Public Relations is the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establishand maintain mutual understanding between on organization and its publics.Public relations is the attempt by information persuasion and adjustment to engineer public support for an activity, cause, movement or institution.Public Relations is a combination of philosophy, sociology, economics, language, psychology, journalism, communication and other knowledge into a system of human understanding.Public Relations is distinctive management function which helps establish and maintain mutual lines of communication, understanding, acceptance and cooperation between an organization and its publics; involves the management of problems or issues; helps management to keep informed on and responsive to public opinion; defines and emphasizes the responsibility of management to serve the public interest; helps management keep abreast of and effectively utilize change, serving as an early warning system to help anticipate trends; and uses research and sound and ethical communication as its principal tools.
“Public Relations is Dale Carnegie’s – winning friends and influencing people –writ large.” - Robert Heilbroner.
Publicity events, pseudo events or publicity stunts Winning awards Speeches, seminars, personal appearances Talk show circuit Books and other writings Blogs Social media and social networks Press conferences Employee communication
How did PR come into being?• Public relations has been with us for thousands of years. The Greeks had a word for it: sematikos: to signify, to mean.Semantikos means semantics, which can be defined as how to get people to believe things and do things.• In 50 B.C. Julius Caesar wrote the first campaign biography in which he publicized his military exploits to convince the Roman people that he would make the best head of state.• In 1776, Thomas Paine wrote “The Crisis,” a pamphlet which convinced the soldiers of Washington’s army to stay and fight at a time when so many were prepared to desert so they could escape the cold and the hardships of a winter campaign.• Benjamin Franklin pioneered the rules for "personal relations“ in an era before mass media had made possible a profession called "public relations."• In India, Great Indian Peninsular Railway Company Limited (GIP Railways) carried on publicity in Public Relations campaign in England for promote tourism to India through mass media and pamphlets.• During the time of First World War a central publicity board was set up at Bombay (now Mumbai) for disseminating war news to the public and press.• After Second World War the Public Relations activity gained importance both privates as well as Government started Public Relations campaigns.
ELEMENTS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS A planned effort or management function. The relationship between an organisation and its publics. Evaluation of public attitudes and opinions. An organisations policies, procedures and actions as they relate to said organisations publics. Steps taken to ensure that said policies, procedures and actions are in the public interest and socially responsible. Execution of an action and or communication programme. Development of rapport, goodwill, understanding and acceptance as the chief end result sought by public relations activities
• A PR strategy is, in effect, a plan which predetermines activity to achieve a desired result. It links research data to activity in order to attain goals and objectives. In short, it’s the roadmap to get you where you want to be. An excellent framework for this plan is the classic four-step process:• Defining the challenge. This situation analysis looks at the background of the issues, what caused the problem, what precedents are out there. It examines who your allies, opponents and other interested groups are and helps you define the program’s goal.• Programming. This is where the analysis begins. Look at the objectives and alternatives of the various activities considered. Determine the risks, benefits and consequences of each tactic and decide on the right course of action. Derive a schedule of activity that includes the channels, media, talent and costs that will achieve the goal. (In agency speak..this is the proposal.) And, get buy-in from everyone involved who must support or participate in the program if it’s to be successful.• Implementation. Here’s where you get into the cut and thrust of public relations. Get your messages out, give context, time communications, strive for enough repetition of message delivery for maximum effect, follow up on every outreach and see it through.• Evaluation. This crucial phase is often overlooked, but is necessary if you want to measure the effect of your activity and use what you learn to inform future public relations. Measure achievement of your goals and each objective. Are your audiences behaving as you had hoped? Have people’s attitudes been affected? What conclusions arise? How should tactics be revised in future? Report your feedback to all stakeholders.
• Negative public relations, also called dark public relations (DPR), is a process of destroying the targets reputation and/or corporate identity. In other words, instead of concentrating efforts in the maintenance and the creation of a positive reputation or image of your clients, the objective is to discredit someone else, usually a business rival. Unlike the regular services in public relations, those in DPR rely on the development of industries such as IT security, industrial espionage, social engineering and competitive intelligence. A common technique is finding all of the dirty secrets of their target and turning them against their very own holder.• The building of a dark PR campaign, also known as a dirty tricks or a smear campaign is a long and a complex operation. Traditionally it starts with an extensive information gathering and follows the other needs of a precise competitive research. The gathered information is being used after that as a part of a greater strategical planning, aiming to destroy the relationship between the company and its stakeholders
Made by : 1.Divya Jha2.Shilpa Bhatnagar 3.Vandita Hajra (MTA -2)