 285Section 4Assessment Checklist 303Glossary 313Acknowledgements 315
  4. 4. vFOREWORDThe new Malaysian English Language Curriculum for Primary Schoolswill be introduced in stages beginning 2011 starting with Year 1. Thiswill then be continued with Year 2 in 2012. In line with that, CDD hasproduced this Year 2 guidebook as a useful resource for teachers inimplementing the new curriculum.CDD believes that the contents of this guidebook will help Year TwoEnglish Language teachers to get accustomed to the changes in thenew English Language Curriculum and act as a valuable teachingresource. The guidebook consists of suitable suggested teaching andlearning strategies and activities for teachers. It also gives teachersideas to help them organise their daily lessons. However, teachersare encouraged not to rely solely on this guidebook only whenplanning their lessons as it is hoped that they will use their owncreativity and initiative to plan stimulating and enjoyable lessonssuitable to their pupils’ level and background.Last but not least, CDD would like to take this opportunity toacknowledge with gratitude the contributions made by the panel ofEnglish teachers involved in making this guidebook a reality.Tn Hj. Ibrahim bin MohamadDirectorCurriculum Development Division
  5. 5. viiP R E F A C EThis teacher’s guidebook serves as a guide to teachers with regard to the learning standardsthat should be achieved. It covers some aspects of the language skills, language arts as wellas the suggested word list required to be taught in Year Two.Section 1 of the guidebook provides an overview of the English Language Curriculum whileSection 2 deals with the four language skills as well as language arts. Suggested activities arepresented in a 3-column table for each module. The first is the activity column wheresuggested activities for teachers include explanations and teaching steps. The second is thecontent column which includes teaching points and the suggested word list. The third is theteachers’ notes column which includes teaching aids/materials and other instructions forteachers.Section 3 consists of complete sample lessons. In this section, teachers will be able to see andunderstand how the different language skills and language arts modules are presented for eachweek, based on one particular theme and topic, in a coherent and cohesive manner. Finally,Section 4 provides teachers with sample assessment checklists which the teacher can use toconduct formative assessment in the classroom. These complete sample lessons are providedto help teachers plan effective and enjoyable lessons.The guidebook provides suitable and practical suggestions of teaching methods via thematerials provided. However, teachers are in a better position to make appropriate and relevantdecisions when planning their lessons. There is no single ‘best way’ and teachers have to usetheir pedagogical content knowledge, experience, skills and creativity to plan their lessons inorder to help their pupils learn better. Teachers should decide on a theme/topic and then selectsuitable listening and speaking, reading, writing and language arts activities to be used forteaching that topic. Teachers are also encouraged to use activities from the MOE Teachingcourseware, the textbook and other suitable resources when planning their lessons.Assessment is an important aspect of the teaching-learning process. Continuous formativeassessment is used as a means of gaining essential feedback and to keep track of pupils’progress. Awareness of pupils’ capabilities will enable teachers to plan activities for furtherdevelopment. Teachers should set school based assessments for learning standards dealt within the classroom.This guide book provides some suggestions for the acquisition of the four language skills.Teachers need to use their initiative, imagination and creativity in planning their lessons in orderto extend the experiences of their pupils. It is hoped that teachers will find this guidebook usefuland pupils will enjoy the activities and hence improve their English language proficiency.
  7. 7. 3ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLSAIMThe English Language Curriculum for Primary Schools aims to equip pupils withbasic language skills to enable them to communicate effectively in a variety ofcontexts that‟s appropriate to the pupils‟ level of development.OBJECTIVESBy the end of Year 6, pupils should be able to:communicate with peers andadults confidently andappropriately in formal andinformal situationsread and comprehend arange of English texts forinformation and enjoymentwrite a range of texts usingappropriate language, styleand form through a variety ofmediaappreciate and demonstrateunderstanding of Englishlanguage literary or creativeworks for enjoymentuse correct and appropriaterules of grammar in speechand writingOBJECTIVES12345
  8. 8. 4CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKPrimary education is divided into two stages: Stage One refers to Years 1,2 and 3,and Stage Two, Years 4, 5 and 6. The English Language Curriculum has beendesigned in two strands. Strand 1 is the language focus and strand 2 is languagearts. Language focus deals with language skills such as listening & speaking,reading, writing and grammar. Language arts deals with music, poetry, drama andchildren‟s literature.As English language learning is developmental, the focus in Years 1 and 2 is basicliteracy. This is done by building a strong foundation in basic literacy skills namelyreading through phonics, penmanship and basic listening and speaking. Activitiesare contextualized and fun-filled with integration of language skills in meaningfulcontexts.In Year 3 and onwards, pupils will further develop the ability to speak, listen, readand write in English meaningfully, purposefully and with confidence. A grammarmodule is introduced from Year 3 to enable pupils develop a sound grasp of thelanguage structures and rules of grammar.The Language Arts module has been added to the English language curriculum fromYear 1 to allow pupils to engage and enjoy stories, poems, songs, rhymes and playswritten in English.STRAND 1 STRAND 2LANGUAGE FOCUS LANGUAGE ARTSLEVEL 1(Years 1, 2 & 3)Listening & SpeakingReadingWritingGrammar (from Year 3)MusicPoetryDramaClass ReadersLEVEL 2(Years 4, 5 & 6)Listening & SpeakingReadingWritingGrammarLiteratureEnglish at Play:Music, Poetry & DramaCURRICULUM ORGANISATIONThe curriculum is modular in design and this is reflected in the organisation of thecontent and learning standards.In Years 1 and 2, the English language curriculum emphasises the development ofbasic language skills so that pupils will have a strong foundation to build theirproficiency in the language. In this initial stage, there will only be four modules;namely:
  9. 9. 51. Listening and Speaking2. Reading3. Writing4. Language ArtsFrom Year 3 onwards, where pupils build on the skills they have acquired in Years 1and 2, a fifth module, Grammar, is added to the above four modules. Therefore, themodules for this stage are:1. Listening and Speaking2. Reading3. Writing4. Language Arts5. GrammarThe following diagram shows the conceptual framework of the curriculum model.Fig.1 The Modular ConfigurationThe modularity of the English Language Curriculum Standards for Primary Schools isa modularity of focus. By organising the curriculum standards under five modules(four for Years 1 and 2), pupils will be able to focus on the development of salientlanguage skills or sub-skills under each module through purposeful activities inmeaningful contexts. This modular approach does not exclude integration of skills.However, skills integration is exploited strategically to enhance pupils‟ developmentof specific and specified language skills as described in the content and learningstandards in a module.The approach taken in this curriculum stresses the need for pupils to develop all thefour language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Teachers are expectedto sustain a cohesive and coherent organisation between the listening and speaking,reading and writing skills. For the language arts module, teachers may plan lessonsin relation to the language skills taught or they may come up with generic lessons.Teachers should incorporate the fun element in specified contexts to make theirlessons meaningful.LISTENING AND SPEAKINGREADINGWRITINGLANGUAGE ARTSGRAMMARSTAGE TWO(YEARS 4-6)STAGE ONE(YEARS 1-3)
  10. 10. 6In order to make learning more meaningful and purposeful, language input ispresented under themes and topics, which are appropriate for the pupils.Three broad themes which have been used in KBSR have been retained and will beused, namely:1. World of Self, Family and Friends;2. World of Stories; and3. World of Knowledge.Teachers select topics that are suitable for their pupils‟ level of development. Whenplanning lessons, topics for teaching are initially based on the immediate learningenvironment of the child. Later on, these are expanded to town, country and moredistant foreign locations.ROLE OF THE TEACHERThe teacher is the role model of a language user to pupils. Pupils need to beexposed to good language in order for them to learn the language and use it foreffective communication. Therefore, the teacher needs to do a lot of talking in orderfor pupils to listen to good language input. For this purpose, the teacher uses avariety of materials or media to enable pupils to acquire the receptive and productiveskills. Fun language activities will have to be devised by the teacher in order to tappupils‟ interest and engage them in communication.The Standard-Based English Language Curriculum for Malaysian Primary Schools isdesigned to provide pupils with a strong foundation in the English language.Teachers will use Standard British English as a reference and model for teaching thelanguage. It should be used as a reference for spelling and grammar as well aspronunciation for standardisation.Good time management is also essential. Keeping in mind the time allocated forteaching English in SK and SJK schools is different; lessons should be organized in amanageable form in order to give pupils every opportunity to take part in languageactivities.In order to facilitate and maximise learning, language skills must be repeated andused constantly. Some activities have been suggested in this book. However,teachers are encouraged to design more creative and challenging tasks and activitiesbased on the needs and interests of pupils. This is important so that appropriateactivities and materials are used with pupils of different learning profiles with theintention of helping them to realise their full potential and enable them to graduallydevelop the ability, knowledge and confidence to use the language effectively.LISTENING AND SPEAKING SKILLSOverviewListening and speaking are seen as core skills of early literacy. As such, pupilsshould be taught:how to listen carefully;
  11. 11. 7to speak from the basic level of sound, word, phrase and structural sentencesin various situational contexts;the stress, rhythm and intonation patterns and how to use them correctly;to recognise, understand and use not only verbal but also non-verbalcommunication; andoral communication practice by means of repeating, responding,understanding and applying structures of the language in order to preparethem for communication.In order to achieve the abovementioned, content and learning standards have beendeveloped from basic listening and speaking, and then progressing to communicatingin various situations effectively.Content StandardsBy the end of the six-year primary schooling, pupils will be able to:The content standards above are achieved through learning standards that havebeen devised carefully throughout primary schooling. Learning standards have beendeveloped from basic listening and speaking in order for pupils to grasp the soundsof the English language before learning to articulate words and phrases. This issupported with a „flooding of English sounds and words‟ by the teacher especially incases where pupils do not have any exposure to the English language.1.1 pronounce wordsand speak confidentlywith the correctstress, rhythm andintonation.1.2 listen and respondappropriately in formaland informal situationsfor a variety ofpurposes.1.3 understand andrespond to oral textsin a variety ofcontexts.
  12. 12. 8The learning standards begin with basic listening and speaking skills which havebeen developed incrementally in this manner :develop pupils‟ phonemic awarenessengage in fun learning activities such as reciting rhymes, poems andtongue twisters as well as singing songsparticipate in daily conversationsfollow and give instructions and directionsable to participate in conversationstalk on topics of interestRelationships are established through the ability to communicate by listening firstthen speaking thoughts, ideas and feelings. Pupils should aim at becoming confidentspeakers who can communicate clearly, appropriately and coherently in any givencontext using language to explore the possibilities and opportunities. Pupils need tolisten carefully and respond to what others say and think about the needs of theirlisteners. Social conventions in listening and speaking such as turn taking, politenessand courtesy need to be observed. These are crucial especially in group discussionswhere viewpoints and opinions are exchanged.READING SKILLOverviewThe teaching of reading skills:enables pupils to become independent readers who are able to comprehenda text effectively and efficiently.begins at the word and phrase levels before progressing to sentencerecognition and reading at the paragraph level.focuses on basic literacy with the use of phonics in Years 1 and 2.teaches pupils to extract specific information from a text and respond to a textwith their own ideas and opinions.In order to achieve the abovementioned, content and learning standards have beendevised progressively. The teaching of reading in the early stages begins at theword and phrase levels before progressing to sentence recognition and reading atthe paragraph level. Gradually, pupils are taught to extract specific information froma text and to respond to a text with their own ideas and opinions.
  13. 13. 9Content StandardsBy the end of the six-year primary schooling, pupils will be able to:The content standards above are achieved through learning standards that havebeen devised carefully throughout primary schooling. Learning standards have beendeveloped from recognition of sounds in order for pupils to acquire the sounds of theEnglish language before learning to blend and segment words. This is furtherdeveloped through vocabulary activities to widen pupils‟ vocabulary. By the end ofYear 6, pupils are able to read and demonstrate understanding of text for informationas well as read for enjoyment.The learning standards begin with basic literacy which has been developedincrementally in this manner :distinguish the shapes of the letters;recognise and articulate phonemes;blend and segment words;apply word recognition and word attack skills to acquire vocabulary;read and understand phrases, simple sentences and texts; andread independently for information and enjoyment.2.1 apply knowledge ofsounds of letters torecognize words inlinear and non-lineartexts.2.2 demonstrate understandingof a variety of linear andnon-linear texts in the formof print and non-printmaterials using a range ofstrategies to constructmeaning.2.3 read independentlyfor information andenjoyment.
  14. 14. 10The reading aloud strategy is also encouraged in the first two years of primaryeducation:Teacher reads aloud a text to pupils. Implementing this strategy allowsteachers to model reading.Here, articulation and pronunciation of words by the teacher have to be asprecise as possible for pupils to efficiently imitate and reproduce correctly.This strategy effectively engage pupils in a text that may be too difficult forthem to read on their own, hence, pupils sit back and enjoy the story.Teachers should also carry out shared reading strategies in the classroom:During shared reading, the teacher and pupils read together, thus allowingpupils to actively participate and support one another in the process ofreading.Teachers point to the text as they read slowly for word recognition and to“build a sense of story”.Ultimately, the objective of getting pupils to read a variety of texts enables pupils tosee how grammar is used correctly so that they can emulate them in their productiveskills; speaking and writing. Reading for enjoyment and pleasure in seekinginformation and knowledge should be inculcated in pupils. Pupils are also trained togive their own ideas and opinions in order to become efficient readers.WRITING SKILLOverviewIt is expected that by the end of Year 6 :pupils will be able to express their ideas clearly on paper in legiblehandwriting or to communicate via the electronic media.the focus of writing is on developing pupils‟ writing ability beginning at theword and phrase levels before progressing to the sentence and paragraphlevels.pupils who are capable must be encouraged to write simple compositionscomprising several paragraphs.attention is also paid to penmanship so that even from a young age, pupilsare taught to write clearly and legibly including cursive writing.simple compositions and the various steps involved in writing, such asplanning, drafting, revising, and editing are taught. In the process, pupilslearn the genre approach to writing as they are taught to use appropriatevocabulary and correct grammar to get their meaning across clearly.
  15. 15. 11all pupils will be encouraged to write for different purposes and for differentaudiences.although much of the writing at this level is guided, the amount of control isrelaxed for pupils who are able and proficient in the language.spelling and dictation are also given emphasis.To achieve the abovementioned, content and learning standards have been devisedprogressively. The teaching of writing in the early stages begins with pre-writingactivities to develop pupils‟ visual skills as well as develop hand-eye coordination.This is later developed to writing letters of the alphabet and copying words, phrasesand simple sentences. Pupils begin constructing simple sentences with the teacher‟sguidance and later develop to become independent writers by the end of primaryschooling.Content StandardsBy the end of the six year primary schooling, pupils will be able to:Content standards are achieved through learning standards that have been devisedcarefully throughout primary schooling. Learning standards have been developedprogressively, from acquiring fine motor control of hands and fingers to copying3.1 form letters andwords in neat legibleprint includingcursive writing.3.3 write and present ideasthrough a variety ofmedia.3.2 write using appropriatelanguage, form and stylefor a range of purposes.
  16. 16. 12writing activities, before being taught to write with guidance linear and non-lineartexts using appropriate language, form and style. The use of various media is alsoencouraged and pupils can create both linear and non-linear texts with guidance orindependently.LANGUAGE ARTSOverviewThe rationale behind Language Arts is to steer the continuous growth anddevelopment of pupils‟ thinking and language abilities. The standards for LanguageArts:cover a range of creative and literary works in English such as rhymes,songs, poems, stories and plays to activate pupils‟ imagination and interest.allow pupils to benefit from hearing and using language from fictional as wellas non-fictional sources.allow pupils to gain rich and invaluable experiences using the Englishlanguage through fun-filled and meaningful activities.train pupils to be able to appreciate, demonstrate understanding and expresspersonal responses to literary and creative works for enjoyment. Hence theywill also be able to use English for both functional as well as aestheticpurposes, confidently and competently by the end of Year 6.In order to achieve the abovementioned, content and learning standards have beendevised progressively. The teaching of language arts will help pupils develop theiroral and analytical skills as well as hone their creativity. Language Arts createsample opportunities for pupils to speak in English in a very relaxed atmosphere andthis will help increase pupils‟ confidence in using the English language.
  17. 17. 13Content StandardsBy the end of the six year primary schooling, pupils will be able to:The culmination of all content standards in language arts will be shown in practicewhen pupils are able to come up with their very own production. By the end of Year6, pupils will learn the art of acting out, play-acting and producing works of creativitysuch as drawings, poems or singing. Pupils will also learn values of cooperating withpeople of different race, gender, ability, cultural heritage, religion, economic, socialbackground, and, understand and appreciate the values, beliefs and attitudes ofothers. Each pupil will also develop knowledge, skills and attitudes, which willenhance his or her own personal life management and promote positive attitudes.AssessmentAssessment is necessary to assess pupils‟ achievement in terms of acquisition ofknowledge, skills and the application of values through activities conducted in the4.1 enjoy and appreciaterhymes, poems andsongs throughperformance.4.2 express personalresponse toliterary texts.4.3 plan, organize andproduce creativeworks forenjoyment.
  18. 18. 14classroom. Assessment also supports pupils‟ learning and gives pertinent feedbackto teachers, pupils and parents about their development and achievement.There are two types of school-based assessment. Formative assessment isconducted during the teaching and learning process in the classroom to gauge theacquisition of skills and knowledge during the learning process. Summativeassessment is usually conducted at the end of learning, usually at the end of alearning unit, month or semester whereby the focus is on the end product.School-based assessment can be carried out during the teaching-learning process.The teaching-learning process can be conducted in or outside the classroom. Belowis a diagram suggesting some types of assessment which can be carried out both inand outside the classroom:Classroom observations are useful tools for teachers to assess their pupils‟performance. Teachers observe pupils‟ oracy skills as they engage in conversationsamong peers and when they take part in oral presentations. Teachers can prepare achecklist to record their pupils‟ progress. Perhaps, pupils can speak during theschool assembly, put up a performance in front of an audience, and watch a puppetshow or listen to a story. Talking about these events can help teachers assesspupils‟ listening and speaking skills.FORMATIVE SUMMATIVEASSESSMENTMETHODS OFASSESSMENTObservations TestsOralPresentationsChecklistsWritings Creative Works
  19. 19. 15Assessment of reading comprehension can be carried out by setting comprehensionquestions. Other comprehension activities which can be used to assesscomprehension are the use of graphic as well as semantic organisers, story maps,question generation and summarisation. Pupils‟ writing skills can be assessedthrough written projects, tests, exams and class exercises. Teachers can also honepupils‟ writing skills through journal and diary writing, the production of creative workssuch as poems, writing scripts, dialogues as well as lyrics of songs.Creative works such as portfolios, masks, puppets, props and other creativeproductions produced during the language arts lessons can also be assessed.Activities conducted during language arts lessons such as singing action songs,reciting rhymes or poems, choral speaking, drama, public speaking as well as role-play can be assessed.Assessment should also provide pupils with opportunities for self-assessment usingknown criteria and pupils should be given input on the evaluation process. In anutshell, teachers should utilise a variety of assessment techniques to monitor theirpupils‟ language growth and development. The on-going process of assessing classexercises and homework should be continued. The main purpose of this is to provideimmediate feedback to the pupils in guiding, motivating, correcting and refocusingtheir efforts.WORD LISTThe list of words selected for teaching is based on common words and highfrequency words that can be used repetitively in different contexts. The suggestedword list can be expanded upon if pupils demonstrate an ability to acquire morewords.
  20. 20. 16EDUCATIONAL EMPHASESEducational emphases reflect current developments in education. These emphasesare infused and woven into classroom lessons to prepare pupils for the challenges ofthe real world.Critical ThinkingCritical thinking is incorporated in the teaching and learning activities to enable pupilsto solve simple problems, make decisions, and express themselves creatively insimple language.Information and Communication Technology Skills (ICT)Information and Communication Technology Skills (ICT) include the use ofmultimedia resources such as TV documentaries and the Internet as well as the useof computer-related activities such as e-mail activities, networking and interactingwith electronic courseware.Learning How to LearnLearning How to Learn strategies are integrated in teaching and learning activitieswhich aims to enable pupils to take responsibility for their own learning. These skillsincorporate study skills and information skills to equip them to become independentlife-long learners.EDUCATIONALEMPHASESCritical ThinkingInformation andCommunicationTechnology SkillsLearning How toLearnValues &CitizenshipCreativity &InnovationEntrepreneurshipMultipleIntelligencesMastery LearningConstructivismContextualLearning
  21. 21. 17Values and CitizenshipThe values contained in the Standard Based Curriculum for Moral is incorporated intothe English language lessons. Elements of patriotism and citizenship is alsoemphasised in lessons in order to cultivate a love for the nation and produce patrioticcitizens.Creativity and InnovationCreativity and innovation is the ability to produce something new in an imaginativeand fun-filled way. Pupils display interest, confidence and self-esteem throughperformance and producing simple creative works.EntrepreneurshipFostering an entrepreneurial mind set among pupils at their young age is essential inthis new world. Some of the elements that are linked with entrepreneurship arecreativity, innovation and initiative, which are also attributes for personal fulfilmentand success.Mastery LearningMastery Learning will ensure that all pupils master the learning standards stipulatedin the Standard Based Curriculum. Mastery Learning requires quality teaching andlearning in the classroom and teachers need to ensure that pupils master a learningstandard before proceeding to the next learning standard.Multiple IntelligencesThe theory of Multiple Intelligences encompasses eight different intelligences humanbeings possess. These intelligences are essential in order to maximise teaching andlearning in the classroom. .ConstructivismConstructivism will enable pupils to build new knowledge and concepts based onexisting knowledge or schema that they have. The teacher assists pupils to acquirenew knowledge and solve problems through pupil-centred active learning.Contextual LearningContextual Learning is an approach to learning which connects the contents beinglearnt to the pupils‟ daily lives, the community around them and the working world.Learning takes place when pupils are able to relate the new knowledge acquired in ameaningful manner in their lives.
  22. 22. 19What’s in store for Year Two pupils?The Year Two English Language SyllabusTHE LISTENING AND SPEAKING SKILLThe listening and speaking skills are taught together for effective communication, asthese skills are inter-related and dependent on each other.The listening and speaking lessons would familiarise pupils to the sounds aroundthem. In these lessons pupils need to:a) tune into sounds (auditory discrimination),b) listen and remember the sounds (auditory memory and sequencing), andc) talk about the sounds (developing vocabulary and language comprehension).These can be attained through fun language activities conducted in or outside theclassroom that include nature walks, using musical instruments, songs, chants,rhymes, body percussion and even listening to a story.The suggested activities recommended in this section could be used in a variety oflessons by adapting and adopting them in order to teach the sounds of the Englishlanguage. This skill is the onset to providing a broad and rich language experiencefor pupils to learn language by engaging in enjoyable learning activities.pupils need to be exposed togood language with theteacher being the role modeluses a variety of materials ormedia to enable pupils toacquire the receptive skill oflistening and the productive skillof speakingexpose pupils to rich language input inaccordance to Standard BritishEnglish (SBE) as well as getting pupilsto talk and communicate effectively
  23. 23. 20THE READING SKILLThe reading component aims to develop progressively, pupils’ ability to read andcomprehend a paragraph of 5-8 simple sentences.The processes of blending and segmenting for reading and spelling are madeenjoyable and easy for pupils to understand and apply. Lessons and activities shouldfocus on particular phonemes and make these phonemes familiar to pupils. Then,provide enough practice so that pupils can identify the phonemes in words. For earlypractice, teachers could help pupils to recognize the phoneme at the beginning ofwords before progressing to having them recognize the phoneme elsewhere in theword. For this, illustrations may be very useful. Teachers are encouraged to becreative and to explore ways of language play available to help pupils becomefamiliar with the phonemes. The benefits of language play are numerous. Languageplay involves having fun with the sounds of words, creating new words, and exploringand creating language patterns through rhymes, chants, alliteration and repetitions.apply knowledge of letter sounds to recognizewords in reading texts, which is an essentialand useful early reading skillpupils’ phonemic awareness will bedeveloped by means of phonicsuse songs, rhymes, poems, stories, pictures andgames to make phonics instruction more enjoyableteachers should allow pupils to use phonics, and make meaningfulconnections and encourage them to pronounce and articulate thesounds in a non-restrictive and joyful environment.
  24. 24. 21THE WRITING SKILLThe writing module for Year 2 reflects the progression of skills ranging from writingwords, phrases, to simple sentences in neat handwriting, to the ability to write simplesentences using a variety of media with guidance.As pupils begin to read, they will be able to copy words, phrases and sentencescorrectly as well as complete other writing tasks by matching, rearranging words andcompleting lists and messages. When pupils are ready, more difficult writing taskssuch as writing sentences with the correct spelling and punctuation can beincorporated. This activity can be conducted in the classroom by introducing parallelwriting and then moving on to constructing simple sentences. Pupils are also taughtto create simple non-linear texts using a variety of media.ability to write words,phrases and simplesentences in neat, legibleprintability to write numerals innumeral and word formability to spell and write simplesentencs with guidance.ability to create simplenon-linear texts using avariety of media withguidance.
  25. 25. 22LANGUAGE ARTSThe introduction of the language arts module encompasses the production aspect ofthe skills learnt during the listening and speaking, reading and writing modules..enjoy and appreciate language usingstories, poetry, rhymes and playsencourage pupils’ to perform a song orrhyme or role play a story learnt using theircreativity in a fun-filled, non-threateningand enjoyable environmentThe main focus of this component islanguage in action in a fun environmentwhere pupils engage in multi-sensorylearning according to their learningabilities.
  27. 27. 25THE LISTENING AND SPEAKING SKILLThe listening and speaking skill is crucial for social communication at home, at school,as well as in the community. However, this skill is often neglected or given minimalemphasis during English lessons. In order to develop this skill, teachers have to providetheir pupils with various opportunities to listen and to talk about a range of subjectswhich may include topics on personal interests, school work and even current affairs. Itis hoped that the learning standards will offer teachers some ideas on how they couldprovide opportunities for pupils to engage in various listening and speaking activities atYear Two.The Listening and Speaking Content and Learning Standards for Year 2 are as follows:Content Standards Learning Standards1.1By the end of the 6-year primaryschooling, pupils will be able topronounce words and speakconfidently with the correct stress,rhythm and intonation.1.1.1 Able to listen and respond to stimulusgiven with guidance :(a) environmental sounds(b) instrumental sounds(c) body percussion(d) rhythm and rhyme(e) alliteration(f) voice sounds(g) oral blending and segmenting1.1.2 Able to listen to and enjoy simple stories.1.1.3 Able to listen to, say aloud and reciterhymes or sing songs.1.1.4 Able to talk about a stimulus with guidance.1.2By the end of the 6-year primaryschooling, pupils will be able tolisten and respond appropriately informal and informal situations for avariety of purposes.1.2.1 Able to participate in daily conversations:(a) exchange greetings(b) make polite requests(c) express apologies(d) talk about oneself(e) introduce family members and friends(f)express a simple apology1.2.2 Able to listen to and follow:a) simple instructions in the classroom.b) simple directions to places in the school.1.2.3 Able to give:a) simple instructions in school.b) simple directions to places in school.1.3 By the end of the 6-year primaryschooling, pupils will be able tounderstand and respond to oraltexts in a variety of contexts.1.3.1 Able to listen to and demonstrateunderstanding of oral texts by:a) answering simple Wh-Questionsb) giving True/False repliesIn this module, all Learning Standards for Listening and Speaking have been dealt withextensively. However, teachers are encouraged to plan lessons and activities on theirown according to the level of their pupils. The activities provided here are merelysuggestions. It is with high expectation and anticipation that teachers of Year 2 Englishwould be able to plan and carry out Listening and Speaking lessons creatively andinnovatively.
  28. 28. 26Learning Standard1.1.1 Able to learn and respond to stimulus given with guidance:(a) environmental soundsACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESTRY ME1. Walk around theclassroom.2. Pupils listen and identifythe sound heard e.g.tapping sound of shoes.3. Select pupils to walkaround with shoesprovided by the teacher.4. Make other sounds andpupils identify them.5. Pupils do the actions.Suggested Sounds1. tapping of shoes2. crumpling of papers3. dragging chairs/ tables4. knocking on doors5. dropping objects on thefloorSuggested Material Prepare:suitable shoes thatproduce a tappingsound.GET TO KNOW ME1. Play recorded sounds.2. Pupils listen and guessthe sounds.3. Show pictures andobjects.4. Play recorded soundsagain.5. Pupils identify thesounds heard and pickthe correct pictures.Suggested Sounds1. raking2. spraying3. screeching of brakes4. glasses breaking5. scooping sandSuggested Material Prepare:1. pictures ofobjects/realia: rake spade fire extinguisher car glasses2. recorded sounds andthe required pictures.e.g.Note:Teachers are encouragedto use other suitablesounds.
  29. 29. 27LET’S MOVE IT1. Pupils listen to the jazzchant.2. Recite with actions andpupils follow.3. Show pictures and ask“WH” questions.4. Pupils recite and do theactions.Suggested Questions1. Where is the duck?2. Where is the horse?3. What is the cat doing?4. What is the bird doing?5. What is the hen doing?Jazz ChantWhere is the duck?Wading in the water.Where is the horse?Galloping in the farm.What is the cat doing?Scratching on the wall.What is the bird doing?Pecking on the tree.What is the hen doing?Flapping its wings.The duck, the horse, thecat, the bird and the henare having fun.Suggested Material1. recorded jazz chant2. picturese.g.1. duck – wading2. horse – galloping3. cat – scratching4. bird – pecking5. hen – flapping
  30. 30. 28Learning Standard:1.1.1 Able to learn and respond to stimulus given with guidance:(b) instrumental soundsACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESTHAT’S MY SOUND!1. Divide pupils intogroups.2. Distribute musicalinstruments to eachgroup.3. Play a musicalinstrument withoutpupils seeing it.4. Pupils identify thesound and play thesame instrument.5. Repeat the activity withother instruments.Suggested Instruments1. tick- tock2. triangle3. tambourine4. castanet5. recorder6. melodianSuggested Material Prepare the musicalinstruments.WHERE ARE YOU?1. Divide pupils into fourgroups.2. Distribute musicalinstruments.3. Stand in the middle ofthe class.4. Play an instrument.5. The group with thesame instrumentfollows.6. Repeat with otherinstruments.7. Say the jazz chantand pupils play theinstruments.Suggested instruments1. tick-tock2. triangle3. tambourine4. castanetJazz ChantMusic, music, musicMusic everywhereOn my leftOn my rightIn front of meBehind meMusic, music, musicmusic everywhereSuggested Material Prepare the musicalinstrumentsInstructions for the class:1. group on the left playsthe tambourine2. group on the right playsthe triangle3. group in front of teacherplays the tick-tock4. group behind theteacher plays thecastanet.CATCH ME IF YOU CAN1. Divide pupils intogroups.2. Play the game.3. Repeat the game withSuggested Instruments1. recorder2. tick-tock3. melodian4. tambourineSuggested Material Musical instrumentsNote:
  31. 31. 29other instruments. How to play the game:1. A pupil from each groupwill be the ‘wolf’. Anotherpupil will be the ‘motherhen’. The rest of thepupils are her chicks,each holding aninstrument.2. Teacher plays aninstrument. Wolfidentifies the chick withthe instrument and triesto catch „it‟ by tagging „it‟.3. Mother hen tries toprotect its chick.5. Once „caught‟, the chickswitches position withthe wolf.
  32. 32. 30Learning Standard:1.1.1. Able to learn and respond to stimulus given with guidance:(c) body percussionACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESFOLLOW ME!1. Say and show theactions.2. Pupils follow.3. Call a pupil to say anddo the actions.4. The other pupils follow.5. Repeat with otheractions.Suggested Actions1. Stamp your footI am stamping my foot2. Sniff with your noseI am sniffing with mynose.3. Clap your handsI am clapping myhands.4. Slap your thighsI am slapping mythighs.WHAT AM I?1. Each group is given aset of 4 jigsaw puzzles.2. Pupils arrange them toform pictures.3. Pupils say thesentences and do theactions.SuggestedSentence Patterns1. These are my hands.(clap your hands)2. These are my fingers.(snap your fingers)3. These are my feet.(stamp your feet)4. These are my thighs.(slap your thighs )Suggested DialogueTeacher: Who puts thenose in the big redbox?Siti : Ali puts the nose(sniffing sound) inthe big red box.Ali : Who me?Siti : Yes you.Ali : Couldn‟t be.Siti : Then who?Ali : Abu puts the nose(sniffing sound) inthe big red box.Abu : Who me?Suggested Material1. sentence strips2. jigsaw puzzleof the following bodyparts:1. hands2. fingers3. feet4. thighs
  33. 33. 31Ali : Yes you.Abu : Couldn‟t be .Ali : Then who?Abu : Meena puts thenose(sniffingsound) in the bigred box.Meena : Yes, yes, yes it‟sme[Pupil with the cut-outmentioned is out of thegame and will say“Yes, yes, yes it‟s me “
  34. 34. 32Learning Standard:1.1.1 Able to learn and respond to stimulus given with guidance:(d) rhythm and rhymeACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESGIVE ME MORE1. Put up pictures.2. Talk about the pictures.3. Recite the rhyme.4. Stress on words withmedial sound /ʊ/.5. Pupils say the wordsaloud.6. Pupils are asked to giveother words with medialsound /ʊ/.Suggested Words1. cook2. book3. look4. tookSuggested RhymeFarook is a cook.He likes to cook.He took a book.To have a look.Suggested MaterialRequired picturesOther words with medial /ʊ/and /u:/ sound: hook foot wood good boot root hood wool moon foodMAKE IT RIGHT1. Recite a rhyme.2. Pupils repeat.3. Stress on words withfinal sound /i:/ as in thegraphemes „ee‟ and„ea‟.4. Pupils say the wordsaloud.5. Pupils tap to the beatwhen saying the rhyme.6. Give more words withthe final /i:/ sounds as inthe graphemes „ee‟ and„ea‟.Suggested Words1. bee2. free3. tree4. coffee5. sea6. teaSuggested RhymeI see a bee,Flying free from tree to tree,I like coffee, I like tea,I like to eat by the sea.Required pictures
  35. 35. 33Learning Standard:1.1.1 Able to learn and respond to stimulus given with guidance:(d) rhythm and rhymeACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESRHYME ALONG1. Pupils identify thepictures.2. Display word cards. Saythe words.3. Pupils put the wordcards on the pictures.4. Say the sentences.5. Pupils fill in the blankswith rhyming words.6. Say the sentences ingroups.SuggestedRhyming Words1. bone, cone2. nose, rose3. line, nine4. glide, slide5. pipe, wipe6. rope, rodeSuggested Sentences1. There is a cone next tothe bone.2. She smells the rosewith her nose.3. Robbie has a rope andhe rode on a pony.4. All the nine trees are ina line.5. The snakes glide underthe slide.6. Let‟s wipe the pipe andpaint it white.Suggested Material1. pictures2. word cardse.g.slideconebone
  36. 36. 34Learning Standard:1.1.1 Able to learn and respond to stimulus given with guidance:(e) alliterationACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESSAY IT RIGHT1. Put up a compositepicture.2. Emphasise on thephoneme /s/. e.g.sssslidingsssskippingsssskating3. Recite the rhyme andpupils repeat. Clap inrhythm.4. Say “ssss” and tell thepupils to watch eachother‟s lips as theysay “ssss”.5. Pupils identify thewords starting with “s”.Suggested Words1. sliding2. skipping3. skating4. Selvy5. Soo Chin6. SitiSuggested RhymeSoo Chin, Selvy and Sitiare in the playground,Soo Chin is slidingdown,Selvy is skipping roundand round,Siti is skating all around,Laughing, merrily,What a happy sound!Suggested Material Prepare:a composite picture thatillustrates the rhymeSO NEAR YET SO FAR1. Put up pictures.2. Emphasise on the /k/sound. e.g. The candleis on the cake.3. Say the sentences.Pupils repeat.4. Point to the picture andpupils name it.5. Identify objects that donot begin with the /k/sound.6. Identify objects thatbegin with the /k/ sound.Suggested Words1. comb2. cake3. coat4. cat5. cap6. cowSuggested Sentences1. The candle is on thecake.2. The cat is near the cow.3. The comb is in the coat.Suggested MaterialPictures of objectsthat begin and do notbegin with the /k/sound.
  37. 37. 35Learning Standard:1.1.1 Able to learn and respond to stimulus given with guidance:(e) alliterationACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESJOLLY ME1. Say „l‟ and tell the pupilsto look into a mirror.2. Identify the pictures.3. Pupils say the words.e.g.: „lollipop‟Emphasise on the /l/sound.4. Recite the jazz chant.Clap in rhythm.5. Pupils follow.6. Divide pupils into threegroups. Carry out acompetition.Suggested Words1. lollipop2. lip3. licking4. lunch5. limes6. littleSuggested Jazz ChantLittle Lily likes lollipops.Little Lily likes lickinglimes.Little Lily likes her lunchwith lollipops and limes.Suggested Material1. pictures assuggested in theword list2. mirrorsInstructions for thecompetition: Pupils give words withinitial /l/ sound. The group that has themost words beginningwith the /l/ sound is thewinner.
  38. 38. 36Learning Standard:Able to listen and respond to stimulus given with guidance:(f) voice soundsACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESSOUND LIKE ME1. Show some toyanimals.2. Play the recordedsounds of the animalsshown and the pupilsimitate.3. Put the toys into a box.4. A pupil picks a toy fromthe box.5. The others make thesound of the animalshown.6. The activity is repeatedwith other toys.SuggestedSounds of Animals1. Goats bleat2. Cows moo3. Cats mew4. Snakes hiss5. Owls hoot6. Frogs croakSuggested Material1. recorded sounds of animals2. toy animalsNote:Teachers may use pictures tosubstitute the toys.I CAN HEAR YOU1. Show pupils a camera.2. Snap a photo and askpupils the sound madeby the camera.3. Do the actions ofclicking and pupilsfollow.4. Pupils take turns to dothe action of clicking thecamera and others say„click, click, click‟.5. Repeat the activity withthe other two objects.6. Some pupils sing thesong while the restmake the relevantsounds.SuggestedObjects and Their Sounds1. Clicking of camera2. Clashing of cymbals3. Clanging of pots andpansSuggested Song(to the tune of „Are YouSleeping?‟)Click – 8xClash - 6xClang – 12xClick, clash, clang - 2xSuggested MaterialRealia or picture of:1. a camera2. cymbals3. pots and panse.g.Lyrics of the song:Are you sleeping? [2X]Brother John, [2x]Morning bells are ringing, [2x]Ding Dong Bell! [2x]
  39. 39. 37Learning Standard:1.1.1 Able to listen and respond to stimulus given with guidance:(g) oral blending and segmentingACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESLET’S GET TOGETHER1. Distribute a letter cardto each pupil.2. Say a word and pupilswith the correct lettercards come out andarrange themselvesaccordingly.3. The rest of the classsay the sounds of theletters shown and saythe word out loudly.e.g. /p/ /ɒ/ /t/ = pot4. The activity is repeatedwith the other words.5. Put up sentences.6. Read and pupils follow.Suggested Words1. pot2. cot3. hot4. dot5. lot6. not7. got8. totSuggestedSentence Patterns1. The pot is hot.2. The tot is in the cot.3. It is not a dot.4. He has got a lot.Suggested MaterialLetter cardse.g.LET’S JAZZ1. Recite the jazz chant.2. Pupils follow.3. Reinforce oral blendingand segmenting ofwords by showingpictures.e.g. /p/ /ɪ/ /n//l/ /ɪ/ /p//h/ /ɪ/ /t/Suggested Words1. pin tin bin fin2. sit hit pit fit3. zip lip hip dipSuggested Jazz ChantThe pin is in the fin.The fin is in the tin.The tin is on the bin.I can hit.I can sit.I can fit.In the pit.This is my lip.This is my hip.Let‟s go for a dip.Suggested MaterialPictures as suggestedin the word liste.g.pot
  40. 40. 38SPLIT ME UP!1. Divide pupils intogroups.2. Give each group a boxwith word cards.3. Music is played and thebox is passed around.4. A pupil takes out a wordcard from the box whenthe music stops.5. The pupil segments theword. If incorrect, he orshe is out of the game.e.g.rat - /r/, /æ/, /t/6. Repeat the activity.Suggested Words1. rat, cat, fat , bat, hat2. bit, hit, pit, kid, lip3. pot, hot, tot, jog, top4. bus, cup, rug, mug, pup5. pen, ten, hen, pet, bedSuggested Material1. boxes of word cards2. music
  41. 41. 39Learning Standard1.1.2 Able to listen to and enjoy stories.ACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESSTORY TRAIN1. Show a puppet/toy andtalk about it.2. Put up a series ofpictures and questionpupils based on thepictures.3. Tell a story and pupilslisten.4. Question and answersession based on thestory.5. Remove the pictures.6. Divide pupils intogroups.7. Each group is given asimilar set of pictures.8. Retell the story.9. Pupils hold the picturesand arrange themselvesaccording to the story.Suggested StoryPipit The BirdThis is Pipit.It is a bird.It cannot fly.It lives in a nest.One day, Pipit fell from itsnest.It hopped around.It was looking for itsmother.Pipit met a duck.Pipit asked, “Mr Duck, canyou teach me to fly?”Mr Duck said, “I cannot fly.I can swim.”Pipit walked away.Pipit met a rabbit.Pipit asked, “Mr Rabbit, canyou teach me to fly?”Mr Rabbit said, “I cannotfly. I can hop.”Pipit walked away.Pipit met a parrot.Pipit asked, “Mr Parrot, canyou teach me to fly?”Mr Parrot said, “Yes, I canfly. I can teach you to fly.”Pipit learned to fly.Pipit flew with the parrot.Pipit could fly back to itsnest.Pipit was very happy.Pipit thanked Mr. Parrot.Reference:Zuraidah Che‟ Zin(2000).Pit PitLearns To Fly.BestariSeries.Anzagain Sdn.Bhd.Suggested MaterialSets of picture cardsbased on the story usedThe group leader distributesa picture to every member inthe group.
  42. 42. 40DRESS ME UP1. Bring a picture of abear.2. Ask questions based onthe picture.3. Tell a story titled „RoseRed‟.4. Divide pupils into smallgroups.5. Each group is given abox with some itemsrelevant to a specificcharacter in the story.6. Pupils choose amember and dress himor her up as thecharacter.7. The group memberstake turns to describethe character.Suggested QuestionsQuestions:1. What animal is this?2. Where does it live?Suggested StoryROSE REDRose Red lived with hermother. They lived in asmall house.One day, a black bearcame to the house.The bear stayed with them.They were happy.After two days, the bearwent back to the forest.One day, Rose Red saw anangry old man. He couldnot move. His long beardwas caught in a bush. Heshouted for help.Rose Red helped him.She cut his beard with apair of scissors.The old man was veryangry. He shouted at RoseRed. Rose Red ran away.On her way home, RoseRed met a handsomeyoung man. He was thebear who had stayed withthem. The old man had puta spell on him. The spellwas broken when his beardwas cut.Suggested MaterialA picture based on thestory.Note:Teacher can extend theactivity by asking the pupils:1. Why was the old manangry?2. How did the princebecome a bear?
  43. 43. 41FAMILY TREE1. Ask questions aboutpupils‟ family members.2. Tell a story.3. Divide pupils into pairs.4. Each pair is given a setof pictures to completea family tree based onthe story.5. Pupils make their ownfamily tree.Suggested StoryAzril and Azrul arebrothers. Azril is ten yearsold. Azrul is eight years old.They live in an old woodenhouse. They live togetherwith their parents,grandparents and theiryounger sister, Ayuni whois five years old.Their father, Pak Abugoes to the sea to catchfish every day. Sometimes,Pak Kaduk, who is PakAbu‟s father follows him.Mak Minah, their mother isa housewife. She cooksand cleans the house. Theirgrandmother, Mak Sitihelps her.Suggested Material1. the required pictures2. a family treee.g.MY PARTNER1. Play the story.2. Divide pupils into fourgroups.3. Give a set of pictures togroups A and Crespectively. Give a setof sentence strips togroups B and Drespectively.4. Pupils have to find theirpartners. (pictures tosentence strips)5. Then, pupils rearrangethemselves in thecorrect sequence.Suggested Stories1. Mousedeer and TheCrocodile2. Jack and The BeanstalkSuggested Material1. pictures2. sentence stripsGroups A and C - picturesGroups B and D-sentence stripsLET’S ARRANGE1. Show pictures of an antand a grasshopper.2. Talk about the pictures.3. Divide pupils intoSuggested StoryTHE ANT ANDTHE GRASSHOPPERMr Grasshopper lived in aSuggested Material1. the required pictures2. story strips3. recording of the storyGrandfather GrandmotherMotherFatherAzril AyuniAzrul
  44. 44. 42groups.4. Each group is given aworksheet with storystrips.5. Pupils cut out the stripsand paste them in thecorrect sequence.6. Play the recording ofthe story.7. Pupils listen to the storyand check theirarrangement of thestory.bush. He was hoppingaround happily. Mr Ant livedin a nest. He was busycollecting food.He asked Mr Ant, “Why areyou so busy?” Mr Antreplied, “I am saving foodfor the rainy days”.Mr Grasshopper laughed atMr Ant. He hopped awayhappily.After a few days, it startedto rain. Mr Ant stayed in hisnest. He had a lot of food toeat. Mr Grasshopper couldnot find any food. He waswet and hungry. He went toMr Ant‟s nest. He knockedon the door.Mr Ant invited him in.He gave Mr Grasshoppersome food.Mr Grasshopper felt veryashamed. He thanked MrAnt for giving him food.e.g.
  45. 45. 43Learning Standard:1.1.3 Able to listen to, say aloud and recite rhymes or sing songs.ACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESMIME ME1. Play the song.2. Put up the lyrics.3. Read and pupils repeat.4. Sing the song.5. Divide pupils intogroups.6. Each group is given adifferent set of phrasecards with action words.7. In turns, each groupcomes forward andsings the song whilesome of its membersmime the actions basedon the phrase cards.Suggested Actions1. brush our teeth2. wash our hands3. spread the butter4. carry our bags5. arrange our books6. walk to school7. read our booksSuggested Song[Tune of: Here We GoRound the Mulberry Bush]This is the way,We brush our teeth, (3x)This is the way,We brush our teeth,so early in the morning.This is the way,We wash our hands,(3x)This is the way,We wash our hands,So early in the morning.Suggested Material1. recording of song2. lyrics3. sets of phrase cardsSPEEDY SINGING1. Play the song.2. Sing together.3. Divide pupils intogroups.4. Give each group a linefrom the song to sing.First group startssinging the song,followed by the othergroups in sequence.5. Ask pupils to increasethe tempo of the song.6. 7. Repeat the activity.Suggested SongHead and shoulders, kneesand toes,knees and toes, (2x)Head and shoulders, kneesand toesEyes, ears, mouth andnose.Other Songs:1. Simple Simon2. Sing A Song Of SixPence3. Mary Had A Little LambSuggested Material1. recording of song2. lyrics
  46. 46. 44PICTURE ME1. Put up the rhyme.2. Read the rhyme.3. Pupils repeat the rhymein groups and as aclass.4. Divide pupils intogroups.5. Give each group a setof pictures.6. Pupils have to cut outthe pictures and pastethem to create thescene for the rhyme.Suggested RhymeTwo little black birds,Sitting on a fence,One named Peter,One named Paul,Fly away Peter,Fly away Paul,Come back Peter,Come back Paul.Suggested RhymePictures based on therhymee.g.ckWHERE HAVE YOUBEEN?1. Display the rhyme.2. Read with the pupils.3. Remove the rhyme.4. Pupils completeworksheets by pastingthe pictures correctly.Suggested RhymePussy cat, pussy catWhere have you been?I have been to LondonTo see the queenPussy cat, pussy catWhat did you do there?I frightened a little mouseUnder the chairSuggested Material Appendix 1RHYME INNOVATION1. Display a rhyme.2. Read and pupils follow.3. Divide pupils intogroups.4. Give an envelope withword cards to eachgroup.5. Pupils will create asimilar rhyme/songusing word cards.Suggested RhymeBaa, baa black sheep,Have you any wool?Yes sir, yes sir,Three bags full,One for my master,One for the dame,One for the little boyWho lives down the lane.SuggestedImprovised RhymeCluck, cluck white henHave you any eggs?Yes sir, yes sir,Three baskets full,One for my master,Suggested Material1. word cards2. a rhyme/song
  47. 47. 45One for my dame,One for the little boyWho lives down the lane.For more rhymes and song teachers can refer to:http://bussongs.com/animal_songs.phphttp://www.lanterntree.com/nurseryrhymes/bucklemyshoe.htmlhttp://www.rhymes.org.uk/http://www.nurseryrhymes4u.com/
  48. 48. 46Learning Standard:1.1.4 Able to talk about a stimulus with guidance.ACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESACT IT OUT1. Place a „magical‟ box onthe table with picturecards in it.2. Say the magical words„Abracadabra‟ and wavethe magic wand.3. A pupil comes forwardand picks up a picturecard. He/ She says anddoes the action.4. The rest of the classfollows.5. Place a compositepicture (Appendix 2) onthe board and askpupils what actions areseen.6. Pupils answer andpaste the word cards onthe composite picture.Suggested Words1. sleep2. walk3. yawn4. talk5. listen6. sit7. standSuggested Material1. picture cards basedon the wordschosen2. a composite picture[Appendix 2]3. words cardse.g.MY HAPPY FAMILY1. Show a picture of afamily and play arecording of the poem.2. Say the poem line byline and pupils repeat.3. Divide pupils into 4groups. Each grouprecites one stanza.4. Groups take turns torecite the differentstanzas.Suggested PoemThis is my father ,Short and steady. Stanza1(Gr 1)This is my mother,Singing a song, Stanza2(Gr 2)This is my brother,Tall you see. Stanza 3(Gr 3)This is my sister,With a doll on her knee.Suggested Material:1. a composite picture of afamily (Appendix 3)2. a recording of the poemstandsityawnsleep
  49. 49. 47Stanza 4(Gr 4)And this is the story aboutmy happy family.Stanza 5(All groups)PICTURECONVERSATION1. Place a compositepicture on the board.2. Pupils say what theysee and teacher liststhe words.3. Put up sentence strips.4. Read the sentencestrips and pupils follow.5. A pupil reads thesentence strips andothers follow.6. Pupils completeworksheets.Suggested Words1. food2. drinks3. girls4. boys5. teacher6. blackboard7. sareeSuggested Sentences1. The teacher is wearinga saree.2. There is a lot of foodand drinks on the table.3. A girl is talking to herteacher.Suggested Material1. Composite Picture(Appendix 4)2. Sample pictures(Appendix 5 and 6)WHAT AM I?1. Show pictures ofanimals.2. Ask questions aboutthem.3. Class is divided intogroups. Each group isgiven an envelope ofpictures of animals.4. Group leader picks apicture card anddescribes the animal.The rest of the groupwill guess the animal.5. Repeat using otherpictures.Suggested Questions1. What does it eat?2. Where does it live?3. What colour is its fur?4. Is it wild?Suggested Materialpicture cards
  50. 50. 48LET’S TALK1. Put up a picture.2. Teacher provides thefirst sentence about thepicture seen.3. Pupils continue bytaking turns to make asentence each todescribe the picture.4. Repeat using otherpictures.Suggested TextTeachers‟ DayThis is my class. Todayis 16thMay. The class ishaving a party. There aremany pupils. A girl is talkingto her teacher. Her teacher,Mrs Ratnam is wearing asaree.Suggested Material1. a composite picture(Refer to Appendix 6)Note:Accept any possibleanswers given by thepupils.
  51. 51. 49Learning Standard:1.2.2 Able to participate in daily conversations:(a) exchange greetingsACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESLET’S SING1. Sing a song withsuitable culturalgestures.2. Pupils sing to oneanother and do thegestures.Suggested Song[Tune of: Happy Birthday]Selamat Hari Raya x3And how do you do?Repeat using:Happy DeepavaliHappy Chinese New YearMerry ChristmasSelamat Hari GawaiSuggested MaterialPictures of gesturese.g.ROLE PLAY1. Place a dialogue on theboard.2. Wear a mask(kangaroo) and greetthe pupils according tothe dialogue.3. Pupils answer based onthe dialogue.4. Pupils repeat theactivity using differentmasks.Suggested DialogueTeacher : Hello, I‟m MrKangaroo.Pupils : Hello,Mr Kangaroo.How do you do?Teacher : I‟m fine. Thankyou.Pupils : Goodbye, MrKangaroo. Seeyou tomorrow.Teacher : Goodbye.Repeat using:Mr Tiger, Mr Orang Utan,Mr Bear, Mr Peacock,Mr RabbitSuggested Material1. masks of animals2. a dialogue chart
  52. 52. 50Learning Standard:1.2.1 Able to participate in daily conversations:(b) make polite requestsACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESMAY I?1. Pupils listen to arecording of makingrequests.2. Pupils repeat afterteacher requesting forvarious objects.3. Pupils are divided intogroups. Each memberof the group is given apicture card.4. Every group membertakes turn requesting forobjects.5. Pupils respondaccordingly in theirrespective groups.Suggested WordsThings in the classroom:1. ruler2. pencil3. eraser4. book5. crayons6. coloured pencils7. chalk8. dusterSuggested Sentences1. May I borrow a pencil?2. Can you lend me yourpencil?3. Here you are.4. Thank you.5. You‟re welcome.6. I‟m sorry, I don‟t haveone.Suggested Material1. recording2. picture cardsAMAZING RACE1. Paste pictures ofobjects all around theclass.2. Prepare sentence stripsfor each picture onmaking requests andplace them on the table.3. Pupils [in pairs] find thecorrect strips to matchthe pictures.4. Pupils take turns torequest and reply aloud.SuggestedSentence StripsFather, may I have thisshirt?Can I have these socksand shoes?Yes, you may.May I go to the library?Yes, of course.Suggested Materials1. sentence strips2. picture cardse.g.
  53. 53. 51Learning Standard:1.2.1 Able to participate in daily conversations:(c) express apologiesACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESFIND MY PAIR1. Take pupils to thefield/hall to play thisgame.2. Pupils are divided into 2groups. Each memberof the group is given asentence strip.Group 1 is givensentence strips onrequests.Group 2 is givensentences on thereplies.3. When the teacher givesthe cue, pupils start tofind their pair by sayingtheir sentences aloud.4. The winner of the gamewill be the first pair withthe correct match.Suggested SentenceStripsA: Did you bring myfootball?B: I‟m sorry, I forgot tobring it.A: Ouch! You stepped onmy toes.B: I‟m sorry. I didn‟t meanto.A: You broke my tablelamp.B: I‟m sorry. It was anaccident.Suggested Materialssentence stripsSTATUE GAME1. Play music and pupilsdance to the tune.2. When the music stops,pupils remain still.Choose two pupils tocome to the front.3. One of them picks up apicture from the box.Pupils role-play thesituation of expressingapologies based on thepicture.4. Other pairs repeat withvarious situations.Suggested DialogueA: Did you bring myfootball?B: I‟m sorry, I forgot tobring it.A: Ouch! You stepped onmy toes.B: I‟m sorry. I didn‟t meanto.A: You broke my tablelamp.B: I‟m sorry. It was anaccident.Other situations:- knock into each other- lost the ruler- spilt the drinkSuggested MaterialPicturese.g.Forgot to bring the footballStepped on my toesBroke the table lamp
  54. 54. 52Learning Standard:2.2.2 Able to listen to and follow:a) simple instructions in the classroomActivity Content Teacher’s notesFOLLOW ME1. Pupils follow teacher‟sinstructions.e.g.“Raise your left hand.”Pupils do the action.2. Pupils who do the actionincorrectly are out of thegame.3. Repeat the instructionsuntil the last pupil remainsstanding.Suggested Instructions1. Bend your knees.2. Point to your nose.3. Raise your left hand.4. Raise your right hand.5. Touch your shoulders.LINE DANCING1. Pupils stand in straightrows.2. Play music.3. Give instructions.4. Pupils do the actions.Suggested Instructions1. Put your hands on yourwaist.2. Nod your head.3. Look right.4. Look left.5. Shake your body.6. Raise your left hand.7. Raise your right hand.Suggested MaterialInstrumental music
  55. 55. 53DRAWING A FACE1. Provide a blank piece ofpaper to each pupil.2. Give instructions to draw aface.3. Pupils follow instructionsand draw accordingly.Suggested Instructions1. Draw a big circle.2. Draw two big roundeyes.3. Draw a small nose.4. Draw a small mouth.5. Draw two ears.e.g.Suggested MaterialNote:Teacher can varythe instructions.HOKEY-POKEY1. Take pupils outdoors.2. Form a circle.3. Give instructions andpupils do the actions.4. Sing the song and pupilsfollow.5. Pupils sing the song anddo the actions.Suggested InstructionsPut your right hand inTake your right hand outHokey-PokeyPut your right hand in,Take your right hand out,Put your right hand in,And you shake it all about,Do the hokey-pokey,And turn yourself around,That‟s what it‟s all about.Note:Substitute with:1. left hand2. right leg3. left leg4. whole selfPIN THE TAIL1. Put up a picture of adonkey without its tail onthe board.2. A pupil is blindfolded andgiven a picture of a tail.3. Another pupil givesinstructions to theblindfolded pupil to reachthe donkey.4. The blindfolded pupilSuggested Instructions1. Take three steps to thefront.2. Turn left/right.3. Go straight.4. Stop.Suggested Material1. the required picture2. the instructions(Instructions can bevaried)e.g.
  56. 56. 54pastes the tail on thedonkey.5. Repeat with other pupils.Note:Teachers may use otheranimals.MAKE A SANDWICH1. Divide the pupils intogroups.2. Each group is given theingredients.3. Give instructions on how toprepare the sandwich.4. Pupils listen and follow.Suggested Instructions1. Spread the butter on aslice of bread.2. Take another slice ofbread and spread somejam on it.3. Put both slices together.4. Serve it on a plate.Suggested MaterialIngredients:1. bread2. butter3. jamSubstitute jam with kaya peanut butter honey
  57. 57. 55Learning Standard:1.2.2 Able to listen to and follow:b) simple directions to places in the schoolActivity Content Teacher’s notesWHERE DO YOU GO?1. Divide pupils into groups.2. Each group forms a train.3. Give instructions ondirections.4. The group follows thedirections making the„choo-choo‟ sound.Suggested Instructions1. Go straight2. Turn left3. Turn right4. Go round5. StopNote:Directions can be givento one group at a time orto all the groups at thesame time.POISON PARCEL1. Pupils sit in a circle.2. Play the music and pupilspass the parcel until themusic stops.3. The pupil who has theparcel picks a paper fromthe parcel and reads aloudthe instructions.4. Pupil follows theinstructions.e.g.Turn around and walk likea duck to the door.Suggested Instructions1. Jump like a frog to theblackboard.2. Fly like a bird to thestaffroom.3. Hop like a kangaroo tothe next class.4. Gallop like a horse tothe office.5. Move like a car to thetoilet.Suggested Material1. music2. poison parcel3. instructions
  58. 58. 56Activity Content Teacher’s notesDIRECTION SONG1. Place signposts in variouscorners of the classroom.2. A pupil will stand at acertain part of the class.3. The pupil will move to thedirections as given byfriends in a song.4. Repeat activity.Suggested Song(Tune of: London Bridge IsFalling Down )Class : Take three steps toyour rightTo your right (2X)Take three steps toyour rightAnd turn leftWhere are you, myfriend?My friend (2X)Where are you, myfriend?Tell me now.Pupil : I am at the canteencanteen ( 2X)I am at thecanteen,Oh, my friends.Suggested MaterialSignpostse.g.Note:Teach the song beforethe activitycanteentoiletofficestaffroom
  59. 59. 57Learning Standard:1.3.1 Able to listen to and demonstrate understanding of oral texts heard by:a) answering simple Wh-QuestionsActivity Content Teacher’s notesAT THE GARDEN1. Put up a picture of agarden.2. Ask questions based onthe picture.e.g.What flowers can you see?What is the colour of theroses?3. Chant with pupils.4. Divide the pupils into twogroups.5. Pupils chant.Suggested Jazz ChantA: Who has a garden? (2X)Who has a garden, myfriend?B. Minah has a garden.( 2X)Minah has a garden, myfriend.A: What flowers? ( 2X )What flowers does shehave?B: She has roses, she hasorchids, sunflowers andhibiscus.A: When does she waterthem? ( 2X)When does she water theflowers?B: She waters them in theevening, (2X),She waters the flowersin the evening.Suggested MaterialComposite pictureof a gardenJAZZ CHANT1. Put up the jazz chant.2. Chant and pupils listen.3. Repeat and pupils follow.4. A pupil comes to the front.5. The other pupils askquestions as in the jazzchant.6. Pupil answers.7. Repeat activity with otherpupils.Suggested Jazz ChantClass: Who are you? (2X)Pupil : I am Ahmad. (2X)Class : What are youwearing? (2X)Pupil : I‟m wearing a shirt.I‟m wearing a pair oftrousers.Class : Where are yougoing? (2X)Pupil : I‟m going to thecanteen. (2X)Suggested MaterialJazz chantNote:Replace the underlinedwords with othersuitable words.
  60. 60. 58Activity Content Teacher’s notesWHO STOLE THE COOKIE?1. Pupils sit in a circle.2. Put up a big manila cardshowing a boy putting hishand into a cookie jar.3. Ask the pupils:“What is the boy doing?”“Who is the boy?”4. Explain the activity.5. Call a pupil to put his faceinto the hole in the card.6. Pupils say the rhyme.Suggested RhymeClass : Who stole thecookie from thecookie jar?Ali stole the cookiefrom the cookie jar.Ali : Who me?Class: Yes, you.Ali : Couldn‟t be!Class: Then, who?Ali : Tan stole thecookie from thecookie jar.Suggested MaterialPicturee.g.GUESSING GAME1. Put picture cards ofanimals into a box.2. A pupil comes forward topick a card. (Pupil must notshow the card to theclass.)3. Other pupils take turns toask questions.4. The pupil answers thequestions.5. Pupils try to guess theanimal.6. Repeat the activity.Suggested Questions1. Where does it live?2. What does it like to eat?3. What is its colour?4. How many legs does ithave?5. How does it move?Suggested Material Prepare:1. picture cards ofanimalse.g.2. the questions
  61. 61. 59Activity Content Teacher’s notesDIALOGUE1. Pupils listen to a dialogue.2. Ask questions based on thedialogue.3. Display the dialogue on theboard.4. Pupils take turns to role-play the dialogue.Suggested TextRani: Hi, Lina.Lina :Hi, Rani. Where didyou go for theholidays?Rani: I went to Langkawiwith my family.Lina: How did you go there?Rani: By aeroplane.Lina : When did you gothere?Rani : I went there lastMonday.Lina : What did you dothere?Rani :I went up the cablecar. It was veryexciting. I also wentshopping.Lina : That sounds great.Oh! I have to go now.See you. Bye.Rani: Bye.Suggested Material1. pre-recorded text2. dialogue3. samplequestionsNote:Change words to varythe information.
  62. 62. 60Learning Standard:1.3.1 Able to listen to and demonstrate understanding of oral texts heard by:b) giving True/False repliesActivity Content Teacher’s notesAM I RIGHT?1. Take pupils around theschool.2. Point to any object andsay,“This is a ………… .”e.g.Point to a car and say,“This is a motorcycle.”Pupils answer :“False. This is a car.”3. Repeat with other objects.Suggested Topics1. objects in the school2. animals3. places4. peopleQUIZ1. Divide the class into twogroups.2. Read out a statement.e.g.An elephant has a trunk.3. A pupil from each grouppicks the correct flashcard.4. Pupil shows the card to therest of the class.5. Other pupils respond bysaying if the card picked isright or wrong.6. Points are given if theanswer is correct.Suggested Statements1. An elephant has a trunk.2. A cat has a beak.3. A bird can fly.4. A cat chirps.5. A lion roars.Statements are based onany topic for the week.Suggested MaterialFour large flashcards ( two for eachgroup).e.g.
  63. 63. 61OLD MAC DONALD1. Put up a picture of a farm.2. Ask questions based onthe picture.e.g. How many cows canyou see?3. Sing the song „Old MacDonald‟ and pupils follow.4. Sing the first two lines ofthe song and state thenumber of animalse.g.:Teacher :”Old Mac Donaldhas a farm,”Class : E-I-E-I-OTeacher : And on that farmhe has twocows.Class: False5. Repeat with other animalsfrom the picture.Suggested Content Animals on the farm:1. three cows2. five ducks3. two horses4. eight chickens5. ten fishesSuggested MaterialComposite pictureof a farm.Note:Number and types ofanimals can be changedbased on the picturechosen.STORY TIME1. Play the story.2. Pupils listen carefully.3. Replay the story.4. A pupil answers thequestion as given in theCD.5. Other pupils shout out„True‟ or „False‟.Suggested Story The Clever Mousedeer(Refer to the EnglishLanguage Year 2 (SK)Teaching Courseware – CD3 - Lesson 64)Suggested MaterialSuitable questionsMY PARTNER1. Divide class into two equalgroups.2. Each pupil in Group A willhave a different statement.3. Each pupil in Group B willhave either a „True‟ or„False‟ card.4. Pupils in Group A will readtheir statements as theywalk.Suggested Statements1. A cow has four legs.(True )2. A rose is green incolour.(False )Note:Statements can be basedon topics taught previously.Suggested Material1. sentence strips2. flash cardsNote:„True‟ or „False‟ flashcards must match thenumber of statementsprepared.
  64. 64. 625. Pupils in Group B willshout „True‟ or „False‟ andstand with their correctpartners.6. When all have found theirpairs, each pair comes outand reads their statementand answer aloud.
  65. 65. 63Appendix 1Cut and paste the correct picture.Pussy cat, pussyWhere have you been?I have been to LondonTo see thePussy pussy catWhat did you do there?I frightened a littleUnder the
  66. 66. 64Appendix 2MY HAPPY FAMILY
  67. 67. 653 5124Choose the correct sentence.Appendix 3
  68. 68. 66Appendix 5
  69. 69. 67Appendix 6
  70. 70. 69THE READING SKILLBy the end of Year Two, pupils should be able to apply knowledge of sounds of lettersto recognize words in order to begin reading and then move on to more complex skillsusing a range of strategies to construct meaning from the text read. The ultimate goalof the reading component in primary school is to produce pupils who will be able to readindependently for information and enjoyment. Pupils of Year 2 will have to acquire thesounds to be learnt as stipulated in the learning standard 2.2.1 before they reinforce thenew sounds learnt to form words learnt by blending these sounds. Pupils learn how tospell by segmenting words and then move on to read phrases and sentences.The learning standards covered in Year 2 are as follows:CONTENT STANDARD LEARNING STANDARDS2.1 By the end of the 6-yearprimary schooling, pupils willbe able to apply knowledgeof sounds of letters torecognize words in linear andnon-linear texts.2.1.1 Able to recognize and articulate initial, medial andthe final sounds in single syllable wordswithin given context:(a) /eɪ/(ai )/i:/(ee)/aɪ/(igh)/әʊ/(oa)/ʊ/,/u:/(oo)(b) /a:/(ar)/ɔ:/(or)/ɜ:/(ur)/әʊ/(ow)/ɔI/(oi)(c) / ә/(ear)/eә/(air )/ʊә/(ure)/ɜ:/(er)(d) /eɪ/(ay)/aʊ/( ou)/aI/( ie)/i:/(ea)(e) /ɔI/(oy)/ɜ:/(ir)/u:/( ue)/ɔ:/(aw)(f) /w/(wh)/f/(ph)/ju:/(ew )/әʊ/(oe )/ɔ:/(au)(g) /eɪ/(a-e)/i:/(e-e)/aɪ/( i-e)/әʊ/(o-e)/u:/(u-e)2.1.2 Able to blend phonemes into recognisable wordsand read them aloud.2.1.3 Able to segment words into phonemes to spell.
  71. 71. 702.2 By the end of the 6-yearprimary schooling, pupilswill be able to demonstrateunderstanding of a varietyof linear and non-lineartexts in the form of print andnon-print materials using arange of strategies toconstruct meaning.2.2.1 Able to read and apply word recognition and wordattack skills by :a) matching words with spoken wordsb) reading and grouping words according to wordfamilies.2.2.2 Able to read and understand phrases in linear andnon-linear texts.2.2.3 Able to read and understand simple sentences inlinear and non-linear texts.2.2.4 Able to read and understand a paragraph of 5 – 8simple sentences.2.2.5 Able to apply basic dictionary skills using picturedictionaries.2.3 By the end of the 6-yearprimary schooling, pupilswill be able to readindependently forinformation andenjoyment.2.3.1 Able to read simple texts with guidance:a) fictionb) non-fictionAs in Year One, pupils will be taught to articulate the phoneme(s) to be learnt by pupilsof Year Two as stipulated in the learning standard. The following sounds are to belearnt in Year Two.
  72. 72. 71Grapheme Phoneme Possible Actionsai/eI/Hands on the waist and say „ei‟ asif in anger.a – eayee/i:/Show you teeth and say “ee”eae – eigh/aI/Place palm on the chest and say„I‟i - eie
  73. 73. 72oa/әʊ /Palms up, shake your body andsay “au”oeo - eowoo /ʊ /Place hands above head, tap onceand say „u‟oo/u:/Place hands above head, shakeyour head and say “u..”ueu - e
  74. 74. 73ar/a:/Open your mouth wide and say“aa”earor/ɔ:/Draw a big circle (anti-clockwise)in the air and say “or”.awauur/ɜ:/ Put your finger on the temple andsay “er”irer
  75. 75. 74wh /w/ Join two peace signs and say “w”ph /f/Action of bird flying and say “f”ew /ju:/Point to a friend and say „you‟.ear /Iә/Fan your hand in front of your noseand say “eear”
  76. 76. 75air /eә/Hold your jaw and say “air”ure /ʊә/Form a „u‟ with both hands, spreadthem like a flower blooming andsay “uwer”ou /aʊ/Pinch yourself and say “aw”oy /ɔI/Hop like a kangaroo and say “oi”
  77. 77. 76These phonemes are to be taught in sequence as stipulated in the learningstandard 2.1.1 (a) – (g). The sounds presented in the table above are not inchronological order as found in the learning standard. They have been classifiedaccording to phonemes and have various graphemes, which represent a particularphoneme. Teachers should tell pupils that the phonemes might represent differentgraphemes.For example the phoneme /eI/, is represented by the grapheme “ai”, “a-e” and “ay”which are present in the following words rain, race and day.The phonemes learnt can be introduced using various teaching strategies suchas singing songs, telling stories, reciting rhymes, playing games as well as drilling inorder to reinforce the learning of these phonemes.Phonemes taught in Year One are reinforced in Year Two before teachingphonemes to be learnt in Year Two as stipulated in the learning standards. Thefollowing are the phonemes learnt in Year One:Grapheme Phoneme Possible actionssssc/s/(voiceless)1. Form a cobra head withyour hand.2. Trace the letter „s‟ in the airand, say s…t / t /(voiceless)Tap two fingers on the deskand say t…
  78. 78. 77P /p/(voiceless)Place four fingers in front ofyour mouth and say p…n /n/(voiced)Touch the tip of your nose andsay n…m /m/(voiced)Lick an ice-cream and say m…d/d/(voiced)Drumming action and say d…g /g/(voiced)1. You are cold, clutch yourhands and shiver2. Say ggg
  79. 79. 78ckck/k/(voiceless)Action of flying a kite and say kr /r/(voiced)Be a lion and say rrrh /h/(voiceless)1. Place your palm in frontof your mouth2. Laugh hahab /b/(voiced)Action of balloon bursting andsay b…fff/f/(voiceless) Action of bird flying and say f…
  80. 80. 79lll/l/(voiced)Raise both arms upright andsay ll..gj/dʒ/(voiced)Jump and say j.v /v/(voiced)Show the peace sign and sayv.w /w/(voiced)Join two peace signs and sayw.x/ks/(voiceless)Cross your hands and say ks..
  81. 81. 80/gz/(voiceless)Slash „x‟ and say gz..y /j/(voiced)Nod and say yehzzz/z/(voiced)Trace „z‟ in the air and say z..q /kw/(voiced)Action of a duck flapping itswings once and say quach /tʃ/(voiceless)1. Action of a moving trainwith both arms2. Say ch.
  82. 82. 81sh /ʃ/(voiceless)Finger on the lips and say sh..th /θ/(voiceless)Show the thumb and say th./ð/(voiced)Point with the thumb and sayth.ng /ŋ/(voiced)Action of mosquito buzzingaround ears and say ng….
  83. 83. 82The short vowels are as follows :Grapheme Phoneme Possible actionsa/æ/Imagine a spider crawlingup your arm and say eh…/ә/1. Cross your arms on yourchest and lift yourshoulders.2. Say er…i/ ɪ/Show your teeth and say e.o/ɒ/Draw a small circle (anticlockwise) in the air and say o
  84. 84. 83e /e/Walk like an elephant and sayehu /ʌ/Look up and say uhThe long vowels are as follows :Grapheme Phoneme Possible actionsa/a:/Open your mouth wide and sayaaa…ao/ɔ:/Draw a big circle (anticlockwise) in the air and sayor…
  85. 85. 84e /i:/ Show your teeth and say ee..Word List for Year 1 and 2 (according to phonemes learnt)Grapheme Phoneme Suggested Wordsə/ɔɪ/ʒ/ɒɔ
  86. 86. 85Grapheme Phoneme Suggested Wordsʌ/ʒ/ʃʃ/θŋ/ɪ/ɪ/əʊ/
  87. 87. 86Grapheme Phoneme Suggested Wordsʊ/ɔɜaʊ//әʊ/ɪə/ə/ʊәɜɪ/aʊ/aɪ/ɔɪɜɔəʊɔ
  88. 88. 87Grapheme Phoneme Suggested Wordseɪɪəʊ
  89. 89. 88Learning Standard:2.1.2 Able to blend phonemes into recognizable words and read them aloud.ACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESForming Words1. Place pictures with thegrapheme „oa’ in a bigbox.2. Pick a picture and nameit aloud stressing thephoneme /әʊ/.3. Pupils repeat the wordindividually / in groups.4. Prepare onset and rimecards based on theword list.5. Place the cards on thetable.6. Pick pupils at randomto select the correctonset and rime cardsbased on the picture.7. Pupils blend and readthe word aloud.Word Listboatcoatsoapgoattoade.g.Materialsonset cardsrime cardpicture cardsOnset RimeCards CardRoll a word1. Show pictures with thegrapheme “ee” .2. Say aloud the word ,stressing the phoneme/i:/.3. Pupils repeat.4. Divide pupils intogroups. Provide threecube sets for eachgroup.5. Taking turns, pupils rollcubes 1 - 3 toform words based onthe picture.6. Pupils say the wordsaloud and write thewords that they haveformed.Word ListsheepteethtreeweepfeetsleepMaterialspicture cardscubes template - Appendix 1contents of onset cube (1)- sh, t, tr, w, f, slcontents of rime cube (2)- eecontents of onset cube (3)- p, th, t-*can use erasers as cubes.*this activity can be turned intoa competition.bcsoatgdptsh ee pb oa
  90. 90. 89ACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESWord Chain1. Demonstrate the actionfor the phoneme /ɔ: /.2. Pupils repeat a fewtimes.3. Show pictures andname them.4. Pick pupils at randomand hang the cardsaround the pupils‟necks.5. Teacher says a word.e.g. saw.6. Pupils with therespective letter cardswill stand side by side toblend the word.7. Pupils repeat the word.Word Listsawpawdrawprawncrawle.gMaterialsletter cardspicture cardsMatch Me Right1. Demonstrate thegrapheme „i – e’through a song.2. Pupils repeat.3. Show picture cards andblend the phonemes.4. Pupils repeatindividually or in groups.5. Put up picture cards onthe wall with the onsetcards.6. Pupils match the rimecards to the correctpicture cards.7. Pupils read the words.Word ListkitefiveprizemicericehideSong chart(Tune of Clementine)Materialspicture cardsOnset RimeCards cardsA BprcrspndrawlI like to fly kites (3x)In the skyI have five kites (3x)As my prizeI see five mice (3x)Eating riceWhen they see me(3x)They run and hidemicerfkhiveiteideiceizeprws a
  91. 91. 90ACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESWord Spinner1. Demonstrate the actionand sound for thephoneme /eI/.2. Pupils repeat.3. Show pictures andsay the word.4. Blend the onset andrime cards.4. Pupils repeat.5. Put up a word spinner.6. Pupils take turns tospin.7. Pupils blend the onsetand rime letters to formcorrect words.8. Pupils read the words.Word ListthighlightfightnightrightbrightMaterialsPicture cardsWord spinner template –Appendix 2Onset Rimecards cardsA Bighbrrnfltht
  92. 92. 91Learning Standard:2.1.3 Able to segment words into phonemes to spell.ACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESSeparate Me1. Demonstrate segmentation of aword.a. Read the word.b. Pupils repeat.c. Say the phonemes.e.g.a-e : snake - /s/, /n/, /e /,/k/2. Distribute grapheme cardsrandomly to the pupils.3. Teacher says a word.4. People with the relatedgraphemes come to the front toform the word.5. Teacher says the phoneme andthe pupil with the relatedgrapheme card raises it.6. Teacher repeats the activity withother words.Suggested Words :snake, bake, tape,cake, lake, make, race,date, spadeJumping On The Puddles1. Show a word.2. Say the word aloud andseparate them into segments.e.g. girl - /g/ /ɜ:// /l/3. Pupils repeat after the teacher.4. Create „puddles‟ across theclassroom floor, each puddlefeaturing a grapheme.5. Teacher says a word and picks apupil at random to demonstrate.6. Pupil says the phoneme ashe/she jumps on it.7. Repeat the steps for all thewords suggested.Suggested Words :girl, bird, thirsty, skirt,shirt, firstAppendix 3
  93. 93. 92ACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESBreak the Code1. Divide class into 2 sections.2. In one section create a „rewardzone‟.e.g. – sweets in a box3. Another section; pupils stand ingroups of 5-6.4. Teacher shows a word card.5. Each group reads the wordaloud.6. Pupils break the code by sayingthe phonemes aloud in order totake the reward.e.g.Teacher : bowPupils : /b/ /әʊ/Suggested Words:cow, town, how, bow,owl, flower, powerWord Boxes1. Divide pupils into groups.2. Distribute boxes of letter cards toeach group.3. Show the picture and say theword.4. Pupils segment the sounds andsay the word.e.g./m/ /i:/, /t/5. Each group take turns tosegment the word.6. Repeat the steps with each wordon the list.Suggested Words:sea, pea, meat, read,eatMaterialsletter cards
  94. 94. 93ACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESWall Words1. Show the picture and the word.e.g.2. Teacher says the word aloudand segments the word.3. Pupils repeat after the teacher.4. Put up the word cards on thewall.5. Pupils segment the words.6. Repeat the steps with each wordon the list.d o l ph i nSuggested Words:alphabet, dolphin,elephant, telephone,photoAppendix 4dolphin
  95. 95. 94Learning Standard:2.2.1 Able to read and apply word recognition and word attack skills by:a. matching words with spoken words.ACTIVITIES CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESListen and Choose1. Pair the pupils.2. One pupil will be given a set ofpicture cards and the other will begiven a set of word cards.3. Teacher says out a word. The4. pupil who has the correct picture5. card will put it up followed by the6. pupil with the correct word card.Word List:goatcoatfloatboattoadroadMaterialsWord cardsPicture cardsgoatcoatfloatboattoadroadRead and Find1. Distribute worksheets to pupils.2. Pupils are asked to read thewords.3. Pupils use colour pencils to tracethe dotted lines from the words tothe pictures.Word List:goatcoatfloatboattoadroadMaterialscolour pencilsworksheetsAppendix 5Assemble Me Dear1. Each group will be given a picturepuzzle in an envelope.2. Each group will have to assemblethe picture correctly on a manilacard.3. The assembled picture will have tobe pasted on the board togetherwith the correct word and pupilssay it out loud.4. The fastest group wins the game.Word list:girlbirdskirtshirtfirstthirdMaterialspictures cut into piecesenvelopesword cards
  96. 96. 95ACTIVITIES CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESBingo1. Teacher prepares a few sets ofbingo cards with the same words indifferent arrangements.2. Distributes the sets to the pupils.3. Give instructions how to play.4. Teacher picks words randomly froma box.5. Say it out loud.6. The first pupil to complete thewords in a straight line is thewinner.Word list:bluegluetruehighnightlightwheelwhalebirthdaycarballoonsirMaterialsbingo setsboxword cardsblue glue truewhale car lightsir high nightglue car sirnight blue lighttrue high trueGet Me Right1. Distribute worksheets to thepupils.2. Teacher reads out a wordaccording to the word list.3. Pupils listen and circle the correctword.4. Repeat the steps for the otherwords.Word list:chewcrewscrewdrewblewflewMaterialsWorksheetsAppendix 6
  97. 97. 96Learning Standard:2.2.1 Able to read and apply word recognition and word attack skills by :c. reading and grouping words according to word families.ACTIVITIES CONTENTS TEACHER’S NOTESPut Me Where I Belong1. Put up the word chart.2. Drill the pupils with the words.3. Call pupils at random to read theword shown and place it in thecorrect column.(Final / ɔ:/ and/ ju:/)4. Repeat the activity until all thewords are correctly placed.Word list :screwnewblewdrewsawjawdrawstrawMaterialsword chart(Appendix 7)Crazy Poems1. Display a poem on the board.2. Ask pupils to repeat the poem afterthe teacher.3. Distribute worksheet that has twocolumns: (animals and clothing).4. Ask pupils to group the wordsand write them in the correctcolumn.A cow goes to town,In a gown,Then passes a toad,In a coat,Ha! Ha! Ha!Laughs the goat,In a rowing boat,Shirt for sale,Skirt for sale,Yells the bird,With the yellow tail.Materialspoem chartworksheetsAppendix 8
  98. 98. 97Learning Standard:2.2.2 Able to read and understand phrases in linear and non-linear texts.ACTIVITIES CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESJazz with me...1. Chant aloud.2. Pupils read the phrases withthe phoneme /aI/ aloud afterthe teacher.3. Say the words with thephoneme /aI/ louder whilechanting.4. Put up Chart A5. Pupils complete the chant withword cards.Jazz ChantWhat a frightTurn to your rightKeep a sightSwitch on the lightKeep it brightSay good nightSay it rightChart AMaterialsJazz chant, chart,word cardsAnother jazz chant :Mother bakes a cakeIt is a chocolate cakeShe puts it on a plateShe cuts a piece ofcakeShe gives a piece toJadeJade takes the cakeTo share it with MissKateSorry it‟s too lateIt falls into the lakeButter Cake1. Sing the song (HappyWanderer Tune)2. Teacher says aloud phraseswith the phoneme /eI/ whileflashing the phrase cards.3. Pupils repeat after teacher.4. Stress the phrase:a butter cake5. Paste phrase cards withmissing letters on the board.6. Pupils complete the phraseswith letter cards of „a‟ and „e‟.Song : Butter CakeI love to eat a butter cakethat my mother loves to bakeThe butter cake my motherbakedwith a candle on the cakeButter cake,Butter cake,Butter cakeha, ha, ha, ha, ha, haButter cakeand the big piece is for meMaterialsSong chartWord cards;cake, bake,lake, date,take, platePhrase CardsWhat a ____Turn to your ____Keep a ____Switch on the ____Keep it ____Say good ____Say it ____a butter cakebake a cakea butter c_k_b_k_ a c_k_
  99. 99. 98ACTIVITIES CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESIt’ s Story Time1. Teacher reads the story.2. Stress on the phoneme:/a:/, / aI /3. Get pupils to repeat thewords.4. Read the Big Book withthe pupils.5. Read with correctpronunciation andintonation.6. In groups, pupilsarrange sentences toform the correct story(teacher can carry it outas a competition to makeit fun.)Short StoryThe night was dark.Knight heard a bark.He switched on the light.He had a frightWhen he saw a duck.What a BIG BIG duck.The duck chased Knight.Knight went to hide.Oh what a fright.MaterialsPrepare phrase cardsPrepare a Big BookDraw a series of pictures.Read Me Aloud1. Teacher reads a shortstory.2. Read the phrase cardsshown.3. Stress on the phoneme/i:/4. Get pupils to repeat.5. Pupils read the storywith correctpronunciation andintonation.6. Call pupils randomly.Teacher gives a card toa pupil (e.g: A sad king)7. Ask the pupil to read thephrase silently and dothe actions in front ofthe class.8. The rest of the pupilsguess the phrase.Short StoryOnce there was a king and aqueen.The queen did not have achild.They were very sad.Years later, the queen had ababy girl.Everyone was happy.So, they held a party.Then came a witch.She put a spell.She put a curse on the baby.Soon, the princess fell in adeep, deep sleep.MaterialsTeachers can prepare a bigbook for the story.Prepare phrase cards:sad kingsad queena beautiful queena baby girl sleepsan ugly witcha sad kinga sad queen
  100. 100. 99Learning Standard:2.2.3 Able to read and understand simple sentences in linear and non-linear texts.ACTIVITY CONTENT TEACHER’S NOTESRead and match1. Distribute worksheets topupils.2. Pupils read thesentences and matchthem to the pictures.3 . Pupils read thesentences aloudin small groups.Duplicate the AppendixAppendix 9Read and match1. Teacher puts up partsof sentences.2. Pupils read thesentence parts in smallgroups.3. Pupils match thesentence parts.4. Pupils read thecompleted sentencesaloud.Duplicate the AppendixAppendix 10Read and paste1. Distribute a compositepicture to each pupil.2. Put up a chartcontaining sentenceson the board.3. Pupils read thesentences.4. Pupils cut out theobjects and paste themon the picture.5. Pupils exchange theirwork and check.Sentences on the chart.1. The ball is under thecupboard.2. The books are on thetable.3. The doll is in the pail.4. The lamp is on thetable.Materialscomposite picturechart containingsentences.Appendix 11