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Introduction to kernel modules
•

Objectives
• Understanding Kernel modules
• Writing a simple kernel module
• Compiling t...
Kernel modules
•
•
•
•
•
•

Linux kernel has the ability to extend at runtime the set of features
offered by the kernel.
T...
Module utilities
•

•
•
•

•

modinfo <module_name>
• Gets information about the module: parameters, license, descriptions...
Write simple module
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/kernel.h>
static int __init hello_init(void)
{
printk(“Hello...
Module explanation
•
•

Headers specific to the linux kernel <linux/xxx.h>
• No access to the usual C library
An initializ...
Module explanation
•

A cleanup function
• Called when the module is unloaded using rmmod tool
• Perform all the cleanup f...
Compiling a module
•
•

•

Kernel modules need to be compiled a bit differently from regular user
space apps.
To learn mor...
Contd…
•

Option 2: Out of tree
– When the code is outside of the kernel source tree, in a different
directory.
– Advantag...
Compiling an out-of-tree module
•

When the kernel module code is
outside of the kernel source tree,
i.e. in a different d...
Makefile for basic kernel module
•

KDIR := /path/to/kernel/sources

obj-m := hello.o
all:
make -C $(KDIR) M=$(PWD) module...
Overview of make & makefiles
•
•
•
•
•

•

The “make” program automates the building of software based on
specification of...
Kernel log
•

When a new module is loaded, related information is available in the
kernel log.
– The kernel keeps its mess...
Module dependencies
•
•
•
•

•

Some kernel module can depend on other modules, which need to be
loaded first.
Dependencie...
Applications Vs. Kernel modules
Application
• Performs single task from
beginning to end
• Application can call functions,...
Functions available to modules
•
•
•
•

In the hello world example, you might have noticed that we used a
function, printk...
Passing command line arguments
•
•

•

Modules can take command line arguments, but not with the argc/argv
you might be us...
Contd…
•
•
•

•

$insmod hello_2.ko int_param=50
The variable declarations and macros should be placed at the beginning of...
Advantages of modules
•

Modules make it easy to develop drivers without rebooting: load, test,
unload, rebuild & again lo...
Usage of modules
•
•
•
•
•
•

Character device drivers
Block device drivers
Network device drivers
File systems
Any type o...
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Kernel module programming

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This presentation gives introduction to kernel module programming with sample kernel module.
It helps to start with kernel programming and how it can be used to develop various types of device drivers.

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Transcript of "Kernel module programming"

  1. 1. Introduction to kernel modules • Objectives • Understanding Kernel modules • Writing a simple kernel module • Compiling the kernel module • Loading and unloading of modules • Kernel log • Module dependencies • Modules vs Programs
  2. 2. Kernel modules • • • • • • Linux kernel has the ability to extend at runtime the set of features offered by the kernel. This means that you can add functionality to the kernel while the system is up and running. Modules are pieces of code that can be loaded and unloaded into the kernel upon demand. For example, one type of module is the device driver, which allows the kernel to access hardware connected to the system. Without modules, we would have to build monolithic kernels and add new functionality directly into the kernel image. Besides having larger kernels, this has the disadvantage of requiring us to rebuild and reboot the kernel every time we want new functionality.
  3. 3. Module utilities • • • • • modinfo <module_name> • Gets information about the module: parameters, license, descriptions and dependencies insmod <module_name>.ko • Load the given module. Full path of module is needed rmmod <module_name> • Unloads the given module lsmod <module_name> • Displays the list of modules loaded. • Check /proc/modules file modprobe • Loads the kernel modules plus any module dependencies
  4. 4. Write simple module #include <linux/module.h> #include <linux/kernel.h> static int __init hello_init(void) { printk(“Hello :This is my first kernel modulen"); return 0; } static void __exit hello_exit(void) { printk(“Bye, unloading the modulen"); } module_init(hello_init); module_exit(hello_exit); MODULE_DESCRIPTION(“Sample module"); MODULE_AUTHOR(Vandana Salve"); MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
  5. 5. Module explanation • • Headers specific to the linux kernel <linux/xxx.h> • No access to the usual C library An initialization function • Called when the module is loaded using insmod/modprobe tool • Perform all the initialization functionality • Returns an error code • 0- success • negative value on failure, errors defined in header file • Declared by the module_init() macro
  6. 6. Module explanation • A cleanup function • Called when the module is unloaded using rmmod tool • Perform all the cleanup functionality • Declared by the module_exit() macro. • Metadata information – MODULE_DESCRIPTION • Add description about the kernel module – MODULE_AUTHOR • Add the information about the author of the module – MODULE LICENSE • Add license for example GPL
  7. 7. Compiling a module • • • Kernel modules need to be compiled a bit differently from regular user space apps. To learn more on how to compile modules which are not part of the official kernel, see file linux/Documentation/kbuild/modules.txt. Option1: Inside the kernel tree – Well integrated into the kernel configuration/compilation process. – Driver can be build statistically if needed
  8. 8. Contd… • Option 2: Out of tree – When the code is outside of the kernel source tree, in a different directory. – Advantage • Easier to handle than modifications to the kernel itself. – Disadvantage • Not integrated to the kernel configuration/compilation process, needs to be build separately • driver cannot be built statistically if needed.
  9. 9. Compiling an out-of-tree module • When the kernel module code is outside of the kernel source tree, i.e. in a different directory. Module source / path/to/module/ source Hello.c Hello.ko Makefile Kernel sources / path/to/kernel /sources Drivers Kernel Header files Makefiles
  10. 10. Makefile for basic kernel module • KDIR := /path/to/kernel/sources obj-m := hello.o all: make -C $(KDIR) M=$(PWD) modules clean: make –C $(KDIR) M=$(PWD) clean • Refer Documentation/kbuild/modules.txt for details
  11. 11. Overview of make & makefiles • • • • • • The “make” program automates the building of software based on specification of dependencies among the files. “make” determines which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled and issue commands to recompile them. To use make, you must write a file called makefile. A makefile is simple a way of associating short names, called ‘targets’, with a series of commands to execute when the action is requested. $make clean – Target clean, performs actions that clean up after the compilation— removing object files and resulting executable. $make [all] – Target all, performs action that compile the filesv
  12. 12. Kernel log • When a new module is loaded, related information is available in the kernel log. – The kernel keeps its messages in a circular buffer. – Kernel log messages are available through the ‘dmesg’ command – Kernel log messages can be seen in /var/log/messages and/or /var/log/syslog file
  13. 13. Module dependencies • • • • • Some kernel module can depend on other modules, which need to be loaded first. Dependencies are described in /lib/modules/<kernel-version>/modules.dep This file is generated when you run make modules_install sudo modprobe <module_name> – Loads all the modules the given module depends on. Modprobe looks into /lib/modules/<kernel-version> for the object file corresponding to the given module Sudo modprobe –r <module_name> – Remove the module and all dependent modules, which are no longer needed.
  14. 14. Applications Vs. Kernel modules Application • Performs single task from beginning to end • Application can call functions, which it doesn’t define. The linking stage resolves the external references loading the appropriate libraries. E.g libc for ‘printf’ function. Kernel module • Module registers itself to serve the future request and its ‘main’ function terminates on loading. • The module is linked only to the kernel and it can only the functions that are exported by the kernel. • No C library is linked with the kernel.
  15. 15. Functions available to modules • • • • In the hello world example, you might have noticed that we used a function, printk() but didn't include a standard I/O library. That's because modules are object files whose symbols get resolved upon insmod'ing. The definition for the symbols comes from the kernel itself; the only external functions you can use are the ones provided by the kernel. If you're curious about what symbols have been exported by your kernel, take a look at /proc/kallsyms.
  16. 16. Passing command line arguments • • • Modules can take command line arguments, but not with the argc/argv you might be used to. To allow arguments to be passed to your module, declare the variables that will take the values of the command line arguments as global and then use the module_param() macro, to set the mechanism up. At runtime, insmod will fill the variables with any command line arguments that are given
  17. 17. Contd… • • • • $insmod hello_2.ko int_param=50 The variable declarations and macros should be placed at the beginning of the module for clarity. The module_param() macro takes 3 arguments: – the name of the variable, – its type and permissions for the corresponding file in sysfs. – Integer types can be signed as usual or unsigned. If you'd like to use arrays of integers or strings see – module_param_array() and – module_param_string().
  18. 18. Advantages of modules • Modules make it easy to develop drivers without rebooting: load, test, unload, rebuild & again load and so on. • Useful to keep the kernel size to the minimum (essential in embedded systems). Without modules , would need to build monolithic kernel and add new functionality directly into the kernel image. • Also useful to reduce boot time, you don’t need to spend time initializing device that may not be needed at boot time. • Once loaded, modules have full control and privileges in the system. That’s why only the root user can load and unload the modules.
  19. 19. Usage of modules • • • • • • Character device drivers Block device drivers Network device drivers File systems Any type of device drivers handling the different types of devices such as USB, I2C etc. etc. Kernel modules can be used to implement any functionality needed runtime on demand
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