Emese Ugrin – Csaba VargaNew theory of state and      democracy                1
Published by:Institute for Strategic Research, Hungary (ISR)             www.strategiakutato.hu                Translated ...
ContentsPreface .............................................................................................................
The anomalies of growth trends in the industrial society................................................. 82     Globalisa...
9.2. The extraordinary history of electronic democracy as an idea.................................... 140        The perio...
Chapter Fifteen: The combined future of the new state, new e-public administration andparticipatory democracy................
Preface             Introduction to foreign readers       This volume leans on the Hungarian and more broadely speaking, o...
classical European, even Euro-atlantic modernisation can hardly be continued.At the same time it is equally revealed (in a...
become evident that neither Hungary nor the post-socialist region can beunderstood as isolated entities but only in the fr...
Introduction        Present-day democracy is a post-totalitarian system, - is the basic assertion at the turnof the twenti...
In this context, the programme of participatory democracy should be viewed as thestrengthening of defence mechanisms of lo...
democracy, partly based on a new and                                     formalised social agreement               e-gover...
Chapter One: The glocal world and information age        As we have already pointed out in the introduction, we need to ch...
It is Endre Kiss, the philosopher, who notes2: "According to a widely sharedinterpretation, globalisation is the science o...
1.2. Localisation and ’life milieu’        At the beginning of the twentieth century, in the semi-global state of the worl...
In the global context, a network of local worlds was born as a continuation andacceleration of localisation. All of these ...
1.4. The four models of the present glocal age        The new glocal age is not to be placed outside history, on the contr...
hunger for pleasure, yet due to the nature, standard and manner of the service, the failure ofpleasure society is guarante...
degrees are currently mass produced, but information and the mediatized reality is also for theconsumption of the masses. ...
Most of the Hungarian intellectual elite has had an anti-technological bias for a longtime; new technological results were...
The grouping and the standardisation of knowledge may be the subject-matter of awhole new investigation.12 In the age of k...
intellectual and cultural processes and has been defined for instance by Alexis Tocqueville13isoften but a facade democrac...
•    Interest-based policy/democracy is corroded and often ignored by the informationage and age of knowledge just about t...
analysis becomes a twofold process. One of the processes details the ways knowledge capitalhas become a central actor cont...
The fourth interpretation clearly distinguishes between between information andknowledge society from a historical and con...
structures that are based on networks. Following the information communication revolutionsin creating new technologies, hu...
change in terms of world models as, when at the end of the Middle Ages the first formationsof industrial age replaced feud...
Presently we cannot go into detail about the coherent yet altogether different set ofproblems of the global and local worl...
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga

2,857

Published on

FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga

Published in: Technology, News & Politics
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,857
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
24
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

FULL BOOK - Ugrin-Varga New theory - Csaba Varga

  1. 1. Emese Ugrin – Csaba VargaNew theory of state and democracy 1
  2. 2. Published by:Institute for Strategic Research, Hungary (ISR) www.strategiakutato.hu Translated by: Anna Born © Emese Ugrin, Csaba Varga, 2008 ISBN: 978-963-87857-01 2
  3. 3. ContentsPreface ................................................................................................................................... 7Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 10Chapter One: The glocal world and information age ............................................................... 13 1.1. The new concept of globalisation: functional and substantial globalisation................. 13 1.2. Localisation and ’life milieu’ ........................................................................................ 15 1.3. Glocal age and the new mediation level: the nation...................................................... 16 1.4. The four models of the present glocal age ................................................................... 17 1.5. The Information Age that comes to an end ................................................................... 18 1.6. The age of new technologies and artificial intelligence ................................................ 19 1.7. Age of new knowledge and critical approaches to democracy ..................................... 20 1.8. Information society as the next stage of glocalization .................................................. 23 1.9. The history of the three basic categories and their submodels...................................... 25 1.10. A new understanding of knowledge society at the end of the information age .......... 28 A restricted concept of knowledge in the information society......................................... 29 1.11. The expansion of network society and knowledge-based economy .................... 31 The era of knowledge-driven economy............................................................................ 33 1.12. Capital resources of the information society........................................................ 36Chapter Two: Developing the relationship between state and citizen ..................................... 39 2.1. Starting point in eight items .......................................................................................... 39 2.2. State and democracy – a solid first approach................................................................ 40 2.3. The theory of the administrative field comprehensively embedded in the individual, political, social and the collective consciousness................................................................. 42 2.4. Citizen – the theory of five prize-winning community citizen ..................................... 44 2.5. The theory of the state: types of state in the new theory of the state ............................ 45 2.6. Social theory – the theory of new civil society ............................................................. 47 2.7. Historical analysis – the basic model of three periods ................................................. 50 The model of the Industrial Age ...................................................................................... 50 The model of the Socialist Age ........................................................................................ 53 The model fo the Information Age................................................................................... 54 2.8. Democracy – before the new democracy is established............................................... 56 2.9. The functional theories of e-public administration ....................................................... 57Chapter Three: State, governing, democracy within the concepts of liberal democracy and inpractice ..................................................................................................................................... 63 3.1. The historical formation and definition of the modern state .................................... 63 Problems with the nation-state and its birth ..................................................................... 63 The inconsistencies of nation-state .................................................................................. 65 3.2. Democratic deficit or the post-totalitarian system ....................................................... 65 3.3. Minimal democratic procedures have been emptied of their content ........................... 70 3.4. The repositioning of state after the division of politics from society............................ 72 3.5. The possible road of change: the e-state and civilised country..................................... 74 3.6. Governance and the disfunctional government ............................................................ 76 3.7. The institutional and administrative nature of the state ................................................ 76 3.8. The struggle of the service providing state and the weak communication ................... 77Chapter Four: In the current of new paradigms ....................................................................... 81 4.1. The paradigm that looks back from the future and paradigm change ........................... 81 4.2. The accepted paradigm of sustainable development.................................................... 82 3
  4. 4. The anomalies of growth trends in the industrial society................................................. 82 Globalisation vs. Localisation in the 1990s ..................................................................... 83 The state has become a bone of contention between functional globalisation and localisation ....................................................................................................................... 85 4.3. Is a new „ideology” born on how to continue? ............................................................. 85 4.4. How does the theory of sustainable development develop? ......................................... 86 Sustainable state as a new state theory............................................................................. 87Chapter Five: New dimensions of general and enigmatic development .................................. 89 5.1. Space and time dimensions of changes ......................................................................... 89 5.2. The cognitive nature of information and its consequences ........................................... 90 5.3. Communication globalisation and information society ................................................ 91 5.4. Does knowledge society bring about primordial model change? ................................. 92 5.5. Redefining knowledge capital and the types of pulling forces of the era ..................... 94 Personal knowlegde.......................................................................................................... 94 Implicit knowledge........................................................................................................... 95 Knowledge as social capital ............................................................................................. 96 Utilized knowledge makes the world off the hinge.......................................................... 96 5.6. The laudation of innovation in the new era................................................................... 97 Innovation in the knowledge-based economy .................................................................. 97 5.7. Knowledge management in the new economy............................................................ 100 The economic approach – knowledge management ...................................................... 100 The social perspective: human resource management ................................................... 101Chapter Six: The present is already an intelligent development ............................................ 102 6.1. The comprehensive goals and the directions of intelligent development ................... 102 6.2. New approach to planning and the general alteration of the whole ............................ 103 6.3. Tangible limitations of intelligent development ......................................................... 104 6.4. Content management: the future branch of the age..................................................... 105 6.5. The infocommunicational public service system and the business type processing model.................................................................................................................................. 105Chapter Seven: The new paradigm of governance – the service providing state .................. 114 7.1. The service providing state and its various interpretations ......................................... 114 The economic perspective .............................................................................................. 114 New social perspective................................................................................................... 118 7.2. Differences between virtual space and cyber space .................................................... 119 7.3. Cyber-space is the scene of collective intelligence ..................................................... 124 The virtual community ................................................................................................... 124Chapter Eight: The new state as virtual community .............................................................. 126 8.1. The institutionalisation of virtual space in the horisontally organised state ............... 126 8.2. The problem of control – order and chaos .................................................................. 128 8.3. E-governance and e-public administration without popular fallacies ......................... 130 8.4. The historic development and global trends in e-governance..................................... 130 8.5. The hypotheses of various e-governance models....................................................... 131 8.6. E-governance with the continuously developing tools of ICT.................................... 133 8.7. The four players of e-public administration, or is this the new model?...................... 134 8.8. The elementary significance of knowledge centres .................................................... 135 8.9. E-local governance and e-democracy opens a door to the future................................ 136 The topical e-local governance programme ................................................................... 137 E-democracy – the possibility of participatory democracy............................................ 137Chapter Nine: Democracy theories and experiments ............................................................. 140 9.1. E-democracy – historical overview – visions and doubts ........................................... 140 4
  5. 5. 9.2. The extraordinary history of electronic democracy as an idea.................................... 140 The period of "Cybernet" ............................................................................................... 141 The age of tele-democracy ............................................................................................. 142 9.3. Tele-democracy, the age of cyber-democracy ............................................................ 143 9.4. Electronic democracy serving universal values .......................................................... 145Chapter Ten: Participatory democracy and/or e-democracy.................................................. 147 10.1. The breakthrough: participatory democracy ............................................................. 147 10.2. Understanding participatory democracy – the system of structured dialogue .......... 147 10.3. Participatory democracy – road towards the direct ................................................... 149 (e-)democracy ( from welfare society towards well-fare society) ..................................... 149 10.4. The summary of democracy development and the new, for the time being enigmatic model? ................................................................................................................................ 154 10.5. The local document of participatory democracy – or the "settlement/city charta" ... 156Chapter Eleven: The Aba model: development of local democracy, creation of a socialcontract ................................................................................................................................... 159 11.1. The presentation of civil representatives, analysis of their plans.............................. 161 11.2. The creation of participatory democracy in Aba and the chances of e-democracy (the history of events)................................................................................................................ 163 The official beginnings of the democracy (Village assembly, September 2004) .......... 164 Appeal for a local social contract ................................................................................... 164 Draft scenario of the local social contract (third version).............................................. 167 Letter to the citizens of Aba (February, 2005) ............................................................... 169 The programme of social contract in Aba ...................................................................... 170 The (festive) Day of the Social Contract........................................................................ 172 The establishment of the forum of civil representatives (April 2005) ........................... 173 11.3. The future scenario of Aba, until 2007-2010 ............................................................ 173 The Aba model ............................................................................................................... 177Chapter Twelve: The comprehensive vision of state, democracy and public administration 179 12.1. Rethinking the future, vision of the future, strategy of the future............................. 180 The reinterpretation of the concepts............................................................................... 180 12.2. Clearing the concepts of future planning and future development ........................... 181 12.3. Long-term future image up until 2020, a comprehensive future image until 2013 .. 182Chapter Thirteen: Paradigm changing new recognitions in the first third of the 21st century................................................................................................................................................ 183 13.1. The challenging timeliness and the alternative of knowledge society ...................... 183 13.2. The unexpected post-modernisation models ............................................................. 184 13.3. The accepted digital state and public administration vision ..................................... 185 13.4. Network state is the future, but what sort of network state? ..................................... 186 13.5. The cardinal question: participatory democracy and/or e-democracy?..................... 188 Exoteric and esoteric democracy theory ........................................................................ 190 13.6. On a taboo matter: the e-parliament .......................................................................... 191 13.7. The secret of the conceivable future: consciousness-guided (post)society and (post)democracy ................................................................................................................. 194Chapter Fourteen: The characteristics of conceivable future scenarios ................................. 198 14.1. The five types of complex future scenarios .............................................................. 199 14.2. Universal scenarios ................................................................................................... 200 14.3. Global scenarios ........................................................................................................ 200 14.4. National scenarios ..................................................................................................... 203 14.5. Local scenarios.......................................................................................................... 208 14.6. On the chances that the scenarios are going to be realised (or left unfinished) ........ 209 5
  6. 6. Chapter Fifteen: The combined future of the new state, new e-public administration andparticipatory democracy......................................................................................................... 212 15.1. What comes after new infocommunication techonologies have been introduced?... 212 15.2. New public administration and office work: k-public administration ..................... 213 15.3. Is new knowledge and new consciousness unavoidalbe in public administration? .. 216 15.4. Intelligent civil society – and what comes after it..................................................... 217 15.5. Finally, is the new state and new democracy vision born? ....................................... 218Chapter Sixteen: Diverging (and decisive?) alternatives of the near future........................... 221 16.1. The e-state and e-democracy scenarios..................................................................... 221 16.2. The European Union, - the odds of an e-federal state ............................................... 221 16.3. The alternatives of e-governance in Hungary until 2013-2015................................. 222 16.4. The scenarios of Hungarian regional, small regional, settlement e-local governance and e-public administration................................................................................................ 223 16.5. The chances of institutionalisation of e-democracy, e-election and e-referenda at the local level ........................................................................................................................... 224 16.6. Individual and community e-consciousness, e-realisations as the qualitative requirements of participatory e-democracy scenarios........................................................ 224Chapter Seventeen: Summary: risk factors and the future chances of creating a new world 226 17.1. The veritable long-term chances and hopes .............................................................. 227 17.2. Short term prognosis ................................................................................................. 231Major publications.................................................................................................................. 233 6
  7. 7. Preface Introduction to foreign readers This volume leans on the Hungarian and more broadely speaking, onEuropean experiences, although the crisis of the state and democracy model isnot exclusively a Hungarian, nor a European phenomenon. We wouldn’t beexaggerating even if we modestly claimed that the political-social crossroadshave become global. The sociological backround of the book is based on thesocial crises of Hungary, Central-Europe and the totality of the Europeancontinent. For theory creation, however, this regional observationexceptionally constitutes a point of advantage. For instance, in Hungary or inthe Central European states that have implemented political regime change, theuselessness of the Euro-atlantic democracy model is more clearly and sharplyvisible than in the Western European classical democracies and states. The authors belong to those exposed intelligentsia who have beeninstrumental to regime change in 1989/1990. Csaba Varga was one of theopinion leaders and social scientists of the Opposition Round Table whileEmese Ugrin art historian became a (Christian Democrat) MP in the Hungarianparliament after the regime change. Already at that time they warned that thepost-socialist state neither then, nor subsequently should opt for the 19thcentury form of capitalism as their universal future perspective. In 1989 this was scarcely understood and was accepted by even fewerpeople because during the euphoric times of the regime change everyoneseemed to have been satisfied with the slogans that had grown into mythicproportions, namely those of market economy and democracy. Not before long,however, it became obvious that while classical capitalism based on privateownership that replaced state capitalist socialism could function merely as avalid starting point, yet it would never bring real and permanent economic andsocial solutions (neither) to Central Eastern Europe. And it has also becomeclear that the empty, formal, false socialist „democracy” won’t be redeemed bycivil democracy either that is itself formal and rapidly emptying of content. Thetwo models of the past sharply oppose each other and one could support onlyone of them, - yet the real solution could only be brought about by a quantumjump-like new model. We should also note here that the Hungarian social-economic situationand climate is well suited to swiftly and spectacularly reveal the exhaustion andemptiness of the nineteenth-twentieth century market economy and worlddemocracy model at the end of the millenium. Moreover, the Hungarian andother Central European examples of crisis also unveil at a similar speed that the 7
  8. 8. classical European, even Euro-atlantic modernisation can hardly be continued.At the same time it is equally revealed (in a dramatic or perhaps pitiful fashion)that present-day leading civilisation world model has no future image andperspective. It has ended yet is it not ripe enough to be radically replaced? The first decade after the millenium, slowly coming to an end, has onlyfurther strenghtened this experience. Hungary with its struggles and search forthe future is becoming once again an example, in a double sense in fact: 1. Thenew political elite made up by the one-time opposition who fought for regimechange and the one-time second-rate leaders of the state party that had acceptedregime change are equally captive of the ideology of regime change and thusglobal perplexity just as the pre-1989 state party elites who directed the SovietEmpire that extended over half of the world and executed „surface” reformswere captive of their own system’s ideology and empirical practice. 2. Thecrises that cannot be concealed and the weakness of old or new ideologicalengagement make it possible that in Hungary and Central Europe the birth ofradically new state and democracy theories, models, programmes take place,not obstructed at all by the fact that the current political elites are generallyspeaking not open to new models and solutions. This is understandable, on the one hand, because serious opinion leaderintellectuals cannot be against democracy or constitutional governance sincethe experience of soft dictatorship called socialism is simply too close and wecannot retreat anywhere in the past. On the other hand, in Hungary neithersociety nor economy is in the spiritual and mental condition to understand andsupport a newer second regime change and face the prospective even greaterrisks. One needs to protect the new, liberal democracy and plan for a newmodel simultaneously; and likewise, the executive „power” controlled by theparliament should duly be protected while once again it is high time that thecentralising, power-centred governance model was replaced with somethingelse. The global (universal) crisis is clearly visible from Hungary since thoseinterest- and value groups who urge for the concealment of the crossroads aretoo weak to successfully accomplish and legalise the rescue of the system. It isan inspiring situation and state of consciousness so that new thinking mindsand theoretical programmes could come to light. Emese Ugrin and Csaba Varga take advantage of the new situation andmeet the new intellectual challenge. Luckily, neither wanted to be party orgovernment politician and thus both of them have worked primarily in researchfrom the mid-1990s onwards. Csaba Varga together with Emese Ugrin and fiveother eminent scholars founded the Institute for Strategic Reserch whichcurrently comprises sixteen research groups. Initially, their joint aim was toestablish a comprehensive future perspective for Hungary, yet soon after it has 8
  9. 9. become evident that neither Hungary nor the post-socialist region can beunderstood as isolated entities but only in the framework of broadercivilisation-cultural processes. This is why well before the millenium theybecame preoccupied with the globalisation-localisation theory or the theory ofinformation and/or knowledge society. This book that was written and published in Hungarian in 2007 andwhile is is primarily based on the Central Eastern European experience, itconceptualises a universal and new democracy and state theory which goesbeyond the borders of Central Europe and even the European continent. Whilethe book bears witness of wide knowledge on state and democracy literature,the authors do not adhere to the traditional way of thinking on demoracyresearch. The authors are typically the grounded actors of the new knowledgemarket as they represent researchers with wide intellectual horisons and inpossession of transdisciplinary knowledge and who are very knowledgeable onthe theories and practices of the digital state, e-public administration andelectronic democracy of the information age. All this while partly explains, partly does not offer reasons for the radicalnew alternatives of the information age. The cure the authors offer for the stateand democracy is universal and based on participation for consciousness-centred societies and political systems; for that matter, it can equally be appliedto Hungary, Europe or any other continent. The speciality of the volume is areport on a Hungarian democracy experiment that is centred on participationand aims at developing collective consciousness, - all of which has been startedoff in Aba. Hopefully our book will inspire debate among the interestedprofessionals of the knowledge world market and perhaps if offers hope formany developed and developing societies. History will not only continue butinstead of the illusion of an end a new elementary turn should be expected: thehistory of a veritable, new world model is about to begin in the comingdecades. 9
  10. 10. Introduction Present-day democracy is a post-totalitarian system, - is the basic assertion at the turnof the twentieth century. Democracy needs protection in order not to slide back into softdictatorship, yet it is the concept of democracy that needs re-examination so that we couldreach some sort of post-democratic phase. The prefiguration of the turn of the 20th centuryhas lasted a whole century: the post-democratic stage could either be regarded as participatory(as well as electronic) democracy, or as a global, new, ideal democracy based on polisconsciousness. The recognised path starts off from democracy and leads to democracy, albeitthe distance between the two democracy models is as great as it had previously been betweendictatorship and democracy. Furthermore, the new democracy model is not any less blurredthan the post totalitarian systems vision of itself. The Euro-Atlantic state- and democracy model shows spectacular signs of crisis.While the global politico-state arena has vested interests in masking the current crisis, it isthrough the efforts of local forces that the crisis is essentially managed. This, however, hasonly a minimal impact on stakeholders at a global and nation-state level. Behind the scenesonly very few people deny the necessity of radical reconsideration, whilst in practice there isnot even one politico-state group prepared to risk its current positions. The complexity of thesituation is adequately demonstrated that while the European Union expressly pushes for theintroduction of electronic democracy, the solution to the European Constitution or the reformof the European Commission still awaits a final answer. A new state and democracy theory is or the more necessary because the democracy ofnations/states cannot be interpreted isolatedly. Global democracy that spans over continents isgoing to come into existence as a coherent system simultaneously in the global and localsocial space-time, at mid-level as continental and partially nation-state democracy, while atthe lower local levels it is going to consist of a regional, micro-democracy. The same alsoholds true at the state level: the global state is a unified system (or the institutional systemwhich substitutes it), a continental state (union, confederacy, etc.) and a nation-state and alocal government. The multi-layered participatory democracy, the expansion programme of the local andcommunal democracy is already fifteen years old.1 On the whole, we can nevertheless statethat a unified system has not yet been set up, despite the fact that every country, continent orinternational organisation includes in its political mission the aim of "democratisingdemocracy". This, however, presupposes a new model of democracy. The idea ofparticipatory democracy was able to spread so fast first and foremost because globalisationand localisation processes have become ever stronger, they have entered the area of theeconomy. Due to new information technology systems, the effect of these processess hasmade its way into the social and cultural spheres, too. Here we are going to introduce the newconcept: the idea of knowledge and consciousness-based democracies.1 One of the first books published in Hungary about this topic is: Pál Bánlaky-Csaba Varga (1978): Azon túl ott atág világ (The Wide World There Beyond) Magvető, Quickening Time, 1979 10
  11. 11. In this context, the programme of participatory democracy should be viewed as thestrengthening of defence mechanisms of local world(s) that aim at preserving local socio-economic and enviromental interests, as well as local identity. On the other hand, thisprogramme also serves as a means to manage continental competivity of local and nationalsocieties. Since different regions of the world are differently affected by the newconsequences of glocalisation, the two strategic roles make the differences in its realisationcomprehensible. Another source of diversity is to be found in local democratic traditions, which aregreatly influenced by the socio-economic state of a given area and the operability of existinginstitutional systems, etc. The theory of e-governance, e-public administration and the new democracy is in itselfa new theory. If, for instance, e-public administration is a new type of public administration,then one of the foundations of the new theory is the practice of the new public administration,while another of its foundations is based on the basic principles of the programmes whichdesigned e-public administration. We should not believe that the theoretical conceptions ofeach and every new European development had been conceived prior to its implementationphase. For that matter, in Hungary the introduction of e-government and e-publicadministration had been declared prior to the development of a theoretical approach. Atpresent, nevertheless, there is neither an ongoing public debate on the crisis of pleasuresociety, the emptiness of current political models nor a search for the universal future. The theory of e-governance is, however, not merely and not exclusively a new publicadministration theory: on the one hand, the character "e" lifts the public administrativeapproach into another dimension, hence as of now we speak of an electronic and/or digitalpublic administration. Consequently, the theory has to extend to and include the new(infocommunicative) technology and the world perception that is inspired by new technology.On the other hand, e-public administration is going to fundamentally change, - or to put itmore carefully: may probably change, – the state itself, it will redefine what it means to be acitizen as well as assume a new type of relationship between state and citizen (and itscommunities). The theory of e-public administration (or k-public administration) willtherefore need to include theories on the state, citizens, society and democracy. What followsfrom the above is that sooner or later an integrated theory is going to evolve, whichcomprehensively examines and interprets basic questions, as well re-examines thedevelopment of public administration. E-governance and e-public administration are in the focus of our attention primarilybecause so much in Europe as in Hungary this developmental stage for the future seemsrealistic and feasible. The foreseeable perspectives, however, lead much further: they pointtoward a participatory state and participatory democracy, both of which are unimaginablewithout the evolution of the intelligent network society. All in all, the short-term timetablemight look the following: Phases of Elements PerspectivePhases: development Service state, Service state, partial digital e-governance which Established digital digital state and e- is simultaneously citizen-friendly, with island- state and all public like e-state governance and e-local authority; inclusive e-scaleFirst phase administration public administration added within the public framework of the traditional representative administration 11
  12. 12. democracy, partly based on a new and formalised social agreement e-governance and Partial European and national democracy Established e-Second limited e- reform, national, regional small area and democracy althoughphase democracy settlement e-democracy, with e-referenda, representative simultaneously simple or complex or democracy still in electronically participative democracy place Intelligent civil Intelligent (real and virtual) civil societies Intelligent civil society and social established at a global, continental and local society and networkThird phase particpative level are going to step over the framework of democracy democracy traditional democracy, or will enforce the new democracy and social model built on the participation and direct decisions in basic questions. Participatory A democracy and participatory state built Developed democracy and simultaneoulsy on individual decisions and civil participatoryFourth participatory state associations that are more loosely connected democracy, freephase led by society than political parties yet it is also a society and comprehensive real/ virtual democracy and communal citizen participatory state where the civilian citizen is who makes aware rather than manipulated and hence responsible becomes a responsible individual decisions Table 1. Developmental phases, ideas & hypotheses 2000-2050 (Csaba Varga) This book is partially a comprehensive attempt to elaborate at length a new andintegrated theory, whilst it is also going to raise every important theoretical issue with regardsto new state and democracy theories, new society and democracy theories as well as theprofessional and interdisciplinary theories of e-public administration. The book does not onlyrevolve around theoretical problems and solutions, but it also tries to formulate alternativestate and democracy development scenarios for the next thirty to forty years. Similarly, the book showcases perhaps the most comprehensive Hungarian attempt tolocal government and democracy, also known as the Aba model. Aba gained regional andnational fame and interest when it started its own experiment on the development ofparticipatory democracy in the summer of 2004, which the locals prefer to call democracyexperiment or social agreement programme for short. The essence of the Aba model is asfollows: it is based not on a single, but multiple representation of citizens combined withstructured dialogue and is further developed into shared local governance to finally achieveparticipatory and electronic democracy. One of the elements of this idea is thus the combineddevelopment of e-democracy and e-public administration. The gradual realisation of the Abamodel is of particular interest because it is a real practical example rather than merely atheoretical one. This book was not written as an answer to the current political crisis in Hungary. Yetthe increased national democratic deficit and the radical decrease of state capabilities jointlywith the crisis currently experienced in the development of Hungarian society may change theview of the involved parties, namely the minds of those who shape public opinion and are thedecision-makers in Hungary. January 1st, 2008 Emese Ugrin –Csaba Varga 12
  13. 13. Chapter One: The glocal world and information age As we have already pointed out in the introduction, we need to characterise theinformation age in order to adequately interpret the concept of e-public administration. This,however, is not possible to understand without a comprehenisve and more paradigmaticinterpretation of globalisation processes. This is also necessary because at the end of thetwentieth century, the information age stands for universal globalisation.1.1. The new concept of globalisation: functional and substantialglobalisation Suprisingly, even the Soviet Empire, or the group of COMECON countries can bedescribed as a paramilitary, semi-global, monopolist state system. The globalisation at end ofthe twentieth century has, however, far exceeded any previous models of globalisation (boththose that took place several thousand or several hundred years ago). This new type ofglobalisation embraces the entire global population and reaches to even the most hiddencorners of the third and fourth world. On the other hand, it also creates a new type ofuniversal space-time structure in human civilisation in a way that it simultaneously afunctional and substantional world process. Hence the notion of new globalisation concisely sums up the recognition that theconstantly uniting human civilization has reached the stage of functional globalisation. Thisglobalisation, however, does not only create a new world structure, but it also attempts to fillin the "vacuum" it generates with particular content. New globalisation thereforesimultaneoulsy entails globalisation and localisation, so it is not surprising that it isincreasingly called the glocal world structure. New globalisation is a dual process: it consists of a functional and substantional seriesof changes. By functionality we mean that the functional elements and processes of humancivilization (economy, society, ecology and their sub-systems, politics, state, military,education, etc) are globalising at a rate and extent never seen before. As a result, globaleconomy, global society, global military order, etc. have come into existence.Substantionality means that the people do no longer simply dream of a unified civilizationand culture, but that unification is now taking place at a rate and extent never experiencedbefore. This is why we can speak today of global knowledge and global culture with goodreason. While they differ greatly in their characteristics, the two great processes nonethelessalso strengthen each other. New functionalism unifies in such a way that largely identicaleconomic and political structures evolve in different countries and continents while newunification does not merge but rather preseves the culture and way of thinking of the peoplesand nationalities. Consequently, new unification also hinders and limits paramilitary orpolitical globalisation in a number of ways. It is therefore no coincidence that there is no exactsame state or public administration in the member states of the European Union; after all,each state and its public administration retains its own particuliarities. Yet it is beyond doubtthat the state belongs to the functional side of globalisation as it has long lost its substantionalcharacteristics. 13
  14. 14. It is Endre Kiss, the philosopher, who notes2: "According to a widely sharedinterpretation, globalisation is the science of such particular comprehensive problems, whichaffect the ENTIRE humanity in a new qualitative way, and its trends affect us existentially. Inthis spirit ecological problems become for instance legitimate areas of globalisation, as areother issues such as the state of raw materials, migration, shared healthcare problems of theworld, which know no boundaries any more, positive and negative world dynamics ofquestions regarding the population, the energy situation, the arms trade and drug crisis are allgreat dilemmas of integration and world economy. Another major interpretation does not tiethe issues and the whole phenomenon of globalisation to individual concrete and alwayssingularly appearing "global" questions, (or to a (partial) cluster made up of randomquestions), but instead it examines the structural and functional correlations of a new worldsituation in its ENTIRETY." Thus, globalisation theory does not simply aims to define somekind of partial and fragmented state of the world, it puts the functional, and, to add to EndreKiss train of thought, the substantial general theory of the post-millennium global-universalworld into words. Since globalisation would hang loose in the universal space were the base notstrenghtened and fuctional, thus it needs localisation process to strengthen and evolve on eachand every continent. This in itself is already a global process irrespective of the interests ofglobalisation and it happens even in modernised European countries that local regions aim atincreasing their independence to reduce their defencelessness. This is how in the new glocalworld order the state (and the nation-state) is situated in the middle, which, on the one hand,offers some protective shields for local regions, while on the other hand simultaneously helpslocal regions to integrate in the global stage. The new glocal world can also be described as quantitative and qualitativeglobalisation. By quantitative globalisation we first and foremost mean that globalisation goeson continually both spatially and functionally and eventually it is going to embrace the entirehuman civilization. Qualitative globalisation, as its name already suggests, could meanqualitative globalisation (although historically it has not been pre-determined whether thiswould be the outcome in reality) and this may necessarily entail the substantional unificationof the worlds countries and peoples (similarly to the above point, it has not yet been decidedfrom a historical point of view whether such an event would also imply a global state or aglobal army for that matter). When it became apparent for the very first time in the last decades of the twentiethcentury that soon the evolution of the information age is going to become an effective worldprocess, many have started to formulate short or long term utopias about how the informationage will simultaneously be the cause and the consequence, dynamitic and end product of thepresent globalisation. This process was essentially set off after the turn of the millennium,when the first the functional then the substantional globalisation acquired enormous powerresources with the spread of the info-communication networks and services. The post-millennium world is thus undoubtedly a glocal world, ever more so inEurope, including the less or moderately developed countries. The present glocal world iswears the robe of the information age, and its public political name is knowledge-basedeconomy and society.2 Endre Kiss (2005) Magyarország és a globalizáció (Hungary and Globalisation) Kodolányi, Székesfehérvár);Endre Kiss (2006) A globalizáció jövője és/mint tudástársadalom (The Future of Globalisation and /asKnowledge Society) (www.pointernet.pds.hu/kissendre) 14
  15. 15. 1.2. Localisation and ’life milieu’ At the beginning of the twentieth century, in the semi-global state of the worldlocalities were in dual subjection; on the one hand, they depended on continentalsuperpowers, on the other hand, on the states of the industrial age and their nationalisedpolitics and societies. We may call this stage the age of subjugated European localities. This isa universal phase although local authorities played an increasingly important role in somestates. At this point, local economies have become increasingly integrated into the partialglobal systems of the continents. At first sight the concept of globalisation is to be understood by focusing, within theglobal structure, on local levels in the local structure. Nowadays in Europe and in Hungary wecall these places the scenes of localisation (starting from larger and ending with smallerelements) as is the region, the county, the small areas, the town and the village. Presentlyabout twenty to thirty settlements make up a small area in Hungary, which is almost alwaysheld together by one or more towns; in all, there are almost one hundred and eighty smallregions. In Hungary counties are currently reckoned with; besides Budapest, there arenineteen of them altogether. Consequently, by and large ten small areas belong to every oneof them; last but not least, the nineteen counties constitute the seven regions of Hungary(except perhaps the region that unites Budapest and Pest county); all in all, every region isconsists of three counties. Just like in Hungary, in every country, local regions (all seven of them) are the basicunits and balance of the global world. If there is no localisation there is no globalisationeither, or if there is one, then it is of a kind that sooner or later becomes unsustainable. Theopposite of this arguments holds true as well: without globalisation local regions wouldremain isolated and introverted. The relationship between the global and local worlds canvary greatly: the biggest danger of today could be that globalisation prevails over the locallevels and thus the subordination of local worlds continue. However, the reverse negativeprocess is not likely to occur, that is, that local worlds prevail over globalisation. It is so mucha task as an opportunity to find some kind of a balance between the two levels. The new,interactive internet-based information and communication revolution is one option thatprovides opportunities. For the sake of a more in-depth analysis, however, the internal structure andcharacteristics of local regions are also worth summing up. Within the framework oflocalisation theory we argue that local worlds are made up of three structural elements: theupper life milieu, the lower life milieu and the internalised life milieu. The notion of lifemilieu is introduced here in order to adequately account for the analysis of the local worlds; itis significant insofar that it is the local life milieu that the individual as well as the communitydirectly relates to. We find the region and the county at higher levels, which could bedescribed increasingly as regional upper society. Similarly, the concept of lower life milieucan be broken down into two structural elements: the environment and the directlyexperienced world. The environment (that is, the small area, the centre of the small area, thetown or village of residence) is the social milieu in which the individuals live day in and dayout. The notion of the direct world refers to – symbolically speaking - the"hot reality" (circleof friends, family, etc.), the everyday experiences of the individual. One of the novelties ofthe locality theory is that we examine the imprint of the local world and the internal reality ofthe individual. To put it differently, we focus on the the personal dimensions of the localworld. 15
  16. 16. In the global context, a network of local worlds was born as a continuation andacceleration of localisation. All of these are different realities. In the world structure, theyrepresent an independent and stable pole, which presumably is going to strengthen in thedecades to come. In the localization process we can also distinguish between quantitative andqualitative localisation. Past decades have primarily brought about the dominance of thequantitative processes, and it will be the great task of the first half of the twenty-first centuryrealise the qualitative localisation in human civilisation. Today numerous developments pointto this direction; the independence and self-assertion of local regions increasingly grows, asthey begin to think in terms of new types of "city states" local "states" "regional states” andmicro-republics. This holds also true for Hungary, and this is what the more advanced regionsand smaller areas strive for, whether they admit it or not.1.3. Glocal age and the new mediation level: the nation We can still regard the 1980s and 1990s as a time when globalisation and localisationwere on separate although parallel tracks, yet it became clear already before the turn of themillennium that globalisation and localisation also build upon and complement each other.This is why we can state that today there is no globalisation without localisation, and viceversa. If we consider the sphere between globalisation and localisation at the level of nation-states, then this level is so much element, disc, or even as a bridge for mediation thatstructures the world. There are several categories generally accepted to describe the dual process ofglobalisation and localisation: the best terms are perhaps glocalisation or glocal. Thiscontracted category expresses in a precise way that globalisation and localisation are linkedtogether. It is also worth noting, however, that in the information age it is going to becomenormal practice that globalisation has a direct impact on localisation, and that localisation also"skips" the nation-state mediaton level. Nations do not dissapear, neither do they remaincaptive of the prevailing nation–state. Instead, more than ever, nations are going to becomecommunities, linked by common culture and high-level consciousness. The content of thisconsciousness is knowledge. In an ideal scenario, eventually we will be able to speak ofknowledge- and cultural nation. This type of nation is first and foremost no longer introvert,no longer on the run, defensive or closed; quite the contrary, it is open, it is strong and rootedin itself, it does not offensive and it is proud to shows itself to the world. It does not aim todivide, it integrates the people both in time and in space. It dates back to thousands of yearsand looks forward to endless spatial time. This triple process (global sphere, nation-state level, local sphere) has not yet beendeveloped and accepted. However, we propose a new concept on similar lines: globe-natio-loc (globalisation-nationalisation-localisation). Well, we admit that this word is slightly hardto pronounce and hard to learn by heart. Yet we emphatically emphasise that a new type ofglobalisation-localisation as well as nationalisation is taking place with a new content. Forthese reasons a newly created and pertinent concept will be likely introduced in the next fewyears. Regardless of the name of this concept, we confidently state that Hungary, or in thebroader perspective, Central Europe has reached the glocal age, which has also the middlenation level, too. 16
  17. 17. 1.4. The four models of the present glocal age The new glocal age is not to be placed outside history, on the contrary, it is deeplyembedded in history. It has not happened unexpectedly, nor will it end unexpectedly. Afterthe turn of the millenium, the glocal age tries to break away from the captivity of theindustrial and, at times, post-industrial age. However, this process takes far more time andeffort than the theoreticians of the information age might want to think. The reason for this isthat the industrial age, a world model itself, also struggles for subsistence. The present newglobalisation, nationalisation and localisation simultaneously embodies the combination andjoint existence of the three world models (Industrial Age, Information Age, Knowledge Age).Together they make up the prevailing world model, whilst there are very sharp differencesbetween them. Industrial Age monetary industrial society pleasure society Information Age Knowledge Age information innovational knowledge society society Consciousness Age consciousness society (idea ) Table 2: The universal four age model (Csaba Varga) The industrial age and especially its end, the monetary industrial age, has created theconsumer-centred pleasure society4 model in the Euro-Atlantic zone by partially integratingcertain advantages of the information age. The central aim of this era is consumption, thus itsbenchmark is consumption, too. The individual just as the community or a country measuresthe state of its development and success by its position in the global market of consumption.Pleasure society is also called risk society3. Pleasure society at present feeds the personal3 Ulrich Beck (1986) Die Risikogesellschaft. Auf dem Weg in eine andere Moderne. Frankfurt/Main(Suhrkamp Verlag); (2003); In Hungarian: A kockázattársadalom. Út egy másik modernitásba (Risk society),Századvég Kiadó, Budapest. 17
  18. 18. hunger for pleasure, yet due to the nature, standard and manner of the service, the failure ofpleasure society is guaranteed. Yesterday’s Europe marked the "invention" of the industrial age: the spread ofindustrialised mass production, the urbanised city, the representational democracy (massdemocracy), science (or rather: normal science), the rational materialist way of thinking andwidespread alienation. The information age should be seen as the end of the industrial age:monetary capitalism is replaced by information capitalism, representational democracy and itsinstitutions empty of meaning, politics is generally deconstructed, financial and culturalglobalism spread all over the world. Each age concludes with total disillusion and the loss ofsense in the future. At the time of political regime change Hungary too, opted not for thefuture but for the past when it embraced the industrial age, industrial society and its ways ofoperation. Representational democracy is the democracy of the industrial age. The post-industrial global age and the present democracy model are not on good terms with each other.Globalisation either neutralises or empties democracy, or, a new type of democracy will beable to sucessfully cope with globalisation and it will put it under its control.1.5. The Information Age that comes to an end Having briefly clarified what we mean by globalisation and glocal age, let us turn ourattention to the relationship between the information age and the new glocal world. From ahistorical perspective globalisation cannot be considered a new phenomenon: in the last fiveto seven thousand years several types of (usually partial and limited) globalisations had takenplace. These types of globalisations were first and foremost the result of a more or lessimperial, occassionally global imperial aspirations. One of the novelties of the globalisationthat has been accelerating since the second part of the twentieth century was that for the firsttime in the history of humankind globalisation attempted to ”conquer” the entire humancivilisation. The quantitive expansion of globalisation, however, can not be imagined withoutthe existence of the Information Age. The technologies and services of the Information Agemake it possible for the global economy and attached policies to connect the entire world andattempt to make it a uniform political and economic area. This functional globalisation hasnot come to an end yet, nonetheless, we can assert with conviction that the Information Age isthe newest type of globalisation, or to put it differently, the Information Age is thesimultaneous globalisation and localisation. Lately, we have heard much about new economy, the central element of the glocal age.The concept was imported from the US to Europe; although not fully, yet at intervals itcorresponds to knowledge-based economy. It is the essence of economy that has changed:from the economy of industrial age we crossed the threshold to the economy of theinformation age. To quote Nicholas Negroponte: ”As business activity globalises and theinternet spreads around the world, so are we witnessing the evolution of a single, uniformdigital workplace. From the point of view of storing and manipulating bites, the significanceof geopolitical borders all but have completely disappeared…”4Therefore, we are one stepaway from the universal digital world, the economically coherent universe of existence. Thismodel, however, only takes mass production into consideration: not only shoes or tertiary4 Nicholas Negroponte (2002): Digitalis létezés (The Unfinished Revolution) Typotext, Budapest. p.179. 18
  19. 19. degrees are currently mass produced, but information and the mediatized reality is also for theconsumption of the masses. This glocal age is necessarily moving toward a new social system, too. Earlier onsociology used to report mainly on the structures, classes, strata and subgroups of society as ifthese elements were to constitute the knowledge of the entire society. These elements,nonetheless, are only the structural features of society, and merely by taking these elementsnobody is able to understand in its entirety what society really means. Western European andAmerican authors wrote a number of books on social theory in the last couple of years.5Although at present we might know perhaps more about society as a whole, the scientificexplanations and standardisation of different sociological trends still needs to be developed.6There is no complex, unified social theory in Europe, even though we use such notions ascommunication society, linguistic society, information society, knowledge-based grouprelations, dynamics, and virtual social phenomenon systems. Regardless of the philosophicalviewpoint, the picture of the entire social theory will simply not aggregate.7 In the meantime,however, the mindset of industrial society has been emptied of meaning. Whilst informationsociety creates another (virtual) society, we have all but lost our sense of direction; althoughwe might add that luckily, we have also left the illusions of society and community behind. For some it might come as a surprise that some scientists of information societyalready predict the end of information society. Nicholas Negroponte holds following opinionon the matter: ”We have wasted too many words and too much time by stressing thesignificance of the transition from the industrial age to the post-industrial or information age.In the meanwhile noone noticed that the age of information has come to a close and we havestepped into the age of post-information”.8 We can definitely agree with this statement. Rightfrom the start, before the society of information age could have fully developed, it becameapparent that it needs to be reconsidered and stepped over. The surviving industrial age shallbe blamed for its failure, too. The turn of the millenium unmasked the industrial age for good; its new version iscalled the Information Age. The boundary, however, is sharp between the two: somethingdifferent is going to soon commence.1.6. The age of new technologies and artificial intelligence Before we can start discussing the new world models and their chances thereof, it isimportant to note that the industrial age was disrupted most spectacularly by the expansion ofnew technology. In the last few decades the industrial technology produced numeroustechnological innovations.5 As far as we are concerned, we do not believe that the issue can be solved by the concept of net society as it isused by Manuel Castells frequently: ’These trends are equal to the triumph of the individual, yet it is not clearhow much load they put on society. However, we should take into consideration that the individuals supportedby the new technical opportunities are really able to reconstruct the social interaction patterns and they create anew form of society, the net society.’ (p.139.)6 Imre Kovács ed.. (2006): Társadalmi metszetek (Social sections) Napvilág Kiadó7 There are good foreign and Hungarian examples. Frank L. Szemjon (2005) The Intellectual Basis of Society(Kairosz); In Hungary Elemér Szádeczky-Kardoss could have become a significiant turning point with his book:Elemér Szádeczky-Kardoss (1989) Universal Connection of Phenomena. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.8 Nicholas Negroponte: idem p. 129. 19
  20. 20. Most of the Hungarian intellectual elite has had an anti-technological bias for a longtime; new technological results were keenly interpreted as an inhuman process. In Hungarytheory of technology is not even always taught at polytechnic universities, even though wecannot correctly interpret the history of the last twenty years, the regime change and thefollowing 10 to 12 years without an understanding of the numerous changes in economy,society, consciousness and human dimension that were all forced upon us by technologicalchanges. Two global powers such Japan and Germany, regularly issue technological forecastsfor the next twenty years.9 These elaborate publications of several thousands topics forecastthe changes in the fields of science, research and technology for the next two decades. Mostof their predictions held so far proved to be correct. These forecasts are very serious and well founded. It is therefore clearly predicted thatthe technology of the next twenty years will have no resemblence of the technology ofyesteryears, nor that of today. Already within a decade, the personal computers and digitalcameras currently in use are going to become the size of a pen or watch, so the ones that weuse now will be out-of-date. More importantly, as a result of human-centred computing thecomputer is going to become an intelligent assistant.10 At this stage we have not evenmentioned the expected results of nanotechnology. We may choose to fear the coming superrevolutions of technology, yet we can have a different attitude towards technologicalchange11. Being aware of the immenent changes means that we can get prepared for them, andwe should try to capitalise on new technologies. We presuppose that in this field enormousbreakthroughs are to be expected. It is in this sense of the word that we claim that artificial intelligence is going to play akey role not only in the the modernisation of the state but also in education and civilisation.We wonder whether even one teacher or instructor has any idea how s/he would put artificialintelligence at work at their facilities and institutions. All in all, new technology is responsible for providing a helping hand so thatinformation society should not sink into the mud of the industrial society. Yet there is anothersubtantial matter that the information society shall have to answer: Is knowledge brought bynew technologies used in an adequate manner?1.7. Age of new knowledge and critical approaches to democracy Contrary to the opinion expressed in other publications, we claim that the mostimportant new feature of (let us momentarily forget about the maturity of) the new age is newknowledge created rather than new technology, or new economy, or a new type of society weare going to live in. This holds true even though at best we are only at the threshold of the ageof knowledge. It is a new phenomenon that the total knowledge of mankind doubles every 1.5to 2.5 years; meanwhile, it is often the case that the knowledge of past decades essentiallyreplaces the knowledge of the last 2000 years.9 Zoltán Pálmai (2002): On Technological Trends. (e-World, 2002/Special Issue); TEP, TechnologicalForecasting Programme (www.om.hu )10 Michael L. Dertouzos (2002): Félkész forradalom: útban a megszelidített számítógépek felé (Semi-finishedRevolution. En route to Domesticated Computers) Typotext, Budapest, p.48.11 It is not suprising that many are already imagining circuits built in the brain or chip installed in the brain, sincethese technological developments are almost ready. Michael L. Dertouzos (2002) p.49. 20
  21. 21. The grouping and the standardisation of knowledge may be the subject-matter of awhole new investigation.12 In the age of knowledge society it seems reasonable to interpretold-new knowledge according to their functional and substantial roles, just as it is interpretedin the case of globalisation, for that matter. The summary of functional roles records themanner knowledge becomes social capital and the speed with which it spreads around in thenew glocal world. This is why we distinguish among global, continental (in our case:European), national and local knowledge. There is a relatively large amount of tresspassamong knowledge types. This is accounted by the fact that the global world has entered into amulticultural age; yet, all the same, in the long run a significant amount of discrepancy isgoing to continue to exist between the cultures of human civilisation, whether in the domainof knowledge, religion or value systems. New types of knowledge first and foremost are grouped substantially. We attach moreimportance to the real values and contents of knowledge than to any social practice;knowledge that is independent from time and space, found in it most pure forms, independentof the understanding and applications of a period. That is why we can distinguish knowledgefrom reality/non-reality running infinitely in every direction; we thus have knowledge, forinstance, about God, materials, space and time, society, mankind or, for that matter, ourknowledge of the methodology of thinking. Coming from this perspective it does not matterwhether the particular piece of knowledge was created by religion, art or science. Another way of grouping substantial knowledge is to arrange it according to thecontent and carrier of knowledge. The dominant aspect of this logic is the collectiveevaluation of formal and contentual characteristics of knowledge. That type of knowledgebelongs to the formatted publicly shared knowledge, which manifest itself in most languagesboth linguistically and conceptually and which almost always has a uniform meaning. Thiskind of knowledge is on the other hand widely used in human civilisations, and the widevariety of such knowledge forms the the basic condition of the existance for human culture.This is the commonly shared knowledge of humankind, which of course linguisticallytranslates into a large amount of variations. If this formatted commonly shared knowledgesuddenly vanished or ceased to exit, the humanly constructed world and humankind as suchwould be doomed. The commonly shared knowledge constitutes the elementary, cardinalcondition of life on Earth. It is a recent recognition that no current valid democracy theory exists. There aranumerous different kinds of reasons that account for this recognition: 1. The principle of deformed representative democracy: a valid democracy theory doesnot exist because we do not live in the classic democracy of Ancient Greeks. Present-daydemocracy is far from being adequate especially so because its performance is functionallyweak; 2. The principle of non-democracy in the robe of democracy: the model that hasevolved in the last decades represents such a type of global representative democracy model,which exceeds the mature principles of representative democracy; 3. The principle of facade democracy: for the time being it is comprehensible only fora handful of people that the practice of democracy, which is deeply embedded in the social,12 Alfred J. Ayer (1956): The Problem of Knowledge, Penguin Books 21
  22. 22. intellectual and cultural processes and has been defined for instance by Alexis Tocqueville13isoften but a facade democracy; 4. The paradox principle of democracy: various interest groups hold onto power bysubtly shorting out the principles of democracy while exploiting and using the institutionalsystem of democracy to its fullest; 5. The principle of democratic deficit leads to weakening of action: the global,continental and national operability is seriously weakened and its legitimacy thereofdrastically questioned due to the new concentration of the dominant interest groups; 6. The principle of exporting ambiguous democracy: the world of developeddemocracies export an ambiguous, limited type of democracy to the lesser developed orundeveloped world; 7. The principle of democracy protection without reflection: many experts andknowledge groups rightly protect the established principles and practices of democracy whilethey do not or very reluctantly accept that the Euroatlantic democracy model needs reform; 8. The principle of lack of democracy awareness: in developed countries self-criticismand critical thinking in general is superficially developed and therefore there is no properoversight of processes which leads to limited or non-existing democracy awareness; 9. The principle of lack of future perspective in democracies: in developed ormoderately developed countries there is no future perspective in people towards democracyand therefore people have no idea about what is there to come; 10. The principle of democratic minimum that has not been lost: even so most statesattempt or are forced to comply with minimum standards of democracy at all levels, or at leastto keep up the appearance of it; 11. Unfinished arguments: We could list numerous other causes to account for the lackof new theories. The problem can also be approached from the angle what is happening right now inthe democracies of the world and in their social realms? • Reality belongs to a network or system of realities. It is self-evident that paralellymore realities exist than the one the actual political democracy is based upon; • The central stage of democracy cannot be limited to the (nation-state)political/state level; the requirement today is to build an outstretched, multi-level democracy; • The role of virtual reality has increased in the real orientations and decisions ofdemocracies. Meanwhile, the issue of democracy in the age of virtual reality has not yet beenraised; • In order to hold onto power for a shorter or longer period of time, the policialelits are willing to apply a range of anti-democratic tools and technics, which are contrary tothe ideals of democracy, justice and expedience; • Democracy once again is not only the public and/or concealed game of therepresentatives of dominant power groups, but also terrain where civil and social groups andorganizations who were left out from the political elit fight for power; • The principles/practices of democracy should not avoid managing the fightbetween groups who hold institutionalised power and others who lack such kind of power; • Democracy does not only consist of rational institutions and set of policies, but aset or a system of comprehensive knowledge, mentality and consciousness, which goesagainst the uniformity of institutions and pocesses to a large extent;13 Alexis de Tocqueville (1993) Az amerikai demokrácia (The American Democracy), Európa Könyvkiadó,Budapest. 22
  23. 23. • Interest-based policy/democracy is corroded and often ignored by the informationage and age of knowledge just about to commence and its intrinsical change of paradigm; • Albeit participatory democracy is a social requirement, even civil society actorsare insufficiently prepared for direct, personal participation. We could go on listing and interpreting the new phenomena for a considerable amount oftime. It is hard to deny, however, that even after the turn of the millenium human civilisationand culture has remained a military, political, economic power system operated by centralisedstates that are controlled by individuals and society to a limited extent. This is the main reasonwhy global risk society exists. We are simultaneously at a verge of a universal-localbancruptcy and the dawn of universal-local new alternatives and hopes that have little incommon with old paradigms. The question remains: for how long can this be maintained?1.8. Information society as the next stage of glocalization If the information age and within it the model of information, post-information orknowledge-led society is the latest stage of globalisation or rather the latest development ofglocalisation, then it is evident that the content and concept of the information age is one ofthe central categories of the information age. The extended name of the new concept issustainable, innovative information society. It has not been decided yet wheter the political, economic, social or cultural conceptsof a specific period are in themselves useful while giving a comprehensive interpretation of acertain period. Nevertheless, for the content of information age we find primarily thosecategories useful that interpret social processes rather than economic and cultural concepts.This is why we distinguish between global, continental (that is: European), national and localknowledge(s). In this sense information society is a general concept, which can be deducedfrom the category of information age, and which serves as a basis for other categories such asthe e-economy, e-state to be later discussed. The concept of information society can be equally determined on the basis ofinformation technology, economy, politics or power, society, ecology or for instanceinformation theory. If we claimed above that information society is a generative concept, thenin this case none of the approaches that offer partial solutions are useful as a starting point. Toput it the other way around, we have to come up with an interactive category whichsummarises and arranges every approach into one system. The starting point of the first generative approach is that of the information age asworld model, which is a concept that stands above information society. In this case it mightsuffice to state that information society designates the social paradigm change of theinformation age. Thus it includes the interpretation of global society generated by the newworld structure and with the help of which the concept of new global society that standsabove local and national societies can be interpreted. If this generative approach is a validone, then the information society is primarily a global and local, information-based socialparadigm change. The second valid approach could be to characterise information society with conceptsthat name capital goods. This category presents us with some difficulties because we mustgive priority to intellectual capital, or to put it differently, knowledge capital and thus the 23
  24. 24. analysis becomes a twofold process. One of the processes details the ways knowledge capitalhas become a central actor contrary to other, more traditional types of capital such as theeconomic and/or financial capital; it can be obviously performed only on the condition thatwe consider that knowledge capital has become equal to the other forms of capital and has anactual exchange value in the financial market-centered new capitalism. The interpretation ofthe second process focuses on the contents of intellectual capital and the extent it is applicableand the ways it becomes personal and social capital. If we hold this logic true, theninformation society is nothing but the transformation of knowledge capital into personal andsocial capital. The third concept, which we could hold true is based on information theory. It focuseson the first element of the complex concept of information theory and it attempts to clarify thedifferences between data, information, idea, knowledge and decision. Consequently, itsubscribes to the widely shared view that information society is no more or nor less than theproduction, transmission, marketing and exchange of information. This approach, however,does not distinguish between information, ideas and knowledge therefore it interpretes the ageonly at the lowest level, that is: the level of information and data. Moreover, it is thisapproach that attempts to define the information age unequivocally as a new technological ageand so the change in the digital, info-communicational network and the system of services andmaterials is considered the most important feature of this new state of the world. In ouropinion, however, although their content is accurate and justifiable, the two interpretationalattempts do not cover the full content of information society. While interpreting information theory and information industry, basic concepts areessential to define. Data: consciousness-linguistic configuration, carrying the meaning of acognition unit; Information: determines the relation between two data items, thus it is an idea(a message, news, a piece of information about reality); cognition: connected, systematised,construed piece of information; knowledge: interpreted and integrated system of cognition, acomprehensive vision on reality and all its dimensions (which simultaneously make up a newvision of reality); decision: a knowledge system used to alter reality and its application andchange it into social and personal capital for the sake of knowledge. The unavoidable argument against the logical path just descibed is the following: inevery age information and knowledge are of a significant value and so it is insufficient toclaim that the information age equals the age of information. This is a justifiable counter-argument. It is the characteristic of this age is that information can be converted into analogueand digital signs with the help of new technologies. Sign: information transmitted by humanmade means. So it is the speciality of information society that both theoretically andpractically indefinite amount of information can be produced and transmitted as signs. Herecomes the turning point which marks this period: the information age this way and by thismeans produces information on a never seen before scale and so information trade mightbecome the main sector of economy in the future. By the same token the large amount ofinformation/knowledge available revolutionalises so much society as the individual. The third approach leads us to the concept that information society is the society ofsigns transmitted by human made means, and therefore it is potentially merely a cognitionsociety. It is the realisation of information society at a higher level, while knowledge societyis already the society of interpreted systems of cognition, which potentially does not transmitinformation signs, but knowledge signs. Only in this way it has the potential to change thelives of individuals and societies. 24
  25. 25. The fourth interpretation clearly distinguishes between between information andknowledge society from a historical and contentual point of view.1.9. The history of the three basic categories and their submodels With the help of the newly clarified concepts we have come to the point where we caninterprete the global-universal models of (recent) past, present and future in a more accuratefashion. If we take into account the aspects of analysis mentioned above, we are able toformulate the definition of an integrated information society, which can stand firm both in theshort and long run. The main point thereof is that after the turn of millenium we areincreasingly thinking in terms of sustainable and innovative information society in Europe. The details only show the spectecular difference between societies led by informationor knowledge although – pay attention! - this difference does not include the basic changes inthe operation of these societies. The basic, interdiscipliniary concepts may be used as an entry for governmental andsocial plans and discourses. First of all let us take a closer look at the concept of theinformation society.Information society: Information society is the symbolic name of an era in which the economy, society andthe culture is predominantly based on the production, exchange and marketing of information;that, however, in itself is not sufficient for the information society to come into existence. Thegreat novelty of the age of information society is that the information, whether analogue ordigital, can be produced and utilesed as signs and so we could with good reason callinformation society sign society, too. This is why information society simultanuously meanslarge amount of information or digital content, new information communication technology,new information-driven economy and new information-based society. The global and localsociety and its structure is fundamentally changing due to the joint and wide application ofnew technology, the spread of new economy and the trade in new types and large amount ofinformation. Information-based economy and the information system organizes social groupsinto a system all around the world, and by such means different and new junctions are createdin the new, dynamic global system. All the same, information-based economy and theinformation system rejects those social segments, states and regions that are less succesful inproducing and trading information. A basic condition of a successful information society andeconomy is the advanced state of the social receptive agent and the social embededness of adeveloped information economy and infrastructure. Information society and economy comesinto existence only on the condition that the majority of society has access to new informationand communication technologies, and possesses the necessary knowledge and skills needed touse these means. Information society as actual state is attractive and has a dynamic impactonly if it is on the one hand sustainable and the other hand innovative.Knowledge society: Knowledge society produces unequivocally new types of economic, social andknowledge markets all around the world. Moreover, it also creates economic and social 25
  26. 26. structures that are based on networks. Following the information communication revolutionsin creating new technologies, human civilisation has become a globally standardisedfunctional system at the beginning of the third millenium, which in itself constitutes a newstage of social development. In this era the structure and operation of society is determined by the movement anddistribution of knowledge as well as its processing and correct application. Knowledge societyis stratified based on the ways this knowledge has been acquired; knowledge that is limitlessand potentially equally open to everyone creates equal opportunities. On the contrary,differences in opportunities are created along lines of possessing knowledge or lackingknowledge. As a norm knowledge is a new social quality: knowledge society is organizedefficiently, filling the individual and community with content and quality. It is a new socialsystem in which innovative learning turns information into knowledge, knowledge intoaction, or at least it opens up an opportunity to do so. This is why the future prospect ofinformation society is the model of knowledge society, which is a potential new quality: it isnot information, but knowledge-based, a network, it is the name of a type of society thattempers the glocal digital gap. Knowledge society brings positive changes not only in theexternal factors such as economy and society, but also in the consciuousness and awarenessof individuals and communities.Knowledge-based economy: It is the name of a new economic model, which simultaneously fulfills and changes theindustrial – post-industrial and financial economy. In the knowledge-based economy the mostimportant element of economic growth and productivity is knowledge, which is embodiedprimarily in the intellectual capital of technology and humans alike. The expression’knowledge-based society’ was born from the acknowledgement and recognition of the effectof knowledge and technology exercised on economic growth. The production processes ofknowledge society are based on the utility and distribution of information and knowledge.Knowledge-based economy is invariably a market economy and the most importantcoordinational factor is the knowledge market. In the knowledge-based economy growth inwelfare, efficiency and employment is determined by knowledge intensity and the dynamicdevelopment of high technology. The first step in the changes initiated by the post-industrialeconomic model: modern economy, stepping out of its own medium, makes non-economicsubsystems such as education, healthcare, society, etc. part of the economic subsystem. Thesecond step of the change: knowledge producing, stepping out of its own medium, occupiesthe expanded economy, which is currenlty led by the knowledge market. There is noknowledge-based economy without knowledge-based society. This holds true also vice versa.Moreover, in the information age knowledge production, knowledge-based economy andknowledge society are the driving force behind one another.The history of the concept A new opportunity of defining information society comes from no other source thanhistorical modelling or by analysing the development of historical models. Some elementshave already been mentioned. If we describe the last two to three thousand years of humandevelopment with the help of concepts such as feudalism, industrial age (and its sidetrack:Socialism) and information age, then we can draw a few important conclusions from history.First of all, information age is as big and important period in human history as feudalism was;secondly, the replacement of industrial age by information age is approximately as big a 26
  27. 27. change in terms of world models as, when at the end of the Middle Ages the first formationsof industrial age replaced feudalism; the third consideration being that in this case we have togive a broader definition of information age than any of its internal phases, such asinformation society. Dominant elements of the Historical-social submodels1960s-1980s: decades of the information (technological) society1980s-1990s: decades of the information economy (new economy)2000 - 2010s: decades of the information society2010 - 2020s: decades of knowledge led society Table 3. Historical submodels of the information age (Csaba Varga) According to this logic, the internal phases and stages of development of the nearfuture are already visible. The information age started out as a technological change in thethird quarter of the twentieth century. As far as we are concerned, we prefer to call this erainformation society, although we must add that it was in the 1960s and 1970s that the dreams,utopia and future prospects of the information age were drafted. It was a time whentechnological changes were enthusiastically greeted. The next developmental phasecommenced sometimes in the 1980s and 1990s: at this stage the information age saw itselfprimarily as new economy and it was in this way that the money-centred global economy ofnew capitalism tried to aggregate a much larger than average profit. The development ofinformation age as society became possible only in the mid-1990s and even nowadays it onlytakes place fragmentarily. It was only in the second part of the 1990s that the question whether the informationage had primarily changed into a knowledge-based age became part of the agenda and itsveritable efficiency could be measured by understanding to what extent new knowledge, newscience and new ways of thinking aggregated by human civilisation were taken over and usedin the information age. (This is when the concept of e-content was introduced in the ideologyof information society. This concept is partally narrower and partially broader than knowledgeindustry, which serves to name and develope content industry). We can talk about continentaland state ambitions only after the turn of the millenium, which grasp and interpreteinformation age as a new social model or social change in standards. It will take aconsiderable amount of time until information societies that follow or exist along each otherare going to compile an integrated, information age model, which in turn is probably going tolead to knowledge age. From the reviewed stages and arguments we can conclude that one can distinguishbetween at least two large models within the information age: the age of information societyand/or knowledge society. The information age and the knowledge age. The two ages cannotbe sharply separated from one another; they exist side by side. It is only in the optimalscenario that information society is followed by the model of knowledge society. A newworld model is generally born on ruins two-three hundred years old. The knowledge-basedworld is on the one hand part and parcel of the information age; on the other hand, if historypermits it is going to prepare the real model change. The new era can either be calledknowledge age, although that still does not mean that history comes to an end because theknowledge-based world model can be possibly followed by a newer universal phase: the eraof the consciousness society. 27
  28. 28. Presently we cannot go into detail about the coherent yet altogether different set ofproblems of the global and local world, or to use a new concept how and to what extent theintegrated and complex crisis situations slow down the unfolding knowledge-based economyand society models. Nowadays the disadvantage of a social (and knowledge) strata or group ismultipled because on the other hand the economic-financial, regional-local, social, ecological,cognitive-knowledge or media advantages are also integrated and act together. We would like to put forward a few more arguments to the sceptics, the disillusionedones, those who eagerly imagine a negative scenario. The present-day old-age glocalaggreations of negative states may expand at least fivefold the social and moral gaps of theage. A general social conflict can break out between (1) the technologically poor and wealthy,(2) information poor and information rich, (3) knowledge poor and rich, (4) awareness richand poor and (5) the increasingly different experience of God between the rich and poor. Itwas Europe that recognised it for the first time the converting power of information in socialstructure and it hastily has generated a program to combat this continental danger. However,neither the designers nor the analysts of the situation understood it adquately that this is notonly a conflict between the technologically reach and poor. The issue is not limited to accessto technology, which in some European countries, regions and social groups is less than inother ones. This is why we should not exclusively focus on the the development of thehardware-software capacity or knowledge-centered services. A recent development: for some reason the development order is not good. So far wecould always come up with a reason why the correct order should be to give computers topeople first, then connect them to the internet, then offer them new digital services, whichaltogether somehow, in our minds at least, would automatically enforce the intellectual andmental changes necessary. (It is altogether another question that in Hungary wheretheoretically speaking this logic has been followed even the ICT-sector did not receive thenecessary economic-social and state budget). However, the old logic is all of a sudden nolonger valid and a new order is required. One of the dominant causes for this is that, as wehave already demonstrated it, the new global world is dually attached: it has a glocal nature.Moreover, it is definitely culture-dependant and when several dominant matters are inconflict, it becomes obvious that cultural dependence is stronger. It is only of local interestthat the success of the new development and implementation order interferes with the old-fashioned government structure of member states. Moreover, within governments it isinvariably the actions with economic-financial portfolios that are in decision-makingpositions. Thus we should not pay attention exclusively to the fact that the universal-globaldirections have a huge impact on the chances of small states, in both a negative and positivesense, but we should also focus on the social-cultural identities, intellectual and mentalresources of small states, small regions, small groups that have the potential of becomingpulling factors and indicators. In the information age the future of Hungary should be interpreted in the global futureperspective while at the national and local levels the parallel economy, social, intellectual andmental developments could also bring about success.1.10. A new understanding of knowledge society at the end of theinformation age 28

×