It holds a significance role, together with tartan, kilt and whisky in Scotland’s heritage and characteristic In this presentation, we’ll trace how the bagpipe came into Scotland and attached strongly to their culture. Also a discussion of the relation between music and ethnicity and what people’s perspective about Scotland’s national instrument.
The harp ( clarsach ) was the former national instrument and had been taken over by the Highland bagpipes by the 15 th century. Highland music seems to have differed considerably from music in Lowlands; the bagpipe-playing achieved greater sophistication and the folk-songs had Gaelic words Scottish Highlands’ classical music big music light Music
BAGS: to maintain the air goes to the reed. To avoid the pause sound when the piper takes a breath. CHANTER: produces the melodies The drones: produces the harmony and increase the volume
(considered as sin). So that the bagpipes playing dropped, while in the Highland (far from Calvinist influence) the bagpipes flourished
Some of the most popular are ……..
Even though the clan pipers were ‘servants’ to their sponsor, they were considered as an important part for the
There was a disastrous rebellion in 1745 by almost all of Highland chiefs. … . since they are considered to be dangerous and to make the Highland become more likely as Lowland Therefore, the bagpipe was banned and also kilt, tartan, swords and any kinds related to Scotland.. These ban led to the demise of Scotland clan system..
Ethnomusicologists: music has relation to social boundaries. Music informs our sense of place, which is indicates a physical form of social activity … do an approach based on the idea that … When there are some communities join, the culture contact happens and the music from ‘outside world’ is absorbed to local music. Music is unusually stable in term of social change
My country, Indonesia, has many ethnics and cultures. There are many traditional musical instruments, every ethnic has its own instruments.. For example… Because of wide variations in ethnic musical instruments in Indonesia, it is hard to choose for one national instrument. Therefore, the national instrument is not symbolizing the Indonesian characteristic, it is only chosen by the popularity and its well preservation. The national instrument of Indonesia is Angklung which comes from West Java, made from bamboo and have to be played in group to produce harmony.
Scotland, as a part of Celtic music influences … which is the modern Scottish invention … , while bagpipes flourished in Scotland
Comparing to other countries, they also have their own bagpipes in different versions.. If many countries also have their own bagpipes.. Why only Scotland that make it as national instrument?
from the Preface of the first published collection of Highland bagpipe music (1819)
… .makes it must always be kept in service and not allowed to be left unused. Therefore, the bagpipes were hard to be brought to museums.
Bagpipe as the Scotland National Instrument
BAGPIPE: AS THE SCOTTISH NATIONALMUSICAL INSTRUMENT By: Vanya V.Valindria VIBOT 2009
The Great Highland Bagpipe is widely knownas Scotland’s national musical instrumentSignificance role in Scotland’s characteristicBut, is it true that the bagpipe wasoriginality ‘born’ in Scotland, its nationaldomain? : view in ‘music and ethnicity’ andits history.
• The harp (clarsach): former national instrument by the 15th century Highland bagpipes• There are separations between music of Scottish Highland and Lowland (Johnson, 1972).• Some Scottish bagpipe music: Pìobaireachd Ceòl Mor and Ceòl Beag
The bagsThe chanterThe drones:to make theharmonies richer(Lenz, 2004).
• The first form of Bagpipes Egypt by 2500 B.C : shawm.• Pipes were used as the instruments of war• Bagpipes settled in Highland Scotland about 1400• 1st version :single drone bagpipes• 2nd version: double drone(16th century)• 3rd version: three-drone bagpipes (early 1700s) it became the version of nowadays Great Highland Bagpipes
• Lowland Pipers= town pipers who play in festivals or weddings.In the Reformation era, the Calvinist banned the musical instruments• Highland PipersThe highland clans maintained the piping tradition for over the centuries.The professional pipers are owned to the chieftain of clan. The pipers awakened the clan every morning and play gathering tunes for clan meeting.
• Clan pipers’ title held much esteem and highly respected.• MacKays, pipers to the MacKenzie• MacAuthurs, pipers to MacDonald of the Isles• MacCrimmons, pipers to MacLeod of Dunvegan
• Political power and warfare (military service) of the clans’ chief (Collinson, 1975).• By the end of 15th century, a piper was no longer serve a clan chief, but to a town (Baines , 1979).
• Stokes (1997) stated that music can construct the ‘place’: relocation of identities• Styles of music can symbolize the national identities, by the: national composers, national musical instrument or national songs.• Music is unusually stable in term of social change
Balinesse Gamelan Etnic: Bali Javanesse Gamelan Ethnic: Central Java SasandoEthnic: Rote – West Nusa Tenggara ANGKLUNG National Musical Instrument Ethnic: Sunda
• Celtic music in Ireland has adopted the 3-drone bagpipe• The harp had disappeared from Scotland, but Ireland had retained the harp music• Pentatonic musical scale used in the a cappella of traditional Celtic music as well as in the Gaelic songs
• Many bagpipes from all around the world have been evolved but not has the same nobility as the Highland Bagpipes(Ipswich, 2008). Traditional Boha: France Tulum : Turkey Mizwad: TunisiaSwedish bagpipes
• Cheape (2007: 16) describes Donald MacDonald (1819) comments; “The bagpipe was the ‘only national instrument in Europe’”. The Scottish has a perspective that, “Bag-pipe is sacred to Scotland, and speaks a language which Scotsmen only feel. It talks to them of home, and of all the past..”.
In the other hand, Scotland itself had no museum of bagpipe collection• There were gaps on the history of bagpipes• This fact is caused by the function of Great Highland Bagpipe as military instrument.
• As Bryan (1971, cited in Cheape, 2007: 12-13) stated that because of an absence of material proof of their authenticity, the Great Highland Bagpipe never existed as a historical musical instrument• Thus, without a national collection, Scotland has lack of evidences in building potential perspective of bagpipes as the national instruments (Cheape, 2007).
• The bagpipes were not ‘born’ in Scotland, but they came and evolved to what is now known as The Great Highland Bagpipes.• The nobility of bagpipes are caused by the Highland tradition that maintains the piping culture among the clans.• The gaps missing of the bagpipes national collection in Scotland has pursued the museum to make a new policy for bagpipe documentation.• Even though it is not born in Scotland, the bagpipe had been in Scotland’s heart for centuries.• Thus, it makes the Great Highland Bagpipes are symbol to Scotland, to show this musical instrument as a part of Scottish ethnicity.
• Baines, Anthony 1979 Bagpipes. Revised Edition. Occasional Papers on Technology, No. 9. Oxford: Oxprint Ltd.• Bryan, J F., 1971 A Note on the ‘Glen 1409’ pipes. Proceeding of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Vol.103, pp 240-241.• Celtic Instruments 2005 ”History of Great Highland Bagpipe”. http://www.celtic-instruments.com/pipes/great-highland-bagpipes/history.html accessed 30/10/2009• Cheape, Hugh 2007 The Bagpipe: Perceptions of National Instruments PhD Research Publication: University of Edinburgh.• Collinson, Francis 1975 The Bagipe.- The History of a Musical Instrument London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.• Hermansson, Mats 2008 “A Brief Introduction to the History of The Great Highland Bagpipe and Its Music“ http://bagpipe.se/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=33&Itemid=49 accessed 28/10/2009• Ipswich International Tattoo 2008 “The History of Bagpipe” http://www.ipswichthistle.com/index.php?/history-of-bagpipes.html accessed 6/11/2009
• Johnson, David 1972 Music and Society in Lowland Scotland in the Eighteenth Century London: Oxford University Press.• Kay, Billy 1996 Odyssey: Voice from Scotland’s Recent Past, pp.192-201 Edinburgh: Polygon.• Lenz, Andrew 2004 Bagpipe Journey, Andre Lenz’s Bagpipe Tips, Bagpipes Anatomy http://www.bagpipejourney.com/articles/bagpipes_anatomy.shtml accessed 5/11/2009• MacDonald, Donald 1974 A Collection of the Ancient music of Caledonia called Piobaireachd “Preface of the first published collection of Highland bagpipe music” E P Publishing Limited (c.1819).• Myles, Ian 1996 Dunsmuir Highland Games spectator program, “Bagpipes” http://www.highlandnet.com/info/misc/pipes.html accessed 29/10/2009• Stokes, Martin 1997 Ethnicity, Identity, and Music: The Musical Construction of Place Oxford: Berg.• The Robert Burns World Federation 2008 “The Jacobite cause and Scott´s Waverley - Consequences for the Scottish identity?” http://www.worldburnsclub.com/expert/burns%20and%20scott2.htm accessed 31/10/2009• Wikipedia 2009 “List of Bagpipes” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_bagpipes accessed 5/11/2009.• Wikipedia 2009 “Music of Scotland” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Scotland accessed 2/11/2009.