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  • 1. TPACK – Technological pedagogical content knowledge Piret Luik University of Tartu eTwinningu suvekool 2010
  • 2. TPACK
    • In 1986 Lee Shulman - pedagogical content knowledge (PCK).
    • TPACK (previously TPCK) is “ a framework for teacher knowledge, and as such, it may be helpful to those planning professional development for teachers by illuminating what teachers need to know about technology, pedagogy, and content and their interrelationships. The TPACK framework does not specify how this should be accomplished , recognizing that there are ma n y possible approaches to knowledge development of this type ” ( Harris, Mishra & Koehler, 200 9 p. 403 ) .
  • 3. What is integration?
    • Integration has a sense of completeness or wholeness, by which all essential elements of a system are seamlessly combined together to make a whole (Earle, 2002).
    • In education, simply handing out to students a collection of websites or CD-ROM programs is certainly not ICT integration. In a properly crafted ICT integrated lesson, ICT and other crucial educational components such as content and pedagogy are molded into one entity (Wang & Woo, 2007).
  • 4. Content knowledge ˇ(CK) Topic-specific representations, like knowledge about history. Concepts, rules, relationships etc about the topic.
  • 5. Content knowledge (CK) Topic-specific representations, like knowledge about history. Concepts, rules, relationships etc about the topic. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) Methods and processes of teaching and learning includes knowledge in lesson plan development, assessment, student learning, classroom management ect .
  • 6. Content knowledge (CK) Topic-specific representations, like knowledge about history. Concepts, rules, relationships etc about the topic. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) Methods and processes of teaching and learning includes knowledge in lesson plan development, assessment, student learning, classroom management ect . Technological Knowledge (TK) Fluency of Information Technology
  • 7. CK PK TK
  • 8. PS CK PK TK TCK TPK TPACK
  • 9. Content knowledge (CK) Topic-specific representations, like knowledge about history. Concepts, rules, relationships etc about the topic. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) Methods and processes of teaching and learning includes knowledge in lesson plan development, assessment, student learning, classroom management ect . Technological Knowledge (TK) Fluency of Information Technology Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) content-specific pedagogical activities in order to facilitate student learning.
  • 10. Content knowledge (CK) Topic-specific representations, like knowledge about history. Concepts, rules, relationships etc about the topic. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) Methods and processes of teaching and learning includes knowledge in lesson plan development, assessment, student learning, classroom management ect . Technological Knowledge (TK) Fluency of Information Technology Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) content-specific pedagogical activities in order to facilitate student learning. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) Pedagogical activities using emerging technologies. How teaching and learning changes using technology.
  • 11. Content knowledge (CK) Topic-specific representations, like knowledge about history. Concepts, rules, relationships etc about the topic. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) Methods and processes of teaching and learning includes knowledge in lesson plan development, assessment, student learning, classroom management ect . Technological Knowledge (TK) Fluency of Information Technology Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) content-specific pedagogical activities in order to facilitate student learning. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) Pedagogical activities using emerging technologies. How teaching and learning changes using technology. Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) How technology facilitates content representation, which tehnology suits to which content.
  • 12. Content knowledge (CK) Topic-specific representations, like knowledge about history. Concepts, rules, relationships etc about the topic. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) Methods and processes of teaching and learning includes knowledge in lesson plan development, assessment, student learning, classroom management ect . Tehnoloogia alased teadmised Fluency of Information Technology Pedagoogika ja sisu alased teadmised (PS) Kuidas õpetada ja kuidas õpitakse konkreetset sisu, ka õpitava hindamine. Efektiivsed meetodid, seoste loomine jms. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) Pedagogical activities using emerging technologies. How teaching and learning changes using technology. Tehnoloogia ja sisu alased teadmised (TS) Milline tehnoloogia sobib millise sisuga, kuidas sisu tingib konkreetse tehnoloogilise lahenduse ja vastupidi. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Understanding how these three forms of knowledge interact with each other - how to represent concepts with technologies, pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help students learn; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build up existing knowledge and to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones.
  • 13. CK PK TK
  • 14. TK PK CK PCK
  • 15. PK TK CK PCK TCK
  • 16. PS CK PK TK TCK TPK TPACK
  • 17.
    • Shulman (1986) – it is important to put content into the pedagogical format finding the most essential examples, analogies, representations ect.
    • There is no pure pedagogic, pure content or pure technology.
    • Integration!
  • 18. T echnology integration
    • Blackboard (James Pillans in the early 1800s in Edinburgh). By 1830, the blackboard had become an essential part of classroom furnishing.
    • Silent films in schools as early as 1910 and in the late 1920s sound films (Saettler, 1990).
    • As late as 1936. A survey showed that schools owned 10 times more silent film projectors than sound film projectors (Saettler, 1990).
  • 19. For technology integration
    • Need for specific knowledge how to use technology for educational purposes, need to focus on teaching and learning while separating it from the technologies we use. But the integration of technology is more connected with the use of technology separately than use of technology in pedagogic way (Mishra et al. , 2009).
  • 20. ICT integration
    • Larry Cuban (1993) ‘Computers Meet Classroom: Classroom Wins‘: schools were finding ways to fit ICT into their existing structures without making any substantial change to the nature of schooling.
    • Need for change within the classroom setting: environment, teaching, learning, assessment (Law, Pelgrum & Plomp, 2008).
    • Important are size of class, infrastructure, tools, management, teaching, assessment, school culture, skills of teachers, support of parents ( Hallissey , 2009).
  • 21.
    • Learning technical skills alone is not sufficient — learning how to integrate technologies into teaching is equally important.
    • Emphasis is put on evaluating the entire teaching performance, not just one aspect of it.
    • Reason ing about which technologies are worth learning. Educators should be able to quickly evaluate new technologies in terms of how they will present content or facilitate pedagogy.
    (Mishra et al., 2009)
  • 22.
    • Deep knowledge of the content to be covered.
    • Good knowledge of technology and what could be done with it—not necessarily specialized software.
    • Knowledge of pedagogy.
    (Mishra et al., 2009)
  • 23. How?
    • There isn’t specified scenarios, there are ma n y possible approaches.
    • Focus on competencies, flexibility and creativity rather than technical understanding and functional knowledge of specific technologies .
    • Harris et al. (2009): there is a need to know different teaching and learning methods, different pedagogical approaches.
  • 24. Additional reading
    • http://open.byu.edu/ipt287/tpack-framework/
    • http://clifmims.wetpaint.com/page/TPACK
    • http://www.tpck.org/tpck/index.php?title=Main_Page
    • Harris, J., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2009). Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and learning activity types: Curriculum-based technology integration reframed. Journal of Research on Technology in Education , 41 (4), 393-416.
  • 25. Thank you for the attention! Piret Luik piret.luik@ut.ee