HISTORY Denim Serge de nimes Serge-a kind of material Nimes-a town in France Jeans Genoa Worn by Genovese sailors in Italy in 1500.
DENIM WASHING Aesthetic finish Dry denim-Not washed after dyeing Washed denim-Natural distressing of dry denim is attempted to replicate
WHEN IT STARTED? The concept of washing the Denim jeans was started by Jack Spencer for the brand Lee. Stone-wash was first started by Francois Girbaud. The concept of sandblasting was started in 1988 by a number of branded companies in Italy.
TYPES OF DENIM WASHES 1. Chemical washes - Denim bleaching - Enzyme wash - Acid wash 2. Mechanical washes - Stone wash - Microsanding
CHEMICAL WASHES DENIM BLEACH Strong oxidative bleaching agent such as sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate. Bleaching methods Bleaching effect
Limitations: Process is difficult to control Problem of yellowing Required antichlor treatment Causes corrosion Harmful to human health Source of environmental pollution
ENZYME WASH Application of organic enzymes Easy to stop the action of enzymes Environment friendly wash
Limitations: Garment load size of the machine is limited. Post treatment required. More advantages than disadvantages: Soft handle More reproducible results Increased luster Less corrosive Less damage to seams Less wear & tear of machinery Applicable to cotton and its blends
ACID WASH Pumice stones presoaked in a solution of sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate. Non-uniform contrast.
Limitations Yellowing; residual manganese Remedy: Using ethelene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid as chelating agent.
MECHANICAL WASHES STONE WASH Tumbled with pumice stones Variations in composition, hardness, size, shape and porosity make these stones multifunctional.
Selection of stone According to the end product & effect required. Large, hard stones last longer and may be suited for heavy weight fabrics only. Smaller, softer stones would be used for light weight fabrics and more delicate items. Stone wt. /fabric wt. = 0.5 to 3 /1
Limitations Outcome of a load of jeans is never uniform. Damage to wash machineries and garment due to stone to machine abrasion. Increase in labor to remove stone particles from finished garments. Water pollution during disposal of used liquor.
MICROSANDING There are 3 ways for this technique: Sandblasting Machine sanding Hand sanding or hand brushing
Used in various ways: - Flat surfaces (tables, ironing boards) - On the dummy (inflatable dummies, sometimes standing, sometimes flat, sometimes 'seated') - Various templates can be used to create a 3D effect
SAND BLASTING This technique is based on blasting an abrasive material (mostly sand) in granular, powdered or other form through a nozzle. It is purely mechanical process. It is a water free process. Variety of distressed or abraded looks possible.
MACHINE SANDING In this fabric treatment process, a series of cylindrical rolls in a horizontal arrangement, either wrapped with an abrasive paper or chemically coated with an abrasive.
HAND SANDING OR HAND BRUSHING Use of sandpaper to abrade surface. Variety of looks and designs can be created.
WHISKERING Also known as Cat's Whiskers. Crease lines around the crotch. Knee whiskers. Honeycombs. Industrially done using different techniques.
LASER ENGRAVING Uses a beam of light that burns away the indigo dye to produce a worn look. Design can be placed anywhere on the jean Different degrees of degradation Less air contamination Less wear & tear Much faster